Maaya, Julie, Annie
The Great Schism of 1054 was the split between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches
Series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France and their various allies for control of the French throne
Invades Milan (the second French invasion of Italy)
Ludovico Sforza of Milan encourage Charles VIII of France to invade Italy. French victory
Monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as a King of France. He leads the third French invasion of Italy
Recruited by William Farel to help reform the church in Geneva
First of the Angevin kings, and was one most effective of all England’s monarchs.
Agreement marking the end of the 65 year struggle between France and Spain for the control of Italy.
Monarch of the House of Valois (King of France), and also a King-consort of Scotland.
Succeeds to French throne under regency of his mother, Catherine de Médicis
Failed attempt by Huguenots in 1560 to gain power of France by abducting the young king Francis II and arresting Francis and the Cardinal of Lorraine.
Valois monarch who ruled as King of France. Tried to put down the war between Protestants and Catholics.
Protestant worshippers massacred by the duke of Guise
Period of civili infighting and military operations between French Catholics and Huguenots.
Valois monarch who was elected as the monarch of the Polish-LIthuanian Commonwealth.
Richelieu he was a politique who placed public order above religious zeal. He was determined to weaken the nobility, and he replaced nobles with intendants. Supported the Protestants during TYW
A huguenot who embraces Catholicism
French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. Author of Discourse of the Method and Principles of Philosophy.
Henry IV grants Huguenots religious and civil freedoms.
1685: Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes
Turning point in the expansion of France’s growing international empire, as it became the nation's first North AMerican colony.
Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre but was dominated by the careers of the Duke de Luynes and Cardinal Richelieu.
The epitome of absolute monarchy
Directs French government
Series of peace treaties that ended the Thirty Years’ War in the HRE. It involved the HRE, Spain, France, Swedish Empire, and Dutch Republic.
Nobles led a series of rebellions against royal authority
the pope declares Jansenism a heresy
between France and Spain
Louis XIV’s French armies overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche Comte, but forced to give most of it back by a Triple Alliance of England, Sweden and Dutch Republic in Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Ended the War of Devolution between France and Spain guranteed by the Triple Alliance of England, the Dutch Republic and Sweden.
between France and Great Britain
League consisted of Holland, Spain, Austria and many smaller German Protestant states, which went against France. Louis provoked the war by invading Germany and capturing strategicaly important city of Pillipsburg on the Rhine.
"Spirit of the Laws"
Tried to apply the methods of the natural sciences to the study of government
Popularized Newton’s scientific discoveries, criticized France’s rigid government
Treatise on Toleration
Freedom of religion, expression, and separation of church and state
France vs. Grand Alliance (Holland, Austria, Brandenburg, and the Italian duchy of Savoy)
Education should individualize since “every mind has its own form”
the general will
Ended the War of the Spanish Succession
French: Philip V was allowed to remain king of Spain
“All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings”
between France and Spain
Nobles regained their power and privileges.
Under him, the government debts continued to mount
Duke of Orléans
Bursts in France
social contract of people and government
He called the Estates General to reform taxation, which eventually led to the French Revolution
Louis XVI tried to convince the Assembly of Notables in 1787 to discuss a revolutionary new fiscal reform proposed by Calonne.
Last attempt to get new monetary reforms approved. King agreed to retain many of the visionary customs which had been the norm in 1614.
The nobles surrender their feudal rights at a meeting of the National Constituent Assembly
Third Estate declared itself National Assembly
A mob freed prisoners and seized the Bastille’s supply of gunpowder and weapons. The fall marked the symbol act against royal despotism
National Constituent Assembly takes over
All men were “born and remain free and equal in rights”
Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression
Freedom of religion, freedom from arbitrary arrest, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to petition the government
Women marched to Versailles demanding cheap bread
confiscated the lands owned by the Catholic Church, priests are subject to the state, clergy has to support the new government
First written constitution in France which was created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Regime.
A piece of legislation passed by the National Assembly during the first phase of the French Revolution-- banned builds.
Louis XVI and his family attempt to flee France and are stopped at Varennes
Wave of mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution.
