APUSH: Unit 6 (1865-1914)

Industrialization (technological and corporate advancements), labor and progressivism (progressive era!) → reforms, corruption (the gilded age), and westward expansion

The Economy

Mostly the east

Panic of 1873-1878

1873 - 1878

Severe depression

Short recessions

1880 - 1893

"there were short recessions in the 1880s and early 1890s"

Panic of 1893-1897

1893 - 1897

Severe depression

Small, brief, frequent downturns

1903 - 1914

Although there was lots of growth, the economy wasn't completely stable during industrialization.

The East & South (Industrialization and progressive era)

Gilded era

Things that helped industrialization post-civil war

  1. Lots of natural resources: trees and expensive rocks and stuff
  2. Good work force: lots of skilled peoples to rule the unskillz
  3. Money built up from before war
  4. New things to move capital and other stuff around (banks, RRs)
  5. Favorable gov't policy a. Protective tariffs b. Homestead Act c. Grants for RR comapnies

John D. Rockafella and Standard Oil

  1. This guy horizontally integrated (monopoly)

Rise of electricity and technology

1875 - 1900

(by the late 19th century)
1. New inventions are all over the place (vacuums and stuff!)
2. More and more inventions use electricity
3. Technology has become/is becoming very important in farming (very important)

Andrew!! Carnegie opens big steel plant

  1. Carnegie vertically integrated a cut prices drastically
  2. His business was huge and complicated, which is becoming common

The New South

1877 - 1914
  1. A term used by some Southerners used to describe their goal of industrialization in the South
  2. This included less reliance on agriculture, more factories, and better railroads.
  3. The textile industry got a little better there, but overall little change.

JP Morgan emerges as prominent investment banker

1885 - 1890

Morgan was known for 'Morganization', especially of railroads. This included horizontal integration (ie. taking over competition, mergers), simplifying corporate structure, and stopping risky decisions.

Lots of mergers and first $1 billion company

1898 - 1902
  1. Lots of mergers, in part due to the Panic of 1893
  2. JP Morgan founds US Steel, the first $1 billion company, by merging Carnegie's steel company with some other dude's

The East & South (Labor, progressives, and populists)

Mostly the east

Rise of Nativism

1865 - 1914
  1. In response to all these new immigrants who did not assimilate and instead formed their own miniature non-American towns, many Americans became Nativists--people who did not like new immigrants or Catholics, and believed that old-stock Americanism is best.
  2. In response to immigrants taking up so many labor jobs, almost all labor organizations did not like immigrants (Chinese Exclusion act!)

Urban population increases massively

1865 - 1914
  1. Lots more peoples in cities
  2. Many came from rural American or rural Europe (farms required fewer workers due to mechanization)
  3. A belt of manufacturing formed in the NE

Immigration increases massively

1865 - 1914
  1. Largest influx of immigrants ever: 26 million during this period (26 million = 75% of 1865 population)
  2. They were almost always poor, worked as unskilled labors, formed their own neighborhoods, and faced discrimination
  3. They often formed their own communities
  4. They usually kept part of their old culture (did not assimilate)
  5. This led to nativism

Social darwinism, the Gospel of Wealth, and Robber Barons

1865 - 1914

The concentration of power and wealth during this time scared lots.
1. Many were social darwinists, who said it's OK because the poor obviously aren't trying hard enough and pure competition will benefit society
2. Carnegie's idea that the wealthy have an obligation to contribute to society with the great wealth (eg. donate to schools)
3. Many disapproved of the new super-rich, calling them greedy thieves

Political machines

1865 - 1914
  1. Politicians catered to poor folk, businesses, immigrants, etc. 2.5. They knew how to push the right buttons to get stuff done
  2. This corrupt practice did not help poor people.
  3. Marcy Tweed

Size of cities increase and geography changes

1865 - 1914
  1. Steel allowed building to get taller
  2. Street cars allowed them to increase in area

3. Railroads allowed wealthier people to live away from city in suburbs

  1. Now (sub)urban geography changed and became more specialized and based on purpose and economic status (slums, rich neighborhoods)
  2. Quality infrastructure could not keep up

Labor force increases massively

1865 - 1914
  1. After the civil war, the labor force more than doubled
  2. These workers often came from rural areas. Because of the growing economy they needed even more workers, which is why immigration went up.

Horatio Alger's Ragged Dick becomes big, despite inaccuracies


Horatio Alger was a popular author during this era. He portrayed America as a rags-to-riches place, but his depiction was inaccurate. Most rich people came from upper or middle class families.

