In 66 CE the Jews of Palestine rebelled against the Roman empire. Four years later, on the 9th of Av, the Romans seiged Jerusalem and then succesfuly destroyed much of Jerusalem and the second temple.
Since the Beit Hamikdash was destroyed, the Jews could no longer connect to Hashem through Korbanot, so Rav Yochannan Ben Zakkai made learning Torah the new central way to connect to Hashem. So Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi decided since learning is now the main thing, and the Oral Torah is growing and becoming so large, that the only way to remember it all and keep all the new halachot in an organized fashion, is by writing it all down. Although there were many good reasons for writing it down, many did not like it because they did not like the fact that the none-Jews now had access to the Oral Torah. The Rabbis of the Mishna are known as Tannaim.
Rabbis analyzed, debated, and discussed the Mishna. These Rabbis are known as Amoraim and their discussions formed the Gemara. The older of the two compilations is known as the Talmud Yerushalmi. This version was compiled in Palestine and was written in both Hebrew and a Western Aramaic dialect. This version is often fragmentary and difficult. Because of this, this version is often less read and studied than the other version
The Exilarch was the leader of the Jews in the Diaspora. The Exilarch had to always be from the family line of David. His roles included overseeing courts, choosing judges, collecting taxes, checking weights and measures, supervising markets, and representing the Jews to the Calif.
Rabbis analyzed, debated, and discussed the Mishna. These Rabbis are known as Amoraim and their discussions formed the Gemara. This Gemara covers 37 of the 63 tractates of the Mishna. It is written in Aramaic and is known to be written in a more careful and precise way than the Talmud Yerushalmi. This version records the opinions of Rabbis from Israel and Babylon and contains more generations of Rabbis since it was completed later than the other Talmud. Because of these reasons it is known as the comprehensive one of the two.
Karaism is breakaway religion for Judaism that began when Anan got upset that his younger brother got the role of Exilarch above him. He rebelled and was sent to jail. While in jail an inmate gave him an idea to get him out of jail. Anan gathered the remaining Sadducees and told the king that he was not rebelling and doing an act of treason because he was in fact following a different religion, not the same one as his brother. Although the whole point of this religion was to only follow the exact words of the Torah and not any of the Oral Torah or Rabbinic Judaism, the people of Karaism were not consistant. Many times Anan added his own rules that the Karaites had to follow and often their rules were much stricter than the actual laws of the Torah.
Jews had a huge influence in the Arabian Peninsula. They were the rich and powerful and had a strong presence there. Yemen, which is the farthest south in the Arabian Peninsula, even had Jews being rulers of the area. So much so that the king of Yemen converted to Judaism and for many years after that there was a Jewish king ruling Yemen.
Joseoh Dhu Nuwas was the last of the Jewish kings in Yemen. He heard rumors of an future Christian revolt so he decided to slaughter thousands of Christians. Word got to a Christian Ethiopian king and he vowed to get revenge for all the dealth that Dhu Nuwas caused. He raised an army and invaded and defeated Yemen.
Muhammad unsuccessfully attempts to win the support of the Jews of Medina. After frustration he begins to expel many of the tribes as well as putting some of them to death. Additionally because of his frustration, Muhammad changes the direction of the Qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca.
John was an Essences preacher who made a huge impact on Jesus life, and so after John was executed, Jesus took his job and went all around preaching to people. He called upon the people to repent and follow the Divine Law. His preaching as well his remarkable cures and miracles he was able to do, enabled his reputation to spread throughout the Galilee.
Jesus and his friends went to Jerusalem right around the time of Passover. Jesus was upset to see everyone exchanging money and selling animals right by the temple, he felt that it was an ungodliness sin. So he started to create a riot and destroyed the marketplace. Through a traiter, Jesus was found and taken to the authorities for what he had done. Since it was in fact Passover, the Beit Dn was not working, so the authorities were trying to figure out a way to keep him imprisoned until after the holiday. It was at this time in which Jesus declared the he was the Messiah. Once he said that it instantly became created a concern since the Romans did not want anyone to declare themselves Messaih because that would most likely mean there would be a revolution and trouble, so they decided to crucify him.
Muhammad claimed that in a dream, Gabriel, the angel of G-d, called out to him and told him that he was a prophet and messenger of G-d. Muhammad believed that he was the last of seven prophets of G-d and was a better than Moses, the greatest prophet of all time. He believed that the Jews and Christians have gone astray and that his mission was to bring them back to the right path as well as to make the pagans believers of G-d.
After the Muslims conquered all of their land, they gave the Jews and Christians rules and restrictions that they had to follow. The Muslims made these rules because they did not want the Jews and Christians to have any power over them and to make sure that no matter what, they were always below them. They wanted to make them feel like lower class citizens so they would want to convert. Some of these rules included wearing signs that distinguished them from the Muslims, their houses could not be taller than houses of Muslims, and they could not be employed as a government official or in any position that would give them authority over Muslims. The Muslims wanted to make them feel like lower class citizens so they would want to convert.