Established by Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Sardinia, and the Netherlands in an attempt to defeat the forces of the French following the French Revolution.
Louis XVI takes refuge with the Legislative Assembly
The monarchy is abolished
Created in April 1793 by the National Convention. The committee was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial, and legislative efforts.
Day after he was convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers, he was sentenced to death by the French National Convention.
Atheistic belief system established in France, and intended as a replacement for Christianity during the French Revolution.
mandatory commitment to the army
Robespierre leads the celebration of the Festival of the Supreme Being
Freed the Revolutionary Tribunals from control by the Convention
Strengthened the position of prosecutors by limiting the ability of suspects to defend themselves
established the Directory
French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
Napoleon overthrew the French Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate.
Series of wars, that was a continuation of the French Revolution, declared against Napoleon’s French Empire by opposing coalitions.
Granted the Catholic Church special status as the religion of “the majority” of French citizens
Pope recognized the French government and accepted the loss of church properties
Crowned by Pope Pius VII in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
Freedom of religion, the abolition of privilege, and the protection of property rights
Increased the authority of husbands
Closed all European ports to British ships and goods
Napoleon’s French Empire defeated the coalition partners (Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom).
Two agreements signed by Napoleon in the town of Tilst. The treaties ended the War of the Fourth Coalition
Russia joins the Continental system and becomes an ally of Napoleon
French anarchist and mutalist who wrote "What is Property?," a influential work of nonficition on the concept of property and its relation to anarchist philosophy.
Russia withdraws from the Continental System and resumes relations with Britain; Napoleon plans to crush Russia militarily
The Russians adopt a scorched-earth policy and burn Moscow
The thwarted Napoleon deserts his dwindling army and rushes back to Paris
Resulted in the abdication of Charles X and ascension of Louis Philippe to the French throne and the establishment of the Constitutional July Monarchy.
first great artist for the Italian Renaissance
new Italian Renaissance technique: shading
Father of humanism
introduced Greek literature to Western Europe
-challenged misogyny and stereotypes
-author and poet
-Europe’s first professional woman writer
-architect and engineer of Italian Renaissance
-discovery of perspective
-engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral
-early Renaissance Italian painter and sculptor
-bas-relief (a form of shallow relief sculpture)
first of the Medici political dynasty
-recreating lifelike figures and movements as well as a convincing sense of 3D
-best known for his textual analysis that proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery
-led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy
-close relationship with Michelangelo and his patronage of artists like Raphael
-ruler of Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance
-great contribution to the art world
-his art like Mona Lisa
Savonarola controls Florence
-Italian Renaissance sculptor
-development of Western art
-pioneered Mannerist style
-St. Peter’s Basilica
-The Book of the Courtier
-Italian Renaissance gentlemen of body and soul
-Italian painter architect of the High Renaissance
-clarity of form and ease of composition and its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur
-The School of Athens
-Charles VIII of France led an army to Italy to reclaim Naples for France, but a league of Italian states defeated him
-then Louis XII occupied the duchy of Milan
-French was retreated from Italy
unites Venice, Milan, and Papal States, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain against France
-Pope Julius II, Ferdinand of Aragon, Emperor Maximilian, and Venice defeats the French
-accepting that the aims of princes like glory and fame can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends
-between France and the Papacy
-Dialogue of the Two Chief World Systems and The Starry Messenger
-Spain vs. Grand Alliance (Holland, Austria, Brandenburg, and the Italian duchy of Savoy)
-On Crimes and Punishments
-stricter and appropriate crimes
-imposes Catholicism and kicks out Jews and Muslims
-divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain
-last king of the House of York
-defeated at the Wars of the Roses
-regarded as the end of the Middle Ages in England
-Series of conflicts waged form 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and he Kingdom of France and their various allies for control of the French throne.
-House of York vs. House of Lancaster in England
Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated the helicocentric model. Also published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
first Tudor king of England
Church of England gave up their power to formulate church laws without the Kings licence and assent
Created the Anglican Church or the Church of England
Henry VIII as the only supreme head of the Church of England
Anne Boleyn (Henry VIII’s wife) children legitimate heirs to the ENglish throne
King of England and Ireland, and third monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Riots and rebellions often took place because of the economic problems and social unrest.
