He is known as the father of seismology and is noted for his explanation of the Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 using math instead of religion.
May 31, 1822 - May 1, 1887
He created the first seismometer using pendulums. The seismometer functioned by recording the relative motion of the two pendulums to the Earth.
December 30, 1850 - July 30, 1913
He was an influence to modern seismology because of his attempts to determine the velocity of a seismic waves in 1906.
Richard Dixon Oldham
July 31, 1858 - July 15, 1936
He was a geologist with little passion yet was the first to discover p-waves and s-waves in seismograms. He also discovered the Earth's core using seismic waves.
Ernst von Rebeur-Paschwitz
August 9, 1861 - October 3, 1895
He used a horizontal pendulum to measure the changes of gravity in the Earth when he discovered it actually swung to seismic waves of an earthquake in Japan. He was the first to take a measurement from such a great distance.
May 13, 1888 - February 21, 1993
Inge Lehmann was from Denmark and was the discoverer of the Earth's inner core. During an earthquake she observed that some P-waves were deflected by the core. She then made her observation that there was something the P-waves bounced off of.
Charles Francis Richter
April 26, 1900 - September 30, 1985
He created the Richter magnitude scale which is still in use now. The scale uses whole numbers and decimals where the amount of energy is thirty-one times the number representation.