Dr Sun adopted a provisional constitution in China to in case Yuan set up a dictatorship
It was the first constitution of modern China under the separation of the power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Western democracy was established the first time. The provisional Constitutions also provided for habeas corpus, freedom of residence, speech, publication, assembly, association, communication, religion as well as property rights.
The rights of petition, litigation, examination and election were also protected.