First Act of Uniformity imposes Book of Common Prayer on English churches
restores Catholic doctrine
fashions an Anglican religious settlement
served to define the doctrine of the Church of England
Executed by her second cousin, Elizabeth. Mary had plotted Elizabeth’s assasination.
British joint-stock company and megacorporation formed for pursuing trade with the East Indies
James V of Scotland rules England
-discussion between King James I of England and representatives of Church of England, including leading English Puritans
-Puritans complain through the Millenary Petition, which the king declines
became the standard for English-speaking Protestants
elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V
no one should be compelled to pay any tax or loan without the consent of Parliament, no one should be imprisoned without due process of law
-list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English Parliament but passed by the Long Parliament
-Parliament’s opposition to Charles’s policies
1645: Charles I defeated at Naseby
English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwelath of England, Scotland and Ireland.
restricted the use of foreign shipping when trading with England
humans are evil and selfish
Protestants are eligible for public employment
between France and England
Plan to kill Charles II, massacre Protestants, and put Duke of York on the English throne
Strength was limited by the Jacobins. He was the elector of Hanover and the second Hanoverian king of Great Britain and Ireland.
Last Roman Catholic Monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England. Attempt to move the country to absolute Catholicism led to 1688 Revolution and his removal.
William and Mary proclaimed English monarchs
-limits on the powers of the crown
-sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech
Joint reign began when they were offered the throne by the Parliament of England, replacing James ll and Vll.
freedom to worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation
provides for Hanoverian succession
last of the Stuarts
Two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
king of Great Britain and establishes the hanoverian dynasty
bursts in UK
dominates the British politics
-Wealth of Nations (1776)
Louis XV’s chief minister
Walpole put salt taxes again and there were oppositions
Britain’s transitions to new manufacturing processes. It improved efficienfy of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools.
-Great Britain vs. Bourbons in France and Spain, resulting from overlapping interest in their colonial and trade empires
-Hohenzollerns in Prussia vs. Habsburgs HRE and Austria, resulting from territorial conflicts in the HRE
British Imperial power had control of the Indian sub continent.
Iron law of wages: entrepreneurs should keep wages low, because increase of wages will lead to overpopulation
-went against those stereotypical responses for women to have proper education
-women are essential to education because they educate its children and they could be companions to their husbands
prohibited trade union and collective bargaining by British workers
Fought against Britain during Third Coalition of Napoleonic Wars → British victory
-forbade large unauthorized, public meetings
-raised the fines for seditious libel
-speeded up the trials of political agitators
-increased newspaper taxes
-prohibited the training of armed groups
-allowed local officials to search homes in certain disturbed counties
cavalry charged into a crowd that demanded a reform of parliamentary representation
reduced many of the restrictions on Catholic Church
Peasants armed themselves with bows, scythes, sticks and anything possible to force the King to rid himself of his power hungry counsellors.
It created a number of new districts representing heavily urban areas, and it doubled the number of voters to include most middle-class men
Was an attempt to establish a regular working day in the textile industry.
It argued against the Corn Laws, and advocated a free-trade policy that would lower the price of food and increase the profits of industry
No factory or workshop could employ any child under the age of 8 and employees between aged between 8 and 13 were to receive at least 10 hours of education per week.
The potato harvest decreased. It strengthened the support for the repeal of Corn Laws
It marked a victory for Britain’s urban population and free trade
It placed a high tariff on imported corn, wheat, and other grains
1547: Ivan the Terrible becomes Tsar
Years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Founder of the Romanov dynasty who came to the throne as the solution of the dynastic crisis.
Joint rule between half brothers. Ivan died of one of the many illnesses he had.
-He advocated westernization; he expanded Russia’s army, constructed a new navy, built St. Petersburg, improved Russian agriculture by introducing the potato, and strengthened the Russian economy by importing skilled workers
-puts down the revolt of the streltsy
-establishes a synod for the Russian church
Went to central and western Europe to educate himself about the military tactics.
