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Reform Movement

1890 - 2013

Booker T Washington Speech

1895

Speech given in Atlanta to mixed crowd, sparks heated civil rights debate throughout country. Booker T. believes blacks should wait on social equality for now and instead become skilled in industrial work.

W.E.B DuBois writes "Souls of the Black Folk"

1903

An essay written in Dubois's book that rejected Booker T. Washington's message of patience and instead called for a demand of political power, insistence on civil rights, and the higher education of African American youth.

NAACP Founded

1909

The NAACP is created, an important group of civil rights activists who aimed to achieve
equality for African Americans socially, politically, and economically.

Equal Salaries for Teachers

1936

The NAACP sues the U.S. government to pay black and white teachers equal salaries.

Jackie Robinson Debut

1947

Jackie Robinson becomes first African American major league baseball player.

Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas

1954

The supreme court rules that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional.

Rosa Parks Bus Boycott

1955

Rosa Parks refuses to give up seat on bus to white passenger. As a result, black community boycotts bus company for a year until a reform is made to desegregate blacks and whites on the bus.

Civil Rights Act of 1960

1960

An act made to oversee discrimination against blacks at voting polls. Any person who interfered with somebody's attempt to vote can now be penalized.

Martin Luther King Jr. "I Have A Dream" Speech

1963

Martin Luther King Jr. makes speech in Washington D.C. adressing racism and the mistreatment of blacks. He also repeatedly speaks of a future in the U.S. where blacks and whites are equal.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended discrimination of any racial, gender, or ethnic sort in workplaces, schools, voting and in the general public.

Civil Rights Act of 1968

1968

The Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination in housing opportunities regarding race, ethnic, or religion.

Barack Obama

2009

Barack Obama becomes first black president.