The start of the Roman-Jewish War
As a result of the Roman-Jewish War, the Romans destroyed the second Beit Hamikdash and Jerusalem. Although it had been destroyed, Judea continued to be the central place in Jewish life because the Jews were still united as a nation.
After Rome destroyed Jerusalem, the surviving Judaeans fled to Masada. They were only able to stay there for about three years before the Romans took Masada over as well.
The Diaspora Rebellion caused a schism among the Jews as to whether they should fight or make peace.
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSQmvctyzyE99aBumH1ogpUKZbhGMTIpTVYRpOQfrY9xbs3ibMhGQ This was considered the second revolt. It was led by Bar Kochba. It caused a schism within the Jews about either fighting or making peace. One permanent result of the revolt was the loss of a Jewish population within Judea. Many of them fled to foreign countries, especially Parthian lands and specifically to Babylonia.
Rav Yehudah HaNasu wanted to create a book which would clear any confusion about Halacha brought about by the many Rabbinic authorities of that time. The Mishna was written in Hebrew, and was so concise it was almost written in code. The Mishnah was basically a written version of the Oral Torah, which was recorded so that no one would forget it and the generation of that time would not be wiped out.
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSbBhkUeMX2_a9oV2tjubgOOCfFYL220EDUn3QZWzmleBPVYGmQ The language used is a western Aramaic dialect, and it is often to broken up to red easily. Also, this Talmud does not have very many commentators.
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS6AtY_kOLA0iSV7SNjEvLt_iK39TovLfrfyXHS83ORBmHEv6_EDA The fact that the Parthians allowed for an Exilach, or Reish Galuta, indicated that their government recognized the Jewish people as a separate group with problems of their own and with a need for a distinct organization. The job of the Exilarch was to appoint judges and serve as an overseer of the final court of appeal, collect taxes of the Jewish people and turn over a portion of this money to the supreme authorities of the land, appoint all lower level official, and in certain cities he was in charge of supervising supermarkets and guarding the walls surrounding those cities.
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTrx3rJBFG3lH4K4kYzOJ_ff3CvwTBkijur4RQG0BCxz1Z2fb81 This was a major setback in the Jewish community in Babylonia. The Parthians were driven out by the Persian Kings, and the first king was a follower of Zoroastrianism and he was offended by the Jew's sacrifices as they used fire. Fortunately, after 25 years of hardship, this king died and the next king was more lenient. Jewish life began to return to normal.
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTu3MmcBQSpyAgjBy3yUohaVzi7m7YHbqjpnQ-e-5UPCFoGAoRd Another setback to the Jewish community in Babylonia. The Romans invaded Babylonia, destroying many Jewish settlements, particularly Nehardea. This was where the oldest and most well known Yeshiva had been. The Yeshiva was relocated in Pumbedita and soon became the rival of the Yeshiva in Sura, which was just as well known.
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSQS2MRTdorg1r4usPwddALYU7_xk_IbNrD6bsvENz04akDj3NL It has only 37 out of 63 tractates of the Mishna. It has a different form of Aramaic than the Talmud Yerushalmi, and is written with much more precision and caution. Many traditional commentators have given this Talmud attention, and it records teachings of not only Rabbis in Babylonia but also in Israel. Due to the fact that this Talmud is written later, it contains the opinions of more generations of Jews. The Babylonian Talmud had a much larger influence on the Jews, due to its accessibility.
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQfA15yzsjlQrlEM8nQgMn_Jlhjtx2ancuOtokYDEw3ngZ9QwQpBQ The Rosh Yeshiva of Amoraic and Saboraic days was called the Gaon. They were looked upon as the guides in religious life. They answered all doubtful halachic questions so they were similar to a supreme court. The Geonim would communitcate with far away communities through Responsa, a system in which a messenger would give him the question and then reutrn to the community with the answer. Other communities could learn and apply the answers of the Geonim as an answer once given served as a precedent. The Geonim usually based their decisions on the discussions found in the Talmud.
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSVzx-mAilNvLNKl4vKLo0iOWfkHEFdclP07GNliz8nh7Xyr7QOJQ These were a sect of Jews who did not believe in the Oral Torah, and only followed the Written Torah. Their customs differed from Rabbinical Judiasm in many different ways. They were wrong because they did not realize that the traditions of the Rabbis were based on careful study and on the need for adjusting Judaism to the life of the people of the time.
Jewish people in the diaspora were spreading out, because they had no religious leaders holding them together, and they began to spread out for economic reasons. In the Arabian Peninsula, practicing religion was more challenging. No one truly knows when Jews came here.
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSMS6-S42khgTRbYYHF3Iq3RRCNE2k7V04vJV3GDJEHRx2soX6K The teachings of Judaism were being felt throughout the Arabs in that land, showing how popular Judaism has become.
https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR7ysr2BuNG-tXxRPoPnQXaM9ZpY5p9VxjjdNHrn77Ymd7zrkFj Du Nowas was a king in the early 520s who thought thought there was a revolt going on in Ethiopia so he killed thousands of people. He went to war against the Ethiopians but they defeated the Du Nowas and the Jewish King was killed.
His unsuccessful attempts to win the support of the Jews of Medina disappointed Muhammad and he changed direction of the qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca.
He was born in Mecca where he belonged to one of the most powerful Arab tribes. Although he was poor and had very little education he was very intelligent, and when he grew up he became a businessman and often traveled to Palestine.
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTK8BMSonYRSxWqbToewHq9h_Crxk9-NqzowucwJgv3F6WQxqC4 Muhammad heard gabriels voice from the heaven telling him to recite three verses, and when Muhammad woke up the verses were inscribed in his heart. After this, Muhammad considered himself a prophet of god and must convey god’s message to the people.
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT0XXn_NSgvIkLU3O0QcKBnZqOO94155690PZDQWrG0HObLnbxU When Muhammad and his followers went from Mecca to Medina. It marks the beginning of the Islamic era.
Muhammad was poisoned after his successful attack on the Jewish settlement of Khaibar. The Khaibar made him a peace treaty and dinner and poisoned the meat.
A document made once the Muslims had aquired all their new land, which was attributed to the second Caliph after Muhammad. Inside, it has a list of prohibitions and specific rules for non-Muslims (such as Jews and Christians), causing a social hierarchy with the Muslims on top. Some prohibitions were not learning the quran or eating pork. A special rule they had to follow was that they had to wear special clothes.
As a young boy, he distinguished himself above the other children by his greater religious devotion, love of learning, and sensitivity.
https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT5sFAuDCllryvdhtS_e0JRt_dmIQx_UzvZC-Uch4HcP6ax6AJHaQ He filled his mind with the words of the ancient prophets as well as of the apocalyptic writings. After John the Baptist's death, Jesus took his job and travels through land, especially the Galilee (north Israel), and called upon people to repent. Before preaching his views, he had practiced the Essene way of life. Jesus mostly preached about the end of days, and often used parables.
https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTBQg5fnQ70lYEbCUPIwQ2MlQ8EKyaDs5VjpBAT5nICNRbqCmXZ0A On the first night of Passover, Judas led the Pharisees to Jesus and they arrested him. Since it was a holiday there was no Jewish court present and only the High Priest, an appointee of Rome, and a few members of the aristocracy was there. In front of these people, Jesus admitted that he believed he was the predestined Messiah. This caused Pontius Pilate (a Roman Governor of Judea) to immediately condemn Jesus to death by crucifixion. All the while, Jesus believed that God would save him.