A war between Sweden(Charles XII) and Russia. Russia won, and Sweden’s power in Europe declined as a result of it.
ends the Great Northern War
Russia defeats Sweden
Dies in prison under mysterious circumstances
People are suspicious of Peter
Formal list of positions and ranks in the military, government and the court of Imperial Russia.
Under her reign, Russia expanded its territories and modernized, following the lead of Western Europe.
Decisive conflict that brought Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus and Crimea within the orbit of the Russian Empire.
This rebellion marked the end of Catherine’s program of enlightened reforms, and she gave the nobles additional privileges and absolute power over their estates and serfs
Succeeded his brother Alexander l as emperor and suppressed the Decembrist Revolt. His reign came to represent autocracy, militarism, and bureaucracy.
Nicholas I suppressed the Decembrists, who called for constitutional reform
The emancipation of the serfs, creation of regional self-government through elected assemblies
Adopted programs, based on the concepts of Orthodoxy, autocracy and nardonost.
His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.
It established an electoral college consisting of seven German princes to choose the Holy Roman Emperor
commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds
As printing press was invented, it became easier for ideas to spread
against the sales of indulgences
Luther challenges authority of pope and inerrancy of church councils
Luther translates the New Testament into German
excommunicates Luther for heresy
Luther vs. Zwingli
fails to settle religious differences
1547: Armies of Charles V crush Schmalkaldic League
outlaws Protestant practices
recognizes rights of Lutherans to worship as they please
1618-1625: Bohemian Period Catholic League led by Emperor Ferdinand II vs. Protestant Union led by Frederick V → Ferdinand won
1625-1629: Danish Period Protestants led by King Christian IV vs. Albert of Wallenstein → Catholics won
1630-1635: Swedish Period Gustavus Adolphus (Lutheran king of Sweden) defeated Wallenstein
1635-1648: French Period French, Dutch, and Swedish armies burned German farms and destroyed German commerce
Marked the end of Bohemian period
TYW ends, reaffirms cuius regio, eius religio, accepts Calvinism
It guaranteed Maria Theresa’s right to inherit the Habsburg throne and territories
Enlightenment approach to Judaism
HRE and Prussia unite against France under the Revolution Restoration of absolutism in France was of “common interest to all sovereigns of Europe"
It dissolved the student associations, and censored books and newspaper
He began forging the Hohenzollern territories into a strong power; he received loyalty of the Junkers, who in exchange received full power over the serfs
rules Austria and resists the Turkish invasions
Put emphasis on the Prussian military
builds up the military power of Prussia
violates the Pragmatic Sanction
writer, artist, and politician. Wrote The Sorrows of Young Werther
German classical composer
German philosopher who revolutionized European philosophy, and an important precursor to Marxism
Theory of surplus value: workers produce the “profit” but only get paid wages. This is industrial theft. Workers must share profits.
rules Austria and secures agreement to the Pragmatic Sanction
Frederick seized Silesia, ignoring the Pragmatic Sanction
France supported Prussia, England supported Austria
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle → confirmed Prussia’s status as a great power
Austrian classical composer
Tried to restore legitimacy and balance of power in Europe 1848: Austria abolishes serfdom
Garden of Earthly Delights
"In Praise of Folly"
A leader who led the Dutch against Spanish, became the Stadtholder
Later the ruler of England
The governor of Spanish Netherlands
Duke of Alba to punish the ringleaders of the recent political and religious troubles in the Netherlands
Alliance of the provinces of Habsburg Netherlands to fight against Spain
Unified the northern provinces of the Netherlands
Displaced the Portuguese and gained control of the spice trade in the East Indies
Stadtholder in the Netherlands, later became the ruler of England
Ends the War of the Spanish Succession
Returned to Portugal with pepper and cinnamon
Holy League defeated the Ottoman Empire
Forces of Hungary defeated by forces of the Ottoman Empire
Greek won independence from the Ottomans, with the help of Russia, France, Great Britain, and other European countries