APEURO Maaya Julie Annie

Maaya, Julie, Annie


Great Schism

1378 - 1415

The Great Schism of 1054 was the split between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches

End of Hundred Years' War

01/1453 - 02/1453

Series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France and their various allies for control of the French throne

Louis XII

1462 - 1515

Invades Milan (the second French invasion of Italy)

Charles VIII of France invades Italy

01/1494 - 02/1494

Ludovico Sforza of Milan encourage Charles VIII of France to invade Italy. French victory

Francis I

1515 - 1547

Monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as a King of France. He leads the third French invasion of Italy

Charles V sacks Rome


Calvin to Geneva

01/1541 - 02/1541

Recruited by William Farel to help reform the church in Geneva

Henry II

1547 - 1559

First of the Angevin kings, and was one most effective of all England’s monarchs.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis ends Habsburg-Valois Wars

01/1559 - 02/1559

Agreement marking the end of the 65 year struggle between France and Spain for the control of Italy.

Francis II

1559 - 1560

Monarch of the House of Valois (King of France), and also a King-consort of Scotland.
Succeeds to French throne under regency of his mother, Catherine de Médicis

Conspiracy of Amboise fails

01/1560 - 02/1560

Failed attempt by Huguenots in 1560 to gain power of France by abducting the young king Francis II and arresting Francis and the Cardinal of Lorraine.

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Valois monarch who ruled as King of France. Tried to put down the war between Protestants and Catholics.

Vassy of Champagne

01/1562 - 02/1562

Protestant worshippers massacred by the duke of Guise

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Period of civili infighting and military operations between French Catholics and Huguenots.

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Valois monarch who was elected as the monarch of the Polish-LIthuanian Commonwealth.


1585 - 1642

Richelieu he was a politique who placed public order above religious zeal. He was determined to weaken the nobility, and he replaced nobles with intendants. Supported the Protestants during TYW

Henry IV of Navarre

1589 - 1610

A huguenot who embraces Catholicism

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. Author of Discourse of the Method and Principles of Philosophy.

Edict of Nantes

01/1598 - 02/1598

Henry IV grants Huguenots religious and civil freedoms.

1685: Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes

French Settlement in Quebec

01/1608 - 02/1608

Turning point in the expansion of France’s growing international empire, as it became the nation's first North AMerican colony.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre but was dominated by the careers of the Duke de Luynes and Cardinal Richelieu.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

The epitome of absolute monarchy

Cardinal Mazarin

1643 - 1661

Directs French government

Peace of Westphalia

01/1648 - 02/1648

Series of peace treaties that ended the Thirty Years’ War in the HRE. It involved the HRE, Spain, France, Swedish Empire, and Dutch Republic.


1648 - 1652

Nobles led a series of rebellions against royal authority


01/1653 - 02/1653

the pope declares Jansenism a heresy

Treaty of Pyrenees

01/1659 - 02/1659

between France and Spain

War of Devolution

1667 - 1668

Louis XIV’s French armies overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche Comte, but forced to give most of it back by a Triple Alliance of England, Sweden and Dutch Republic in Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

01/1668 - 02/1668

Ended the War of Devolution between France and Spain guranteed by the Triple Alliance of England, the Dutch Republic and Sweden.

Secret Treaty of Dover

01/1670 - 02/1670

between France and Great Britain

War of the League of Augsburg

1688 - 1697

League consisted of Holland, Spain, Austria and many smaller German Protestant states, which went against France. Louis provoked the war by invading Germany and capturing strategicaly important city of Pillipsburg on the Rhine.


