Due to the boxer Protocol, the Qing government suffered a great humiliation. Without reform, the QIng Dynasty would end very soon . Also the increase in revolutionary activities and shift in support is led by the weakness-exposure of the Qing government in the Eight-power expenditure. Thus reform was to gain back to support of the people.
To consolidate to Manzhu rule and check the power of the south-eastern regional authorities, the reform has to be carried out. ( During the EPE the regional government signed a neutrality agreement with the foreign countries and promise to remain neutral and thus to protect themselves)
The success of the Meiji modernization helped Japan to defeat Russia, hence some Chinese official believed that a constitution would help to prolong the Manzhu rule and control the foreign power and internal revolts.
Political reform( administrative )
The Six Boards(Civil Office, Punishment, Revenue, War and Public works)
The late Qing Reform introduced unprecedented political measures. They issued the outline Constitution, set out a timetable for constitution preparation and set up provisional and national assemblies as well as a cabinet.
It gave people the freedom of speech, writing, publication, assembly and association within the limits of law. The National Assembly was the forerunner of a parliament. Elections were held for the first time in Chinese history when provisional assemblies were formed. The elementary form of provincial legislatures was gradually developed.
State and private backs were opened
The eight-legged essay and the imperial civil service examination was abolished in 1902 and 1905 respectively since they suppressed the freedom of thought among intellectuals.
Many schools were set up. A large number of students was sent aboard to study.
A railway nationalization plan was announced 1911
New regulations for industry and commerce were made: regulations for Mining and Regulations of Company registration. Enterprise owner could then do business according to the law, and private property was also protected by law.
A new army of about 270000 soliders was established in 1911.
Dr Sun adopted a provisional constitution in China to in case Yuan set up a dictatorship
It was the first constitution of modern China under the separation of the power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Western democracy was established the first time. The provisional Constitutions also provided for habeas corpus, freedom of residence, speech, publication, assembly, association, communication, religion as well as property rights.
The rights of petition, litigation, examination and election were also protected.
The Gregorian calendar was adopted. The removal of pigtails, freeing from foot binding, the replacement of the sedan chairs with rickshaws, protection of slaves, banning of opium smoking and slave trade were made. Promoted universal education. The status of women in society raised.
During the Qing Dynasty, politics were controlled by the Manzu. Han people were not allowed to have political powers as to prolong to Manzu rule. The abolition of ethnic rule enabled the full potential use of the other ethnics groups.
Sun promoted "five-group harmony" among the Han, the Manzu, The Mongols, The Hui and the Tibetan.
The outline of Constitutional claimed 9 years was need. The new formed cabinet in 1911 was named the Royal Cabinet since 8 of the 13 were Manzu and 7 of them were even Manzu princes. Only 4 of them were Chinese ministers.
The abolishment of eight-legged essay and the imperial civil service examination shattered the gentry's dreams of becoming government official. The Qing government t lost their loyal support.
The republic of China was announced in Nanjing 1912 1 Jan. The provisional senate, legislative assembly and ministries of the new government was formed.
Sun promised yuan shikai the presidency if he could make the Qing emperor abdicate.
The Qing dynasty that had ruled China for 268 years ended
The overthrowing Qing Dynasty and the monarchy that has existed in China for more than 2000 year.
Confucianism had always guided the Chinese people's though and actions. The intellectuals believed it to be the root of ignorance and backwardness among the Chinese people, was lack of democracy and freedom in China. Luxun accused Confucianism as man-eating and created the slogan of "down with Confucianism. He believed that every individual had an independent character that should be respected. 1920 ministry of Education ordered schools to stop the spring and autumn ritual of worshipping, The movement freed people from traditional ways of thinking and introduced them to new ideas.
Hu shi promoted complete westernization, while the other intellectuals preferred the communism. After the October revolution in USSR, communism heavily influenced the minds of Mao Zhedong , Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao.
In the past, only royal family and government officials attended to state affairs. Now then the people realized they needed to participate actively in politics in order to save China. people joined various patriotic or national movements, founded magazines and news paper to keep an watchful eye on the government. They also formed groups to fight for their own right
The movement also promoted the idea of nationalism to younger generation
Many students joined the Whampoa Academy founded by Dr Sun to fight against warlord. Mass consciousness was also awakened. Public and sate affairs were no longer managed by a small group of people .
After the establishment of the new government, China didn’t move quickly along the path of modernization because of its deep-rooted autocratic tradition.
Yuan and the beiyang warlord took power. There were also number of attempts at restoring the monarchy. The frequent wars among the warlord hindered the progress of economic and cultural modernization.
Promotion of news idead on democracy and the diplomatic humiliation that China faced led to the May Forht Movement
During May Forth Movement, sexual equality and universal education were emphasized. in 1921, the project method which was aimed at helping students to achieve their full potential and promoting self learning, became popular across the country. in 1922, the ministry of education reformed the education system, emphasizing life education and stating clearing that girls and women would enjoy chances of school education . This helped to preserve their dignity. Slave trade and foot binding was also banned
The plain language was widely used in newspaper and magazines, replacing the classical language. They used new literary forms to criticize the old society, Intellectuals also translated many Western literary works, causing a major breakthrough in literature dunning the Man Forth Movement.
