European History

Overview

Europe's population doubles

1000 - 1300

Europes population doubles between 1000 and 1300, due to the new three-field system of crop production. This system increased the amount of arable land and, there fore, the food supply. This population growth causing there to be more people than there was food, greatly increasing the chances of hunger and starvation and weakening the immune systems of those who couldn't get enough food.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

The Avignon Papacy is also known as the Babylonian Captivity, the period from 1305 to 1377 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon (modern-day France). The period was one of great conflict and controversy during which French kings held considerable sway over the papacy, and rulers across Europe felt sidelined by the new French-centric papal court. The troubles reached their peak in 1378 when, having returned the papal court to Rome, Gregory XI died. A conclave met and elected a new Pope, who was Roman. This was against the wishes of French cardinals who held a second conclave electing one of their own to succeed Gregory XI; this alternative Pope, along with his successor, is regarded as a pretender to the chair of St. Peter by the Catholic Church. A series of ecumenical councils resolved the question of papal succession and declared null the french conclave of 1378, ending definitively the period of the Avignon Papacy.

The Hundred Years' War

may 1337 - october 1453

The Hundred Years' War was the long conflict between the king of France and the king of England from 1337-1453. This conflict set the power of the french monarchy against the ambitions of his vassals, who included the kings of England. the conflict started when Princess Isabella of France married kKng Edward II of England to ensure that this powerful vassal remained loyal to the french monarchy. When Isabella's brothers failed to produce a male heir to succeed the french throne, her son, King Edward III of England laid claim to the french throne. Edward decided to fight for his rights when french courts awarded the throne to a distant french cousin and other vassals joined in a series of battles for the french throne that stretched out over a century. Although caused by arguments within the monarchies, this war was also caused by a history of quarrels over Flanders and confrontation between the two nations on the high seas and in ports. France and England were two emergent territorial powers in too close proximity to each other struggling for national identity and the control of territory. The introduction of gunpowder and heavy artillery made this war much worse.

The Plague

1348 - 1350

"The Black Death"
Europes population had been weakened by urbanization and decades of overpopulation, economic depression, famine, and bad health, making it vulnerable to a virulent bubonic plague that devastated it's population.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The Great Schism was a split in the Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1418, during which time there were rival Popes in Rome and in the french city of Avignon, while France's enemy England and its allies supported the Pope in Rome. As a result of neither Clement VII nor Urban VI stepping down from the papacy, the church was divided, destroying the prestige of papacy. This split was ended after the other popes resigned and Martin V took over after the failed Council of Pisa and the semi successful Council of Constance.

Details

Pope Innocent decrees that clergy are to pay no taxes without papal consent

1215

Khan invades Russia

1223

Mongol armies devastated Russia and compelled the obedience of Moscow for awhile.

Kiev falls to the Mongols

1240

Russian cities became dependent, tribute-paying principalities in the segments of the Mongol empire known as the Golden Horde.

The First Council of Lyon

1245

The First Council of Lyon was the council of the Western Church in 1245 that excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and planned a new crusade against the Holy Land

The Papacy establishes the Rota Romana

1261

The Rota Romana was a law court in the papacy passed by Pope Urban IV which tightened and centralized the church's legal proceedings.

The Second Council of Lyon

1272 - 1274

This was summoned by Pope Gregory X to establish a system for papal election and set regulations for religious orders, making special considerations for fransicans and dominicans.

The Second Council of Lyon proclaims the reunion of the Eastern church with Rome

1274

France and England begin to heavily tax the clergy

1294 - 1296

Mobilizing for war, France and England used the pretext of preparing for a crusade to heavily tax the clergy.

Pope Boniface issues Clericis Laicos

february 5, 1296

Clericis Laicos forbade lay taxation of the clergy without papal approval and revoked all previous papal dispensations in this regard.

England denies clergy the right to be heard in Royal Court

march 1296

Edward I retaliates against the bull Clericis Laicos that forbade taxation of clergy without papal consent by denying the clergy the right to be heard in royal court, which removed them from the protection of the king.

France forbids exportation of money from France to Rome

august 1296

In France, Philip the Fair retaliates against Clericis Laicos by forbidding th exportation of money from France to Rome, depriving the papacy of the revenues it needed to operate.

Boniface gives France the right to tax clergy in an emergency

december 1296

After France's forbidding the exportation of money from itself to Rome, Boniface quickly responded by conceding Philip the right to tax clergy in an emergency.

Boniface gains back popularity in a "jubilee year"

1300

During jubilee year all Catholics who visited Rome and fulfilled certain conditions had the penalties for their unrepented sins remitted. Because many pilgrims flocked to Rome to get this privilege, Boniface seemed a forgiving and just man, allowing him to assert his political positions, such as his championing of Scottish resistance to England.