1689 - 1755

"Spirit of the Laws"

Tried to apply the methods of the natural sciences to the study of government


1694 - 1778


Popularized Newton’s scientific discoveries, criticized France’s rigid government

Treatise on Toleration

Freedom of religion, expression, and separation of church and state

War of the Spanish Succession

01/1701 - 02/1701

France vs. Grand Alliance (Holland, Austria, Brandenburg, and the Italian duchy of Savoy)


1712 - 1778

social contract

Education should individualize since “every mind has its own form”

the general will

Peace of Utrecht

01/1713 - 02/1713

Ended the War of the Spanish Succession

French: Philip V was allowed to remain king of Spain


1713 - 1784


“All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings”

Treaty of Rastatt

01/1714 - 02/1714

between France and Spain

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Nobles regained their power and privileges.
Under him, the government debts continued to mount

Mississippi Bubble

01/1720 - 02/1720

Duke of Orléans

Bursts in France

Rousseau's Social Contract and Emile

01/1762 - 02/1762

social contract of people and government

Louis XVI

1774 - 1791

He called the Estates General to reform taxation, which eventually led to the French Revolution

Unsuccessful negotiations with the Assembly of Notables

01/1787 - 02/1787

Louis XVI tried to convince the Assembly of Notables in 1787 to discuss a revolutionary new fiscal reform proposed by Calonne.

Louis XVI summons the Estates General

01/1788 - 02/1788

Last attempt to get new monetary reforms approved. King agreed to retain many of the visionary customs which had been the norm in 1614.

Approval of doubling of the Third Estate membership

03/1788 - 04/1788

The Estates General opens at Versailles

01/1789 - 02/1789

National Constituent Assembly

01/1789 - 02/1789

The nobles surrender their feudal rights at a meeting of the National Constituent Assembly

Tennis Court Oath

03/1789 - 04/1789

Third Estate declared itself National Assembly

July 14, Fall of Bastille

07/14/1789 - 07/15/1789

A mob freed prisoners and seized the Bastille’s supply of gunpowder and weapons. The fall marked the symbol act against royal despotism

End of Old Regime (Aug 4)

08/1789 - 09/1789

National Constituent Assembly takes over


Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

09/1789 - 10/1789

All men were “born and remain free and equal in rights”

Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression

Freedom of religion, freedom from arbitrary arrest, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to petition the government

The Great Fear

10/1789 - 11/1789

Women's March (Oct 5)

10/1789 - 11/1789

Women marched to Versailles demanding cheap bread

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

01/1790 - 02/1790

confiscated the lands owned by the Catholic Church, priests are subject to the state, clergy has to support the new government

Constitution of 1791

01/1791 - 02/1791

First written constitution in France which was created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Regime.

Chapelier Law

02/1791 - 03/1791

A piece of legislation passed by the National Assembly during the first phase of the French Revolution-- banned builds.


04/1791 - 05/1791

Louis XVI and his family attempt to flee France and are stopped at Varennes

September Masacres

01/1792 - 02/1792

Wave of mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution.

First Coalition

1792 - 1797

Established by Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Sardinia, and the Netherlands in an attempt to defeat the forces of the French following the French Revolution.

France declares war on Austria

05/1792 - 06/1792

The Tuileries palace is stormed

07/1792 - 08/1792

Louis XVI takes refuge with the Legislative Assembly

Convention meets

10/1792 - 11/1792

The monarchy is abolished


01/1793 - 02/1793

Committee of Public Safety

01/1793 - 02/1793

Created in April 1793 by the National Convention. The committee was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial, and legislative efforts.

King Louis XVI beheaded

10/1793 - 11/1793

Day after he was convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers, he was sentenced to death by the French National Convention.

France declares war on Great Britain

11/1793 - 12/1793

French "Cult of Reason"

11/1793 - 12/1793

Atheistic belief system established in France, and intended as a replacement for Christianity during the French Revolution.

Levée en masse proclaimed

11/1793 - 12/1793

mandatory commitment to the army

Women's societies and clubs banned

11/1793 - 12/1793

Execution of the leaders of the sans-culottes known as the enragés

01/1794 - 02/1794

Execution of Danton

01/1794 - 02/1794

Cult of the Supreme Being proclaimed

01/1794 - 02/1794

Robespierre leads the celebration of the Festival of the Supreme Being

The Law of 22 Prairial is adopted

03/1794 - 04/1794

Freed the Revolutionary Tribunals from control by the Convention

Strengthened the position of prosecutors by limiting the ability of suspects to defend themselves

The Ninth of Thermidor and the fall of Robespierre

04/1794 - 05/1794

The Constitution of the Year III

01/1795 - 02/1795

established the Directory


1798 - 1863

French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

End of Directory by Napoleon’s coup d’état

01/1799 - 02/1799

Napoleon overthrew the French Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate.

