Concordat of Worms (23 Sept): formally ends the Investiture Controversy. Compromise is reached in a meeting at Worms, Germany, between pope and emperor over the issue of investiture: Pope and emperor agreed that 1) bishops would invest newly consecrated bishops with the religious symbols of their office, while 2) the emperor would then invest them with the symbols of their temporal rule. Bishops were to be freely elected by their clergy, but the emperor (or a rep) had the right to be present at the election. Bishops also had to do homage to the emperor for the royal fiefs (regalia) they held from him. This compromise acknowledged the dual office of bishop. Insofar as the bishop is spiritual, he belongs to the clergy alone. Insofar as he is an earthly ruler endowed with jurisdictional rights, he is a subject of the emperor from whom he has received these rights.