Jewish History


Rabbi Akiva

50 A.C. - 135

Rabbi Akiva was one of the greatest rabbis in history. He wrote many sources that were compiled in the mishnah, and many of his students were quoted as well. He was active in the Bar Kokhba rebellion against Rome, and when it failed, Rabbi Akiba was taken by the Roman authorities and tortured to death.

Destruction of the 2nd Temple

68 c.e. - 70 c.e.

Under the rule of Titus, the Romans went to Judea to end the rebellion taking place there. They destroyed the 2nd temple, the city of Jerusalem, and a large part of the Jewish nation.

period of the Tannaim

70 A.C. - 200 A.C.

the Tannaim were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah.

establishment of Yavheh as the center of sanhedrin

70 a.d.

Vespasian allowed Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai to ask for anything he wanted, in order to make up for a previous misunderstanding. along with several other things, Rabbi Yochanan asked for Yavneh to be made the center of the sanhedrin.

Bar Kockba revolt

132 - 136

This was the third, and last, major rebellion by the Jews against the Roman Empire. Simon bar Kokhba had convinced everyone that he was the Messiah and led the revolt against the Romans. The battle went on for two years, but the Romans eventually overpowered the Jews. After the revolt the Jewish religious center shifted to the Babylonian Jewish community and its scholars.

Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi wrote down the Mishnah



Period of the Amoraim

230 - 500

were renowned Jewish scholars who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral law, are frequently quoted in the gemara.

Completion of the Talmud Bavli


The Talmud Bavli was a more updated version of the Talmud Yerushalmi, which was written in Judea. The Talmud Bavli was more concise, had both commentaries from Jerusalem and Babylonia, and was more updated.

period of the Geonim begins


The Geonim of different cities (like Pumbeditha and Sura) were looked upon as the guides in religious life. All doubtful questions went to them, so they acted as a kind of Supreme Court. Along with the Reish Galuta, they were the most distinguished Jews and had a host of officials under them who supervised the courts and the schools in all parts of the country.

Rav Saadia Geon

the Karaites


these were a group of people who rejected rabbinic law and split off from rabbinic Judaism

Arabian Peninsula

the rule of Joseph Dhu Nuwas

517 - 525

He was a Yemenite king who killed many Christians because he was under the suspicion that they were planning a revolt.

Ethiopians conquer Yemen


The news of Dhu Nowas' actions reached the religious king of Ethiopia. The king was furious and in order to avenge the deaths of his fellow Christians, he conquered Yemen.

King of Ethiopia

Muhammad conquers Mecca



birth of Muhammad


Muhammud reports his first revelation from the angel of Gabriel


Muhammad started preaching his revelations publicly


the Hijra


Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina- marked the beginning of the Islamic era

Muslims conquer Mecca


tribes of Arabia now follow Muhammad

Death of Muhammad



Birth of Jesus

2 B.C.E.

Death of Jesus Christ

30 AD

Stephen acts as the first Christian martyr

33 A.D.

Stephen was a minister. He was accused of speaking against God, Moses, and the Law. He was brought before the Sanhedrin and was sentenced to be stoned to death.

First Gospel was published

60 A.D.

was written by Mark