Napoleonic Wars

1800 - 1815

Napoleonic Wars

1800 - 1815

Series of wars, that was a continuation of the French Revolution, declared against Napoleon’s French Empire by opposing coalitions.

Concordat of 1801

01/1801 - 02/1801

Granted the Catholic Church special status as the religion of “the majority” of French citizens

Pope recognized the French government and accepted the loss of church properties

Napoleon becomes Emperor

01/1804 - 02/1804

Crowned by Pope Pius VII in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.

Civil Code of 1804

03/1804 - 04/1804

Freedom of religion, the abolition of privilege, and the protection of property rights

Increased the authority of husbands

Continental system

1806 - 1807

Closed all European ports to British ships and goods

Fourth Coalition

1806 - 1807

Napoleon’s French Empire defeated the coalition partners (Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom).

Continental System

1806 - 1807

Treaty of Tilsit

01/1807 - 02/1807

Two agreements signed by Napoleon in the town of Tilst. The treaties ended the War of the Fourth Coalition

Russia joins the Continental system and becomes an ally of Napoleon


1809 - 1865

French anarchist and mutalist who wrote "What is Property?," a influential work of nonficition on the concept of property and its relation to anarchist philosophy.

Russia vs. France

01/1810 - 02/1810

Russia withdraws from the Continental System and resumes relations with Britain; Napoleon plans to crush Russia militarily

Napoleon invades Russia

01/1812 - 02/1812

The Russians adopt a scorched-earth policy and burn Moscow

The thwarted Napoleon deserts his dwindling army and rushes back to Paris

July Revolution of 1830

07/01/1830 - 07/10/1830

Resulted in the abdication of Charles X and ascension of Louis Philippe to the French throne and the establishment of the Constitutional July Monarchy.



1267 - 1337

first great artist for the Italian Renaissance



new Italian Renaissance technique: shading


1304 - 1374

Father of humanism

Manuel Chrysoloras

1350 - 1415

introduced Greek literature to Western Europe

Christine de Pisan

1364 - 1430

-challenged misogyny and stereotypes
-author and poet
-Europe’s first professional woman writer


1377 - 1446

-architect and engineer of Italian Renaissance
-discovery of perspective
-engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral


1386 - 1466

-early Renaissance Italian painter and sculptor
-bas-relief (a form of shallow relief sculpture)
-perspectival illusionism

Cosimo de Medici

1389 - 1464

first of the Medici political dynasty


1401 - 1428

-Renaissance painter
-recreating lifelike figures and movements as well as a convincing sense of 3D

Lorenzo Valla

1407 - 1457

-Italian humanist
-best known for his textual analysis that proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery

Pope Julius II

1443 - 1513

-warrior pope
-led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy
-close relationship with Michelangelo and his patronage of artists like Raphael

Lorenzo the Magnificent

1449 - 1492

-ruler of Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance
-great contribution to the art world

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

-"Renaissance man"
-his art like Mona Lisa
-technological ingenuity

Girolamo Savonarola

1452 - 1498

Savonarola controls Florence


1475 - 1564

-Italian Renaissance sculptor
-development of Western art
-pioneered Mannerist style
-St. Peter’s Basilica

Baldassare Castiglione

1478 - 1529

-Renaissance author
-The Book of the Courtier
-Italian Renaissance gentlemen of body and soul


1483 - 1520

-Italian painter architect of the High Renaissance
-clarity of form and ease of composition and its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur
-The School of Athens

Habsburg-Valois Wars

1494 - 1559

-Charles VIII of France led an army to Italy to reclaim Naples for France, but a league of Italian states defeated him
-then Louis XII occupied the duchy of Milan
-French was retreated from Italy

League of Venice


unites Venice, Milan, and Papal States, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain against France



conquers Romagna

Holy League

1512 - 1513

-Pope Julius II, Ferdinand of Aragon, Emperor Maximilian, and Venice defeats the French