As rationalism and objectivity became high valued, historians began to examine the authenticity of written history with the help of archeological finding and study the success and failure of historical figures more objectively. As peopled regarded science is the best way to enrich the nation, western science was held in increasingly high regards. The social status of scientist also improves.
The may forth movement pushed the new cultural movement to new heights
The new cultural movement promoted democracy and science.
It opposed old ideas and habits and promoted new learning,. Intellectuals such as Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi, Li Dazhao and Lu Xun joined together as a group to promote new ideas and attack autocracy and superstition, uphold new morality and criticize traditional ethics, and advocated new literature and oppose the eight legged essay
People understand they had the right to oppose unreasonable thing and question the validity of traditional ethics. Anti feudalistic and anti-superstitious ideas were widely promoted in society. many new concept like women's liberated were introduced. The value of individual began to gain recognition.
popular participation in public affair.
Preparing China for constitutional government
Setting up of the Executive Yuan, the Legislative yuan, the Judicial yuan,the control Yuan and the examination yuan, placed under the leadership of the chairman of nationalist goverrnment.
Rocovering the foreign concession in order to excercise national sovereignty. From 1926-1930, it succeeded in recovering the British concessions at Hankou, Jiujiang, Zhenjign, Weihaiwei and Xiamen and Beligain concession at Tianjin.
Negotiated with the foreign power to gain back tariff autonomy, abolish extraterritoriallity. Abolish or amend all unqual treaties.
Western powers and Japan had finally entered a equal and friendly tariff agreements with China.
Laws that recognized the equal status of men and women, and the right of women to inhertance. The government required all judicial officials to pass an exam before appointment, built more local courts and provided extensice training for judges.
The portection for human rights. To abolish the practise of pigtails, foot binding, slave trade and change koutou into nods, the address of daren and laoye into mister. The government passed the Pople's Right Ordinance to protect civil rights in 1929
Reform the monetary system.
1933 made silver dollars thee only legal tender
1935 the use of silver for currency purpose was prohibited. Banknotes were issued to replace silver dollars as legal tender.
issued a number of economic regualtions, such as Wight and Measure Ordinance, Stock exchange ordinance.
1928 Central back was established in Shanghai for directing the development of China's finance sector.
Democracy and science were regarded as the best ways to save china. But they blindly criticized Chinese culture, especially Confucianism. Although Confucianism might have produced adverse effects on China, it had its merits as it teaching on benevolence, righteousness and harmony. They called a total adoption of Western ideas and institutions. They criticized all Confucian teaching. They should be objective and learn from diverse merits.
Becoming the official ideology in China, communism oppressed all ideas from other political parties. This hindered the further modernization for the political system in China.
Setting up of universities and research in Nanjing and Shanghai. Lacademia Sincia and Central Insitutie of Beiping were also established.
Nanjing government held an exhibition of domestic products in Shanghai and set up shopping centres in Tianjin. Department stores selling chinese products were also opened.
The economy grew and the industrial output increased at 11%.
The railway bureau was set up.
over 5000 miles of railway were constructed and over 100000miles of road were built, which greatly improvede the transport and commuication in China.
To wipe out unhealthy social conducts, such as corruption, Jiang started the New Life Movement. Promote the virtues of "propriety, righteousness, honesty and sense of shame"
Called on strong and healthy men to receive military training
Ask people to pay attention to hygiene and help on another
As japanese invasion persisted, the Chinese people urged their government to drop its non-agressive position againt Japan. yang Hucheng and Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Jiang when he arrived Xian to plan another suppression of the Communist. They pressed jiang to end cicil war.
The Xian incident paved the way for the Second Nationalist-communist United Front and subsequent wat for resistance againt Japan
The PRC was established, and adopted political model to set up party, government and military systems.
They also formed a one-party system in which legislative, executive and judicial branches of the government as well as the military were all under the control of the Communist Party
Chaired by Mao Xedong, the meeting discussed the establishement of a new governmemnt
For the purpose f economic development. 10 plans have be completed since then.
Focused on recovering the national economy and stablilising social oder.
After 3 years effort, the economic started to grow. Compared with 1949, the countries totla values of agricultural and industrial output increased by 7308% in 1952.
The five year plan was formulated by premier Zhou Enlia and Vice-premier Chen Yun. Aimed at carrying out socialist industrialization.
The modernization affairs led to the less resistant to railway construction for the Chinese people. They invested in private railways after 1901
When the Qing tried to nationalize in private in 1911, local gentry strongly resisted and led to railway protection movement 10 Oct 1911 anti Qing uprising broke out un Hubei, known as Wuchang Uprising Many provinces responded to that and declared independence from Qing Dynasty This is called the 1911 revolution