Mathematical order in universe = beauty
Dialectic/Socratic questioning, sophists established trivium, liberal arts. Believed in a just life, ethics/morality central.
famous rhetorician, helped make rhetoric a central subject, Inspired a dominate literary tone in Western education
Idealism (knowledge is a priori, emphasizes moral and spiritual reality as explanations for the universe; only the mental or spiritual is real, believers in ID) influenced heavily by Pythagoras, justice and goodness need to be “remembered” by human mind. Emphasized mathematics
Realism, sees world mostly in material things, more concerned with how things actually are vs. how they should be, all things exist independent of man’s knowledge of them), emphasized biology and natural sciences. His works helped begin the 12th century revival of learning and his influence remained strong until the Renaissance. Goodness and virtue exist where men uses his rational mind. Believed in innate intelligence of universe, laid the foundation of formal logic. Influenced many famous philosophers.
Spain, recognized that different developmental stages influence learning. Focused on goodness, excellence of mind.
Roman developed the first full-blown theory of classical education by drawing on both pagan and Christian sources. Christian Platonism (immutability of God, evil is absence of good, God is not material) for a long time. Purpose of education is to understand the nature of God and His creation.
Roman put all seven LA in a single volume and presented them is a condensed form that was widely acceptable to medieval readers.
Roman transformed monastery into a theological school ,preserving scriptures and secular ancient writers. Helped make liberal arts a standardized part of education.
Monasteries provided a refuge of literacy and preserved classical texts as well as scriptures.
Charlemagne uses monks to educate courtiers.
Alfred the Great also encourages study in his court.
Rise of Scholasticism. All knowledge acquired in pursuit of the Christian faith. Dominated until about the 15th century.
Rose out of cathedral schools. Literature enjoys a prominent position as does rhetoric.
Caused the basis of Christian thought to shift from Augustinian Neo-Platonism to Aristotle. Rise of realism.
English Revolution to French Revolution
Gave fodder for Newton to argue against Descartes argued that all ideas come from sense knowledge
Rejected innate ideas, child is a blank slate, opposed original sin, believed morality could be taught through secular means.
Arguments gave rise to empiricism.
Emile book had huge impact on education; accused church of sabatoging quest for truth.
Proposed children be allowed to develop “naturally”, rejcted original sin, assigned corruption to society, morality was social not religious, teacher was aid children versus instruct.
Had 5 illegitimate children and had mother give every one away at birth
German idealism. More movement away from classical. Deist. Little emphasis on church or Bible
Swiss. Follower of Kant and Rousseau. Experimental schools for the poor. Believed human nature inherently good.
German. Follower of Rousseau. Formal education should begin at age three. Developed the idea of kindergarten.
American. Pragmatism emphasizes what is fast and practical.