Machiavelli’s The Prince


-accepting that the aims of princes like glory and fame can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends

Concordat of Bologna


-between France and the Papacy

Spanish conquer Mexico


Ignatius of Loyola


-founds Jesuits

Philip II rules Spain

1555 - 1598

Caravaggio’s Calling of St. Matthew


Galileo Galilei


-Dialogue of the Two Chief World Systems and The Starry Messenger

Bernini’s Four Rivers fountain


Philip V rules Spain

1700 - 1746

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

-Spain vs. Grand Alliance (Holland, Austria, Brandenburg, and the Italian duchy of Savoy)

Vivaldi’s Four Seasons




-On Crimes and Punishments
-stricter and appropriate crimes


Ferdinand marries Isabella


-imposes Catholicism and kicks out Jews and Muslims

Columbus “discovers” the New World


Jews expelled from Spain


Treaty of Tordesillas


-divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain

Philip II

1555 - 1598

Philip V

1700 - 1746

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Great Britain

Richard III

1452 - 1485

-last king of the House of York
-defeated at the Wars of the Roses
-regarded as the end of the Middle Ages in England

End of Hundred Years’ War


-Series of conflicts waged form 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and he Kingdom of France and their various allies for control of the French throne.

Wars of the Roses

1455 - 1487

-House of York vs. House of Lancaster in England
-Lancaster wins


1473 - 1543

Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated the helicocentric model. Also published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

first Tudor king of England

Reformation Parliament convenes


Submission of the Clergy


Church of England gave up their power to formulate church laws without the Kings licence and assent

Henry VIII becomes head of English Church


Created the Anglican Church or the Church of England

Act of Supremacy


Henry VIII as the only supreme head of the Church of England

Act of Succession


Anne Boleyn (Henry VIII’s wife) children legitimate heirs to the ENglish throne

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

King of England and Ireland, and third monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Riots and rebellions often took place because of the economic problems and social unrest.

Book of Common Prayer


First Act of Uniformity imposes Book of Common Prayer on English churches

Mary I

1553 - 1558

restores Catholic doctrine

Elizabeth 1

1558 - 1603

fashions an Anglican religious settlement

39 Articles


served to define the doctrine of the Church of England

Mary Queen of Scots executed


Executed by her second cousin, Elizabeth. Mary had plotted Elizabeth’s assasination.

English defeat Spanish Armada


English East India Company


British joint-stock company and megacorporation formed for pursuing trade with the East Indies

James 1

1603 - 1625

James V of Scotland rules England

Hampton Court conference


-discussion between King James I of England and representatives of Church of England, including leading English Puritans
-Puritans complain through the Millenary Petition, which the king declines

Shakespeare’s King Lear


Bacon publishes The Advancement of Learning



English settlement in Virginia


King James Bible


became the standard for English-speaking Protestants

Plymouth Colony settled


Charles 1

1625 - 1649

elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V

Petititon of Right


no one should be compelled to pay any tax or loan without the consent of Parliament, no one should be imprisoned without due process of law

Short Parliament→Long Parliament


Grand Remonstrance


-list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English Parliament but passed by the Long Parliament
-Parliament’s opposition to Charles’s policies

English Civil Wars

1642 - 1648

1645: Charles I defeated at Naseby

Oliver Cromwell

1649 - 1660

English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwelath of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Charles 1 executed

01/30/1649 - 01/31/1649

Navigation Act


restricted the use of foreign shipping when trading with England

Hobbes' Leviathan


humans are evil and selfish
strong monarchy!

The Restoration

1660 - 1714

Charles 2

1660 - 1685

Great Fire of London

01/01/1666 - 01/02/1666

Test Act


Protestants are eligible for public employment

Treaty of Dover


between France and England

Popish Plot


Plan to kill Charles II, massacre Protestants, and put Duke of York on the English throne

George ll

1683 - 1760

Strength was limited by the Jacobins. He was the elector of Hanover and the second Hanoverian king of Great Britain and Ireland.

James 2

1685 - 1688

Last Roman Catholic Monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England. Attempt to move the country to absolute Catholicism led to 1688 Revolution and his removal.