The Knights of Labor

1869 - 1890
  1. Prominent labor organization in the 1880s,

Women see some improvements

1870 - 1914
  1. The idea of the Cult of Domesticity declined
  2. The role of women in professional areas increased
  3. Both of these in part due to increased education opportunities
  4. Women were involved in reform quite often

Improvements to Education

1870 - 1914
  1. Mandatory attendance in North and West
  2. Many states required free textbooks
  3. Enrollment increases
  4. Curriculum modernizes etc.

Populist movement

1874 - 1914

not sure on dates?

The populist movement was started by poorer southern farmers who:
1. Called for nationalization or railroads (they did not like big business)
2. Lower tariffs
3. Lower lending rates
4. Increased inflation to pay for debt
5. Some other stuff. Populists today are 'anti-elite' peoples

Great Strike of 1877

  1. Large protests by railroad workers occurred across the country
  2. They were stopped by the military (demonstrating how the government was on the side of business)

Stalwarts and Half-breeds

1880 - 1914

not sure on the dates?
1. The Republican party split into two factions due to the patronage/spoils system:
A. The Stalwarts, led by Roscoe Conkling, favored the patronage system
B. The Half-Breeds were more progressive in that they supported a merit system

Immigrants from Southern Europe

1880 - 1914
  1. In the late 19th century (about the 1880s+) immigrants came increasingly from Southern Europe instead of Eastern Europe.
  2. These immigrants were viewed even more negatively and they fueled Nativism even more

Chinese Exclusion Act


Idea from Labor..... Linked to Nativism

Pendleton Act 1883

  1. Reform by progressives and others (like Mugwumps)
  2. Awarded government positions based on merits
  3. Made in response to the spoils system/patronage

2500+ lynchings and Ida B. Wells

1885 - 1900
  1. Southern whites did/do not like black people
  2. KKK on the rise during this time
  3. Ida B. Wells was the prominent anti-lynching figure

AFL and Sam Gompers

  1. Founded by Sam Gompers with disaffected people from the KoL

Dawe's Severalty Act 1887

  1. This act broke up Native American reservations into individual farms for Natives. Left over land was sold to the US gov't to fund schools for Natives. Natives usually did not get the best land.

Interstate Commerce Act 1887

  1. Reform by populists?
  2. First federal legislation to regulate private industry (the railroad companies and their monopolistic practices)

The 2nd Mississippi Plan and the Atlanta Compromise

1890 - 1895
  1. Mississippi plan: Poll taxes and literacy tests to prevent blacks from voting.
  2. Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise told blacks to accept discrimination and work harder

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

  1. Reform by progressives
  2. Not initially effective at stopping monopolistic behavior

Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives

  1. The realities of this 'muckracking' novel shocked people

Settlement houses

1890 - 1914

"by the 1890s..."
1. Settlement houses were run by college kids. Initially by men, later by women
2. They tried to combat poverty
3. Many were religious (social gospel)

Homestead and Pullman strikes

1892 - 1894
  1. They both fail (due to federal assistance)
  2. and lead to the fall of some union

Plessy v Ferguson and more disenfranchisement

  1. In 1896 the US Supreme Court upheld segregation (Separate but equal....)
  2. Around this time blacks faced disenfranchisement and violence

Upton Sinclair's The Jungle

  1. Very influential book by socialist that revealed what life was like for the working class
  2. Led to the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Meat Inspection and Pure Food/Drug Acts


Passed by progressive in response to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle

16th and 17th amendments


Both of these amendments were ideas by Progressives.
16th: for fairer taxation
17th: to stop corruption in Senate elections

Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914



The West

Homestead Act of 1862


Law passed by Republicans (who were proponents of using federal lands like this to expand the economy) that gave 160 acres of FREE land to anyone who would live there and farm on the land. Even though the land was free the farming wasn't always easy. This law is very important to the expansion of the west (48 million acres of land were given away with this act).

First Transcontinental Railroad

1863 - 1869

Authorized by the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862. Very important for expansion of the west. This is one of the economic things Republicans did during the war. Others include:
Higher protective tariffs.
Support for higher education (Land-Grant College Act).
Land grants to railroad companies.

How RRs got better

1865 - 1900
  1. After 1869 the West and East were finally connected
  2. By 1893 four lines connected the West and East
  3. Mileage of rails increased 5x
  4. Lots of grants