"there were short recessions in the 1880s and early 1890s"
Panic of 1893-1897
1893 - 1897
Small, brief, frequent downturns
1903 - 1914
Although there was lots of growth, the economy wasn't completely stable during industrialization.
The East & South (Industrialization and progressive era)
Things that helped industrialization post-civil war
Lots of natural resources: trees and expensive rocks and stuff
Good work force: lots of skilled peoples to rule the unskillz
Money built up from before war
New things to move capital and other stuff around (banks, RRs)
Favorable gov't policy
a. Protective tariffs
b. Homestead Act
c. Grants for RR comapnies
John D. Rockafella and Standard Oil
This guy horizontally integrated (monopoly)
Andrew!! Carnegie opens big steel plant
Carnegie vertically integrated a cut prices drastically
His business was huge and complicated, which is becoming common
Rise of electricity and technology
1875 - 1900
(by the late 19th century)
1. New inventions are all over the place (vacuums and stuff!)
2. More and more inventions use electricity
3. Technology has become/is becoming very important in farming (very important)
The New South
1877 - 1914
A term used by some Southerners used to describe their goal of industrialization in the South
This included less reliance on agriculture, more factories, and better railroads.
The textile industry got a little better there, but overall little change.
JP Morgan emerges as prominent investment banker
1885 - 1890
Morgan was known for 'Morganization', especially of railroads. This included horizontal integration (ie. taking over competition, mergers), simplifying corporate structure, and stopping risky decisions.
Lots of mergers and first $1 billion company
1898 - 1902
Lots of mergers, in part due to the Panic of 1893
JP Morgan founds US Steel, the first $1 billion company, by merging Carnegie's steel company with some other dude's
The East & South (Labor, progressives, and populists)
Mostly the east
Immigration increases massively
1865 - 1914
Largest influx of immigrants ever: 26 million during this period (26 million = 75% of 1865 population)
They were almost always poor, worked as unskilled labors, formed their own neighborhoods, and faced discrimination
They often formed their own communities
They usually kept part of their old culture (did not assimilate)
This led to nativism
Labor force increases massively
1865 - 1914
After the civil war, the labor force more than doubled
These workers often came from rural areas. Because of the growing economy they needed even more workers, which is why immigration went up.
1865 - 1914
Politicians catered to poor folk, businesses, immigrants, etc.
2.5. They knew how to push the right buttons to get stuff done
This corrupt practice did not help poor people.
Rise of Nativism
1865 - 1914
In response to all these new immigrants who did not assimilate and instead formed their own miniature non-American towns, many Americans became Nativists--people who did not like new immigrants or Catholics, and believed that old-stock Americanism is best.
In response to immigrants taking up so many labor jobs, almost all labor organizations did not like immigrants (Chinese Exclusion act!)
Size of cities increase and geography changes
1865 - 1914
Steel allowed building to get taller
Street cars allowed them to increase in area
3. Railroads allowed wealthier people to live away from city in suburbs
Now (sub)urban geography changed and became more specialized and based on purpose and economic status (slums, rich neighborhoods)
Quality infrastructure could not keep up
Social darwinism, the Gospel of Wealth, and Robber Barons
1865 - 1914
The concentration of power and wealth during this time scared lots.
1. Many were social darwinists, who said it's OK because the poor obviously aren't trying hard enough and pure competition will benefit society
2. Carnegie's idea that the wealthy have an obligation to contribute to society with the great wealth (eg. donate to schools)
3. Many disapproved of the new super-rich, calling them greedy thieves
Urban population increases massively
1865 - 1914
Lots more peoples in cities
Many came from rural American or rural Europe (farms required fewer workers due to mechanization)
A belt of manufacturing formed in the NE
Horatio Alger's Ragged Dick becomes big, despite inaccuracies
Horatio Alger was a popular author during this era. He portrayed America as a rags-to-riches place, but his depiction was inaccurate. Most rich people came from upper or middle class families.
The Knights of Labor
1869 - 1890
Prominent labor organization in the 1880s,
Improvements to Education
1870 - 1914
Mandatory attendance in North and West
Many states required free textbooks
Women see some improvements
1870 - 1914
The idea of the Cult of Domesticity declined
The role of women in professional areas increased
Both of these in part due to increased education opportunities
Women were involved in reform quite often
1874 - 1914
not sure on dates?
The populist movement was started by poorer southern farmers who:
1. Called for nationalization or railroads (they did not like big business)
2. Lower tariffs
3. Lower lending rates
4. Increased inflation to pay for debt
5. Some other stuff. Populists today are 'anti-elite' peoples
Great Strike of 1877
Large protests by railroad workers occurred across the country
They were stopped by the military (demonstrating how the government was on the side of business)
Immigrants from Southern Europe
1880 - 1914
In the late 19th century (about the 1880s+) immigrants came increasingly from Southern Europe instead of Eastern Europe.
These immigrants were viewed even more negatively and they fueled Nativism even more
Stalwarts and Half-breeds
1880 - 1914
not sure on the dates?
1. The Republican party split into two factions due to the patronage/spoils system:
A. The Stalwarts, led by Roscoe Conkling, favored the patronage system
B. The Half-Breeds were more progressive in that they supported a merit system
Chinese Exclusion Act
Idea from Labor..... Linked to Nativism
Pendleton Act 1883
Reform by progressives and others (like Mugwumps)
Awarded government positions based on merits
Made in response to the spoils system/patronage
2500+ lynchings and Ida B. Wells
1885 - 1900
Southern whites did/do not like black people
KKK on the rise during this time
Ida B. Wells was the prominent anti-lynching figure
AFL and Sam Gompers
Founded by Sam Gompers with disaffected people from the KoL
Dawe's Severalty Act 1887
This act broke up Native American reservations into individual farms for Natives. Left over land was sold to the US gov't to fund schools for Natives. Natives usually did not get the best land.
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
Reform by populists?
First federal legislation to regulate private industry (the railroad companies and their monopolistic practices)
Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives
The realities of this 'muckracking' novel shocked people
1890 - 1914
"by the 1890s..."
1. Settlement houses were run by college kids. Initially by men, later by women
2. They tried to combat poverty
3. Many were religious (social gospel)
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Reform by progressives
Not initially effective at stopping monopolistic behavior
The 2nd Mississippi Plan and the Atlanta Compromise
1890 - 1895
Mississippi plan: Poll taxes and literacy tests to prevent blacks from voting.
Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise told blacks to accept discrimination and work harder
Homestead and Pullman strikes
1892 - 1894
They both fail (due to federal assistance)
and lead to the fall of some union
Plessy v Ferguson and more disenfranchisement
In 1896 the US Supreme Court upheld segregation (Separate but equal....)
Around this time blacks faced disenfranchisement and violence
Meat Inspection and Pure Food/Drug Acts
Passed by progressive in response to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Very influential book by socialist that revealed what life was like for the working class
Led to the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
16th and 17th amendments
Both of these amendments were ideas by Progressives.
16th: for fairer taxation
17th: to stop corruption in Senate elections
Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914
Homestead Act of 1862
Law passed by Republicans (who were proponents of using federal lands like this to expand the economy) that gave 160 acres of FREE land to anyone who would live there and farm on the land. Even though the land was free the farming wasn't always easy. This law is very important to the expansion of the west (48 million acres of land were given away with this act).
First Transcontinental Railroad
1863 - 1869
Authorized by the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862. Very important for expansion of the west. This is one of the economic things Republicans did during the war. Others include:
Higher protective tariffs.
Support for higher education (Land-Grant College Act).
Land grants to railroad companies.
How RRs got better
1865 - 1900
After 1869 the West and East were finally connected