Newton's Principica Mathematica


gravitational laws

The Glorious Revolution


William and Mary proclaimed English monarchs

Bill of Rights


-limits on the powers of the crown
-sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech

Locke's Essay: Concerning Human Understanding


-Social Contract
-limited government
-Tabula Rasa

William and Mary

1689 - 1702

Joint reign began when they were offered the throne by the Parliament of England, replacing James ll and Vll.

Toleration Act


freedom to worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation

Bank of England Chartered

01/1694 - 02/1694

Act of Settlement


provides for Hanoverian succession

Reign of Queen Anne

1702 - 1714

last of the Stuarts

Act of Union Creates United Kingdom


Two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.

George I


king of Great Britain and establishes the hanoverian dynasty

South Sea Bubble


bursts in UK

Robert walpole

1721 - 1742

dominates the British politics

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

-Enlightenment philosophes
-Wealth of Nations (1776)

Cardinal Fleury

1726 - 1742

Louis XV’s chief minister

James Kay’s flying shuttle


Excise-tax crisis in Britain


Walpole put salt taxes again and there were oppositions

Hume's Treatise on Human Nature

01/1739 - 02/1739

British Industrial Revolution

1740 - 1860

Britain’s transitions to new manufacturing processes. It improved efficienfy of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

-Great Britain vs. Bourbons in France and Spain, resulting from overlapping interest in their colonial and trade empires
-Hohenzollerns in Prussia vs. Habsburgs HRE and Austria, resulting from territorial conflicts in the HRE

British Dominance in India


British Imperial power had control of the Indian sub continent.

James Hargreaves’s spinning jenny


Richard Arkwright’s water frame patent


James Watt’s steam engine patent



1772 - 1823

Iron law of wages: entrepreneurs should keep wages low, because increase of wages will lead to overpopulation

Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations

01/1776 - 02/1776

Edmund Cartwright’s power loom


Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman


-feminist philosophy
-went against those stereotypical responses for women to have proper education
-women are essential to education because they educate its children and they could be companions to their husbands

Jenner discoveres smallpox vaccine

01/1798 - 02/1798

Combination Acts


prohibited trade union and collective bargaining by British workers

Battle of Trafalgar


Fought against Britain during Third Coalition of Napoleonic Wars → British victory

Six Acts


-forbade large unauthorized, public meetings
-raised the fines for seditious libel
-speeded up the trials of political agitators
-increased newspaper taxes
-prohibited the training of armed groups
-allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed counties

Peterloo Massacre


cavalry charged into a crowd that demanded a reform of parliamentary representation

Catholic Emancipation Act


reduced many of the restrictions on Catholic Church

Peasants' Revolt


Peasants armed themselves with bows, scythes, sticks and anything possible to force the King to rid himself of his power hungry counsellors.

British extend male suffrage

01/1832 - 02/1867

Great Reform Bill


It created a number of new districts representing heavily urban areas, and it doubled the number of voters to include most middle-class men

Factory Act


Was an attempt to establish a regular working day in the textile industry.

Anti-Corn Law League


It argued against the Corn Laws, and advocated a free-trade policy that would lower the price of food and increase the profits of industry

British Child Labor Legislation

1842 - 1847

No factory or workshop could employ any child under the age of 8 and employees between aged between 8 and 13 were to receive at least 10 hours of education per week.

Irish Famine

1845 - 1847

The potato harvest decreased. It strengthened the support for the repeal of Corn Laws

Repeal of Corn Laws


It marked a victory for Britain’s urban population and free trade

Corn Laws


It placed a high tariff on imported corn, wheat, and other grains


Ivan lll the Great

1462 - 1505

1547: Ivan the Terrible becomes Tsar

Russian "Times of Trouble"

1584 - 1613

Years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.

Michael Romanov becomes Tsar


Founder of the Romanov dynasty who came to the throne as the solution of the dynastic crisis.

Peter l and Ivan V Rule

1669 - 1682

Joint rule between half brothers. Ivan died of one of the many illnesses he had.

