Industrialization (technological and corporate advancements), labor and progressivism (progressive era!) → reforms, corruption (the gilded age), and westward expansion
Mostly the east
"there were short recessions in the 1880s and early 1890s"
Although there was lots of growth, the economy wasn't completely stable during industrialization.
(by the late 19th century)
1. New inventions are all over the place (vacuums and stuff!)
2. More and more inventions use electricity
3. Technology has become/is becoming very important in farming (very important)
Morgan was known for 'Morganization', especially of railroads. This included horizontal integration (ie. taking over competition, mergers), simplifying corporate structure, and stopping risky decisions.
Mostly the east
The concentration of power and wealth during this time scared lots.
1. Many were social darwinists, who said it's OK because the poor obviously aren't trying hard enough and pure competition will benefit society
2. Carnegie's idea that the wealthy have an obligation to contribute to society with the great wealth (eg. donate to schools)
3. Many disapproved of the new super-rich, calling them greedy thieves
Horatio Alger was a popular author during this era. He portrayed America as a rags-to-riches place, but his depiction was inaccurate. Most rich people came from upper or middle class families.
not sure on dates?
The populist movement was started by poorer southern farmers who:
1. Called for nationalization or railroads (they did not like big business)
2. Lower tariffs
3. Lower lending rates
4. Increased inflation to pay for debt
5. Some other stuff. Populists today are 'anti-elite' peoples
not sure on the dates?
1. The Republican party split into two factions due to the patronage/spoils system:
A. The Stalwarts, led by Roscoe Conkling, favored the patronage system
B. The Half-Breeds were more progressive in that they supported a merit system
Idea from Labor..... Linked to Nativism
"by the 1890s..."
1. Settlement houses were run by college kids. Initially by men, later by women
2. They tried to combat poverty
3. Many were religious (social gospel)
Passed by progressive in response to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Both of these amendments were ideas by Progressives.
16th: for fairer taxation
17th: to stop corruption in Senate elections
Law passed by Republicans (who were proponents of using federal lands like this to expand the economy) that gave 160 acres of FREE land to anyone who would live there and farm on the land. Even though the land was free the farming wasn't always easy. This law is very important to the expansion of the west (48 million acres of land were given away with this act).
Authorized by the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862. Very important for expansion of the west. This is one of the economic things Republicans did during the war. Others include:
Higher protective tariffs.
Support for higher education (Land-Grant College Act).
Land grants to railroad companies.