The Avignon Papacy is also known as the Babylonian Captivity, the period from 1305 to 1377 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon (modern-day France). The period was one of great conflict and controversy during which French kings held considerable sway over the papacy, and rulers across Europe felt sidelined by the new French-centric papal court. The troubles reached their peak in 1378 when, having returned the papal court to Rome, Gregory XI died. A conclave met and elected a new Pope, who was Roman. This was against the wishes of French cardinals who held a second conclave electing one of their own to succeed Gregory XI; this alternative Pope, along with his successor, is regarded as a pretender to the chair of St. Peter by the Catholic Church. A series of ecumenical councils resolved the question of papal succession and declared null the french conclave of 1378, ending definitively the period of the Avignon Papacy.