Boniface sends Ausculta Fili to Philip

december 1301

The bull Ausculta Fili or Listen, My Son was sent to Philip claiming that God gives the Pope more authority than kings.

Unam Sanctam

november 18, 1302

Unam Sanctum, Boniface's last desperate attempt at asserting papal authority while under the attack of increasingly independent nations, was another bull claiming papal authority over kings.

French forces attack Boniface

august 1303

French forces, under the instruction of chief minister Guillaume de Nogaret, surprise the pope at his Anagni retreat and proceed to beat him up and almost execute him before an aroused populace returns him safely to Rome.

England had evolved into formal parliaments

1307

By 1307 England had progressed from a feudal governmental hierarchy into formal parliaments, legislative law-making bodies to which members are appointed or elected.

Clement moves papal court to Avignon

1309

Pope Clenent V, a former Archduke of Bordeaux, fell under French subservience, declaring that Unam Sanctam was in no way meant to undermine the French royal authority. Avignon, on the southeastern border of France, was as close as Clement could go before encroaching on French land and uniting with the French king.

Avignon becomes Clement's permanent residence

1311

Due to French pressure and a strife-ridden Rome, Clement escaped to Avignon, making it his permanent residence.

Pope John challenges Louis' election in favor of a Habsburg candidate

1314

France had become an efficient, centralized monarchy

1314

Crop failures produce the biggest famine of the middle ages

1315 - 1317

Defender of Peace by Marsilius of Paddua

1324

Pope John declares the teachings of Marsilius heretical

1327

Pope Jon excommunicates William of Ockham

1328

Flemish cities sign an alliance with England

1340

English victory in the Bay of Sluys

June 23, 1340

Clement VI starts selling indulgences

1342

English victory and Crecy and the seizure of Calais

1346

The Plague appears in Constantinople

1346

King Edward attacks Normandy

1346

The Plague appears in Sicily

1347

A truce in the war

1347

Due largely to the spread of the Plague, both France and England agreed to a truce.

University of Prague founded

1348

The Plague enters Europe through Italian ports

1348

The Plague has reached Scandinavia

1350

Several Statutes passed by English Parliament

1351 - 1393

Several Statues between the years 1351 and 1393 were passed by English Parliament restricting payments and appeals to Rome and the Pope's power to make high ecclesiastical appointments.

English Parliament passes a Statute of Laborers

1351

Philip VI calls the Estates General to discuss the war

1355

English victory at poitiers

1356

The Jacquerie

1358

Peace of Bretigny-Calais

May 9, 1360

France end the Peace of Bretigny-Calais

1369

The Papacy is reestablished in Rome

january 1377

France has gained back most of the land it lost in the war

1377

The separate conclave elects Pope Clement VII

1378

13 cardinals form a separate conclave

september 20, 1378

Dimitri defeats Mongol forces1380

1380

Marriage of Anne of Bohemia to Richard II

1381

English Peasant's Revolt

june 1381

A revolt of the underprivileged classes.

Lollardy has become a capital offense in England

1401

John Huss becomes the rector of the University of Prague

1403

The Council of Pisa elects Pope Alexander V

1409

The Council of Pisa

1409 - 1410

Prague is placed under papal interdict

1410

Huss is excommunicated

1410

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Huss goes before the Council of Constance

1414

Huss is accused of heresy and imprisoned

november 1414

Huss dies at the stake

July 6, 1415

English victory at Agincourt

October 25, 1415

Burgundians join the war on the side of the French

1416 - 1419

The Council of Constance publishes the declaration Sacrosancta

1417

The Sacrosancta elects Pope Martin V and ends the reigns of the three contending popes.

the Burgundians join forces with the English

september 1419

the Duke of Burgundy is assasinated

september 1419

The Treaty of Troyes

1420

The Infant Henry VI is named in Paris King of France and England

1422

Joan of Arc leads the French to victory at Orleans

1429

Joan of Arc first presents herself to Charles VII

march 1429

The Burgundians capture Joan of Arc

may 1430

The Council of Basel

1431 - 1449

Joan of Arc's execution

may 30, 1431

Joan is executed by the Inquisition as a relapsed heretic in English held Rouen.

The Hussites of Bohemia present Four Articles of Prague

1432

The Hussites present Four Articles of Prague to the council of Basel as a basis for negotiations.