Peter l Rules

1682 - 1725

-He advocated westernization; he expanded Russia’s army, constructed a new navy, built St. Petersburg, improved Russian agriculture by introducing the potato, and strengthened the Russian economy by importing skilled workers
-puts down the revolt of the streltsy
-establishes a synod for the Russian church

Russia captures Azov on the Black Sea from the Turks


European tour of Peter the Great


Went to central and western Europe to educate himself about the military tactics.

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

A war between Sweden(Charles XII) and Russia. Russia won, and Sweden’s power in Europe declined as a result of it.

Peace of Nystad

1709 - 1710

ends the Great Northern War

Battle of Poltava


Russia defeats Sweden

Aleksei - Peter's son

01/1718 - 02/1718

Dies in prison under mysterious circumstances

People are suspicious of Peter

Table of Ranks

01/1722 - 02/1722

Formal list of positions and ranks in the military, government and the court of Imperial Russia.

Catherine II the Great

1762 - 1796

Under her reign, Russia expanded its territories and modernized, following the lead of Western Europe.

Russia at war with Ottomans

1768 - 1774

Decisive conflict that brought Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus and Crimea within the orbit of the Russian Empire.

Pugachev Rebellion

1774 - 1775

This rebellion marked the end of Catherine’s program of enlightened reforms, and she gave the nobles additional privileges and absolute power over their estates and serfs

Russia annexes Crimea

01/1783 - 02/1783

Nicholas I rules

1825 - 1855

Succeeded his brother Alexander l as emperor and suppressed the Decembrist Revolt. His reign came to represent autocracy, militarism, and bureaucracy.

Decembrist Revolt of 1825

11/1825 - 12/1825

Nicholas I suppressed the Decembrists, who called for constitutional reform

Alexander II rules

1855 - 1881

The emancipation of the serfs, creation of regional self-government through elected assemblies

Alexander III rules

1881 - 1894

Adopted programs, based on the concepts of Orthodoxy, autocracy and nardonost.

Nicholas II rules

1894 - 1917

His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.

Holy Roman Empire

Golden Bull of 1356


It established an electoral college consisting of seven German princes to choose the Holy Roman Emperor

Hanseatic League


commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds

Habsburg rule begins in H.R.E


Gutenberg’s printing press


As printing press was invented, it became easier for ideas to spread

Maximilian I rules

1486 - 1519

Luther’s 95 Theses


against the sales of indulgences

Charles V rules H.R.E

1519 - 1558

Leipzig Debate


Luther challenges authority of pope and inerrancy of church councils

New Testament

1521 - 1522

Luther translates the New Testament into German

Papal bull


excommunicates Luther for heresy

Diet of Worms


condemns Luther

German Peasant’s Revolt

1524 - 1525

The Schleitheim Confession of the Anabaptists


Marburg Colloquy


Luther vs. Zwingli

Diet of Augsburg


fails to settle religious differences

Formation of Protestant Schmalkaldic League


1547: Armies of Charles V crush Schmalkaldic League

Anabaptists assume political power in city of Münster

1534 - 1535

Augsburg Interim


outlaws Protestant practices

Peace of Augsburg


recognizes rights of Lutherans to worship as they please

Kepler publishes The New Astronomy


planetary motion

Catholic League

1609 - 1635

Thirty Years’ War

1618 - 1648

1618-1625: Bohemian Period Catholic League led by Emperor Ferdinand II vs. Protestant Union led by Frederick V → Ferdinand won

1625-1629: Danish Period Protestants led by King Christian IV vs. Albert of Wallenstein → Catholics won

1630-1635: Swedish Period Gustavus Adolphus (Lutheran king of Sweden) defeated Wallenstein

1635-1648: French Period French, Dutch, and Swedish armies burned German farms and destroyed German commerce

Battle of White Mountain


Marked the end of Bohemian period

Peace of Westphalia


TYW ends, reaffirms cuius regio, eius religio, accepts Calvinism


1685 - 1750

Pragmatic Sanction


It guaranteed Maria Theresa’s right to inherit the Habsburg throne and territories

Francis II

1768 - 1835

Mendelsohn’s Jerusalem; On Ecclesiastical Power and Judaism


Enlightenment approach to Judaism

Declaration of Pillnitz


HRE and Prussia unite against France under the Revolution Restoration of absolutism in France was of “common interest to all sovereigns of Europe"

