he started the tudor error.Henry VII became king of England in 1485 when he defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. This ended a civil war known as the War of the Roses and established the Tudor dynasty. He married Elizabeth of York and made a new family badge from the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster. He liked money and by the time he died he had made a great fortune
he had 6 wifes and executed 2
Edward was king for only a short time and died when he was just 15. Both he and his advisers were devoted protestants. They made many changes to church services and introduced a new English prayer book
Mary married Philip II of Spain. She was keen to make England a catholic country once again. Many people were killed for being protestant. Mary wanted children but was unable to have them. When she died of cancer in 1558 her 25 year old half sister Elizabeth became queen
Elizabeth was a strong and formidable queen. Unlike Mary I, she was a protestant and became the supreme Governor of the Church of England. Elizabeth dealt very firmly with anyone who disagreed with her beliefs. Elizabeth's religion and her relationships with other countries led to war with Spain. Elizabeth died without having any children.
Two branches of the royal family were fighting for thirty years over who was to be king of England. The rivals were called the House of Lancaster who had a red rose badge or emblem and the House of York which had a white rose emblem. This war was called The War of the Roses.
Richard III was the leader of the House of York and Henry was the leader of the House of Lancaster.The last battle took place at Bosworth Field in 1485. Henry defeated Richard and became King of England .
He married Elizabeth of York to unite the two sides.The two houses were merged to form an alliance with the Tudor rose as a symbol of unity. Henry VII became the first Tudor king.
A man called Christopher Columbus was convinced the world was round but most people thought it was flat and ships would fall off the edge if they went too far. Columbus said that he could sail to the Spice Islands by going round the world, westwards instead of east. He set off in 1492 and landed on some islands. He thought he had reached Asia but he had found America. He did not know that you could sail westwards to Asia but America was in the way and you had to go round it. He brought back gold, cotton plants and "Indians" to Portugal.
In 1520 a grand meeting was arranged between Henry VIII and Francis I, king of France, to make peace. It took place near Calais, and was called "The Field of the Cloth of Gold" because of all the rich materials used for the tents and decorations. Both kings were in competition to look the best and have the best things. They became friends for three years but later were at war again
Henry wanted to divorce his Spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon, and marry Anne Boleyn. So he sent Wolsey to Rome to ask the pope for permission. The pope said no because he didn't want to upset Charles V of Spain. This made Henry angry he divorced Catherine anyway and made himself the head of the Church of England breaking off all connections to Rome.
On the 13th December 1535, Chapuys wrote that Catherine of Aragon ‘has recovered and is now well’ (Tremlett, Pg. 417) but on the 29th December Dr Ortiz, Catherine’s doctor, sent an urgent message to Chapuys alerting him to the fact that she had ‘had a serious relapse’ and that he should immediately seek permission to visit Catherine at Kimbolton Castle.
This Chapuys did with great haste, seeking permission from Henry the very next day at Greenwich. Henry gave Chapuys permission to visit Catherine but he was not as generous with Mary, instead turning down her request to visit her mother on her deathbed (Tremlett, Pg. 418).
Henry was bankrupt and needed to find money. He ordered Thomas Cromwell to shut down all of the monasteries and take their land and wealth. Parliament passed an act "dissolving" or getting rid of the monasteries. They sent the priests away, seized the money and treasures and destroyed the buildings.
1601, the Tower of London bore witness to the executions of seven famous prisoners: Lord Hastings in 1483, Queen Anne Boleyn in 1536, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury in 1541, Queen Katherine Howard in 1542, Jane Parker, Lady Rochford in 1542, Lady Jane Grey in 1554 and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex in 1601.
Over time a number of stories emerged about the manner in which these ‘traitors’ lost their heads, perhaps none quite so gruesome – and embellished – as the story surrounding the execution of Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury.
Portrait of an unknown woman traditionally thought to be Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury
Margaret was born in 1473, the daughter of George of Clarence, the younger brother of King Edward IV, and Isabella Neville. Her childhood was marred by tragedy. In 1476, her mother died in childbirth and in 1478 Edward IV ordered the execution of his own brother, Margaret’s father, for treason
In an unbelievable twist of fate, Jane Seymour, the woman that had come to court as a lady in waiting to Queen Catherine of Aragon and then served as a lady in waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn after the first queen fell from favour, was now on the brink of becoming queen herself.
There is much debate surrounding whether Jane Seymour was simply a political pawn that her powerful family manoeuvred into position when Anne Boleyn failed to provide the king with a male heir or whether she was in fact as ambitious as Anne had once been and willingly sought to replace the queen by enticing Henry with her outward façade of modesty and virtue.
Either way, on the 30th May 1536, Henry VIII married Jane Seymour in the Queen’s Closet at Whitehall Palace and she was publicly declared queen on the 4th June 1536.
Jane was not given the lavish coronation that Henry’s two previous queens enjoyed even though she did what her predecessors did not, she provided the king with his long wished for son.
In early 1537, rumours of Queen Jane’s pregnancy were confirmed and celebrations held in honour of this wondrous event. In early October, Jane retired to Hampton Court Palace for her ‘lying-in’ and on the 12th October 1537, after a long and arduous labour, Jane gave birth to a baby boy
life… Sound familiar? The basic sentiment could have been my daughter’s or any one of her friends’ at that age. But Lady Jane Grey lived in Tudor England and her parents’ actions ended up costing her head. So who was Lady Jane Grey?
The Execution of Lady Jane Grey by Paul Delaroche
Images and impressions of Lady Jane Grey abound, the tragedy of her short life capturing the imagination of artists and storytellers from her time to our own. Of all the depictions, the one that touches me most deeply is that of the Romantic painter, Delacroche. Sixteen year old Jane faces death for High Treason. Her crime: Being forced by her ambitious parents to wear a crown she never wanted. She kneels, garbed in a martyr’s flowing white gown. A blindfold blots out the last light she will ever see. While details of the painting aren’t accurate, the emotional impact of Jane’s death is well portrayed—an innocent girl is about to die for
Mary Stuart was a cousin to Elizabeth and a rival to the throne. Mary was queen of Scotland and catholics thought she should be queen of England as well. There was a rebellion in Scotland in 1567 and Mary fled to England. She became the centre of attempts to kill Elizabeth. Elizabeth imprisoned her in England. A letter was found that was about a plot to kill Elizabeth and make Mary queen. Mary was found guilty of treason and executed at Fotheringay Castle in February 1587.
he was an astronemer scientis and math matition