The Bohemians are given jurisdiction over their church

november 1433

The Duke of Burgundy makes peace with France

1435

Eugene goes around the council and negotiates a reunion with the eastern church

1438

The reunion between the Pope and the eastern church is signed

1438

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

1438

Constantinople falls to the Turks

1453

Joan's trial is reopened

1456

King Charles reopens Joan's trail and declares her innocent of all charges. The Roman Catholic Church declares her a saint in 1920.

Pius issues Execrabilis

1460

Ivan brings northern Russia under Moscow's control and ends Mongol rule

1480

Knit Pickings

Definitely not the most important information, but relevant nonetheless.

Boniface canonizes Louis IX

1296

Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio

1353

Boccaccio writes of the people's reactions to the Plague.

Rulers

Popes, Kings, Emperors, etc. Valois are in light purple, Bourbons are in light blue, Orleans are in light green, Tudors are in dark green

Prince Vladimir of Kiev

980 - 1015

Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev

1016 - 1054

Ghengis Khan of the Mongol Empire

1155 - 1227

Pope Innocent III

1198 - 1216

King Henry II of England

1216 - 1272

Pope Honorius III

1216 - 1227

King Louis IX of France

1226 - 1270

Pope Gregory IX

1227 - 1241

Pope Celestine IV

1241

Pope Innocent IV

1243 - 1254

Pope Alexander IV

1254 - 1261

Pope Urban IV

1261 - 1264

Pope Clement IV

1265 - 1268

The French King of Naples and Sicily Charles of Anjou

1266 - 1285

Pope Gregory X

1271 - 1276

King Edward I of England

1272 - 1307

King Philip IV the Fair of France

1285 - 1314

Pope Boniface VIII

1294 - 1303

Pope Celestine V

1294

Pope Benedict XI

1303 - 1304

Pope Clement V

1305 - 1314

King Edward II of England

1307 - 1327

Holy Roman Emperor Luois IV

1314 - 1347

King Louis X of France

1314 - 1316

Pope John XXII

1316 - 1334

King Philip V of France

1316 - 1322

King Charles IV of France

1322 - 1328

King Edward III of England

1327 - 1377

French King Philip VI of Valois

1328 - 1350

Pope Benedict XII

1334 - 1342

Pope Clement VI

1342 - 1352

Grand Duke Dimitri of Moscow

1350 - 1389

King John the Good of France

1350 - 1364

King Charles V of France

1364 - 1380

Pope Gregory XI

1370 - 1378

King Richard II of England

1377 - 1399

Anti-Pope Clement VII

1378 - 1397

Pope Urban VI

1378 - 1389

King Charles VI of France

1380 - 1422

Pope Boniface IX

1389 - 1404

Anti-Pope Benedict XIII

1394 - 1417

King Henry IV of England

1399 - 1413

Pope Innocent VII

1404 - 1406

Pope Gregory XII

1406 - 1415

Anti-Pope Alexander V

1409 - 1410

Anti-Pope John XXIII

1410 - 1415

Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund

1410 - 1437

King Henry V of England

1413 - 1422

Pope Martin V

1417 - 1431

Disputed King Charles VII of France

1422 - 1461

King Henry VI of England

1422 - 1461

Pope Eugene IV

1431 - 1447

Ivan II the Great of Russia

1440 - 1505

Pope Pius II

1458 - 1464

Henry VII of England

1485 - 1509

Tudor

Louis XII of France

1498 - 1515

Valois

Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Tudor

Francois I of France

1515 - 1547

Valois

Henry II of France

1547 - 1559

Valois

Edward VI of England

1547 - 1553

Tudor

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

Tudor

Lady Jane Grey of England

1553

Tudor

Francois II of France

1559 - 1560

Valois

Charles IX of France

1560 - 1574

Valois

Henry III of France

1574 - 1589

Valois

Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

Bourbon

Louis XIII of France

1610 - 1643

Bourbon

Louis XIV of France

1643 - 1715

Bourbon

Louis XV of France

1715 - 1774

Bourbon

Louis XVI of France

1774 - 1792

Bourbon

Napoleon I of France

1804 - 1815

Louis XVIII of France

1815 - 1824

Bourbon

Charles X of France

1824 - 1830

Bourbon

Louis-Philippe of France

1830 - 1848

Orleans

Napoleon III of France

1852 - 1870

Trends

General trends in events and thought.

Hundred Years' War is in favor of the English

1337 - 1415

English war effort lessens

1377 - 1413

King Henry V recommences the war

1413

Hundred Years' War turns in favor of the French

1429 - 1453

People

Important people that are not rulers.

Marsilius of Padua

1290 - 1342

John Wycliff

1320 - december 31, 1384

John Huss

1369 - july 6, 1415

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431