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1813

Carlsbad Decrees


It dissolved the student associations, and censored books and newspaper


Frederick William (the Greater Elector) rules

1640 - 1688

He began forging the Hohenzollern territories into a strong power; he received loyalty of the Junkers, who in exchange received full power over the serfs

Leopold I

1658 - 1705

rules Austria and resists the Turkish invasions

Turkish siege of Vienna


Frederick I (king) rules

1688 - 1713

Put emphasis on the Prussian military

Peace treaty between Turks and Habsburgs


Frederick William I rules

1713 - 1740

builds up the military power of Prussia

Frederick II invaded Silesia


violates the Pragmatic Sanction

Frederick II the Great rules

1740 - 1786

Goethe German

1749 - 1832

writer, artist, and politician. Wrote The Sorrows of Young Werther


1770 - 1827

German classical composer


1770 - 1831

German philosopher who revolutionized European philosophy, and an important precursor to Marxism

Frederick William III rules

1779 - 1840

Prussia ends serfdom


Frederick William IV rules

1840 - 1861

Marx/Engel’s Communist Manifesto


Theory of surplus value: workers produce the “profit” but only get paid wages. This is industrial theft. Workers must share profits.


Habsburg-Ottoman peace treaty


Charles VI

1711 - 1740

rules Austria and secures agreement to the Pragmatic Sanction

Maria Theresa succeeds to the Habsburg throne


War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick seized Silesia, ignoring the Pragmatic Sanction
France supported Prussia, England supported Austria
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle → confirmed Prussia’s status as a great power


1756 - 1791

Austrian classical composer

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Tried to restore legitimacy and balance of power in Europe 1848: Austria abolishes serfdom

The Netherlands

Antwerp printers use movable type

01/1417 - 02/1417


1450 - 1536

Garden of Earthly Delights


1469 - 1536

Dutch humanist

"In Praise of Folly"

Cardinal Granville

1517 - 1586

William of Orange [William “the Silent”]

1533 - 1584

A leader who led the Dutch against Spanish, became the Stadtholder

Later the ruler of England

Antwerp’s height of prosperity

01/1560 - 02/1560

Revolt in the Netherlands

01/1566 - 02/1566

Duke of Alba

1567 - 1573

The governor of Spanish Netherlands

Council of Troubles

01/1567 - 02/1567

Duke of Alba to punish the ringleaders of the recent political and religious troubles in the Netherlands

Mercator projection map

01/1569 - 02/1569

Pacification of Ghent

01/1576 - 02/1576

Alliance of the provinces of Habsburg Netherlands to fight against Spain

Union of Utrecht

01/1579 - 02/1579

Unified the northern provinces of the Netherlands

Dutch make first compound microscope

01/1600 - 02/1600

Dutch East India Co.

01/1602 - 02/1602

Displaced the Portuguese and gained control of the spice trade in the East Indies

Dutch West India Co.

01/1621 - 02/1621

William III rules

1672 - 1702

Stadtholder in the Netherlands, later became the ruler of England

Treaty of Utrecht

01/1713 - 02/1713

Ends the War of the Spanish Succession


Portugal explores African coast

1430 - 1440

DaGama reaches India

01/1498 - 02/1498

Returned to Portugal with pepper and cinnamon

Magellan’s voyage around the world

1519 - 1520


Ottomans take Constantinople

01/1453 - 02/1453

Battle of Lepanto

01/1571 - 02/1571

Holy League defeated the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman pullback

1714 - 1792


Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus

01/1543 - 02/1543

John III Sobieski of Poland

1674 - 1696

1st partition of Poland

01/1772 - 02/1772

2nd partition of Poland

01/1793 - 02/1793

3rd partition of Poland

01/1795 - 02/1795


Battle of Mohacs

01/1526 - 02/1526

Forces of Hungary defeated by forces of the Ottoman Empire


Greek Revolution

01/1821 - 02/1821

Greek won independence from the Ottomans, with the help of Russia, France, Great Britain, and other European countries