a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.
unfree labour, often unpaid, that is required of people of lower social standing and imposed on them by the state or by a superior
The payment(s) serfs were required to make to local nobles in order to use facilities such as mills and looms
Established during the French Revolution. Made up of third estate. Created during Tennis Court Oath.
Direct land tax on the French Peasantry
First meeting of a general assembly that represented the 3 estates.
List of grievances drawn up by each of the three estates
The third estate (National Assembly) got locked out of the Estates-General meeting, and then made an oath to stick together until their kingdom was established
Fortress that was raided during the French Revolution. Used as a prison
Fear over a peasant revolt over grain shortage
a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal
the most famous and influential political club in the development of the French Revolution
paper money issued by the National Assembly in France from 1789 to 1796, during the French Revolution
The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread.
law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government
Immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution
declared the joint support of the Holy Roman Empire and of Prussia for King Louis XVI of France against the French Revolution
It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention
France vs. Austria
born an archduchess of Austria, was Dauphine of France from 1770 to 1774 and Queen of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792. She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa.
French lawyer, politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution
first President of the Committee of Public Safety
a military and political leader during the French Revolution
conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies, conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical Laïcité movement
a period in French history (1791-1794) where Maximilien Robespierre remained in power
a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution
the first major effort of multiple European monarchies to contain Revolutionary France. France declared war on the Habsburg monarchy of Austria on 20 April 1792, and the Kingdom of Prussia joined the Austrian side a few weeks later
comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly which sat from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795
It involved the trial of the former French king Louis XVI before the National Convention and led to his execution.
a temple for a new belief system created to replace Christianity
a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work
a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly
a Royalist rebellion and counterrevolution in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
Executed by Guillotine
formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror
a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution"
a law created during the course of the French Revolution as an extension of the Law of Suspects on 29 September 1793. It succeeded the 4 May 1793 loi du maximum which had the same purpose: setting price limits, detering price gouging, and allowing for the continued flow of food supply to the people of France.
the radical left-wing partisans of the lower classes; typically urban laborers, which dominated France
The ensuing period of upheaval, dubbed the Thermidorian Reaction, saw the repeal of many of the Terror's most unpopular laws and the reduction in power of the Committees of General Security and Public Safety. The Committees ceased to exist under the Constitution of 1795, which marked the beginning of the Directory.
The next day, 28 July 1794, Robespierre was guillotined without trial in the Place de la Révolution
a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions
existed before the split between anarchists and Marxists had taken place, and it is hailed by both groups as the first assumption of power by the working class during the Industrial Revolution
a calendar, originated in 1923, which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between the naming of dates sanctioned by those Eastern Orthodox churches adopting it and the Gregorian calendar that has come to predominate worldwide
a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe.
the sudden, illegal deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to depose the extant government and replace it with another body, civil or military
an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from tariffs, government subsidies, and enforced monopolies, with only enough government regulations sufficient to protect property rights against theft and aggression
the upper house of the Directory
the lower house of the legislature of France during the period commonly known (from the name of the executive branch during this time) as the Directory
a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate