study for the midterm exam 1585 to 1877
The first elected legislature in the colonies. Two representatives from each plantation met with the Royal Governor and council to frame Virginian laws.
Sent a petition to King George II to repeal the Intolerable Acts. The Congress also ordered a colonial militia and aided non-importation agreements.
Selected George Washington as head of the colonial army and raised money, an army, and a navy.
This document helped create the “Spirit of 1776!” movement. Thomas Jefferson (the writer) wanted to declare independence for the colonies, to make a statement to the world (why people revolt) and to try and gain sympathy from the British. This was ratified on July 4th, but signed on August 2nd.
These documents were very weak, but held our country somewhat, and were placed after Revolutionary War. The 2nd Continental Congress drafted it (did not give much power to them because they can’t tax, enforce laws well, only 9/13 colonies had to agree on something to pass, etc.). One of the few good things they did was pass the Land Ordinances of 1785 and 1787.
After the Revolutionary War, America’s first form of government was under the Articles of Confederation. However, there was much disorder after these Articles were ratified in 1781, which was critical to determining how America’s government would shape up to be. This period ended after the Constitution was written (or possibly went into effect) because of the establishment of these final defining principles that the new country’s government would follow.
This representation plan was proposed by William Paterson, who wanted there to be a weaker national government and 1 house in Congress (equal number of representatives for all states). Smaller states advocate for this plan.
This representation plan was proposed by Edmund Randalf, who wanted there to be a stronger federal government and 2 houses in congress (representatives based on population). Bigger states advocate for this plan.
This was a compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey plans in the making of the Constitution (in the Constitutional Convention). Benjamin Franklin compromises, says there will be 2 houses, but 1 house will have representation based on population, and 1 house based on equal number of representatives for each state (2 for each state).
The two ordinances were passed under the Articles of Confederation and streamlined the process for a new state to be added to the United States.
• 1st President of the United States of America (Mr. President, 2 terms, cabinet, farewell address)
• Bill of Rights
• Whiskey Rebellion (shows Constitution will be followed)
• French Revolution (stays neutral)
• Citizen Genet Affair (Washington allows-breaking neutrality-then kicks Genet out)
• Jay’s Treaty (allows trade to Indies; first time a President uses Executive Privilege)
• Pinckney’s Treaty (opens Mississippi River and New Orleans to trade)
• Farewell Address (no alliances, no political parties, avoid international debt)
Washington had to set up a government that allowed for the nation to grow and become strong again, but at the same time, follow the foundations of the revolution.
Washington protected the people’s rights and also shows that the Constitution is no joke, and is willing to use force to uphold this.
This worried both sides (Feds and Anti-Feds) and hoped that the country wasn’t falling into monarchy. Overall Washington held the union together through the first 8 years after the war.
As an ardent Federalist, Hamilton believed in a strong central government. He wanted to consolidate the country's international debt, to help his rich buddies who had loaned the US money during the Revolution. He wanted full funding of foreign debt and an assumption of national debt.
The anti-federalists were not supporters of the Constitution because they believed it would give the President too much power over the common man. Thus, to limit the federal power, the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution were created and collectively labeled the Bill of Rights. They outlined the basic unalienable rights given to all citizens, such as the right of free speech and habeus corpus.
• XYZ Affair (failed attempt to smooth relationship with France)
• Built a large navy (and stopped Congress from building a huge army by not appointing generals to lead it)
• Alien and Sedition Acts (AA-harder to become citizen of U.S.; SA-illegal to speak out against the government)
• Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (first time states nullify Federal Government)
• Midnight Appointments
Adams also avoids war, after the French insulted America during the XYZ Affair. Adams also built a navy at this time. Adams also effectively keeps Americans calm during near war with France. Lastly, Adams passed laws such as the AA and SA which seemed to limit the rights of citizens and thus, were very controversial.
• 12th Amendment (run for Pres. Or VP)
• Revolution of 1800 (first switch in power)
• Wants small Gov (ends AA and SA, no excise tax, reduced debt, makes national road)
• Marbury vs. Madison (declares Jefferson’s actions to Federal judges unconstitutional)
• Louisiana Purchase (doubles size)
• Lewis and Clark (declares western border as the Pacific Ocean)
• Land Act (buy land on credit)
• Creek Wars (assimilation and American expansion)
• Embargo Act (threat to cut trade with France and Britain if they continue to harass American ships)
Jefferson wanted an agricultural America, or a rural haven, and believed in the common man. Jefferson also wanted a smaller central government and larger state government. This is why he attempts to get rid of Federalist judges. Jefferson believes in strict interpretation of the Constitution, but goes against that when he purchases the Louisiana Territory, but goes with his idea of expansion. Jefferson also allows for national roads, something the rest of his party didn’t believe in. With this new land, Jefferson made it easy to settle. This caused poor relations with the Indians and lead to the Creek Wars. Jefferson became less popular the longer he was President, especially with the backfire of the Embargo Act. Britain and France said ok to no trade and it devastated America.
If Britain and France don’t stop attacking US sailors, US will stop trade. Backfired - the US relied on European goods, caused damage to economy and merchants.
• War of 1812(last battle of revolution)
• Hartford Convention
• Treaty of Ghent (1814)
• Henry Clay’s American System (approves re-chartering the national bank, protective tariff, and wants an amendment for construction of western roads)
During Madison’s presidency, the “last battle of the revolution” (War of 1812) occurred. Then with the Treaty of Ghent, American independence was confirmed, begins an era of good feelings, and council created in attempt to stop future conflicts. Madison was very much a second Alex Hamilton.
• Monroe Doctrine (1823, declares Monroe’s foreign policy)
• Missouri Compromise (delays the decision of slavery in new territories)
Monroe set very specific goals for his foreign policy, including, no new colonies, America for Americans, and warns Europe of possible wars if they interfere. Turns out to backfire because America does not have the power blackmail the European powers. Lastly, the Missouri Compromise is a truce between slave and non slave sides.
No new colonies, Great Britain and America won’t interfere with each other, European interference would possibly cause US to go to war. Leads to US dominance in the Americas.
• Treaty of Ghent (ended war of 1812-before presidency)
• Valued education
• Antebellum period (industrialism-railroads, canals, and factory)
During his presidency, Adams turned the country to a time of growing industry, valuing his Federalist beliefs. This included education and expansion for resources. Large development in industry and infrastructure occurred during Adam’s presidency.
• 1st Western President
• Peggy Eaton Affair (extra-marital affair which resulted in her death)
• Vetoes (most ever)
• Tariff 1828 (gets passed and VP John Calhoun stands up and walks out!)
• Worchester v. Georgia (1832, Trail of Tears)
• National Bank (against his will, Jackson re-chartered the national bank)
• Panic of 1837 (after Jackson killed the bank by taking its funding away, panic spreads as economic slump ensues)
• Specie Circular (loans from the federal government must be in gold or silver-this started the panic because no one had enough now)
Gag Rule Passed in 1836
Jackson very much agreed with the beliefs of the west. Jackson’s presidency began with controversy from the Peggy Eaton Affair and on through his extensive amounts of vetoes. Jackson ran on the idea to impose a tariff but on the sole reason to gain some northern votes. In reality, he does not want the tariff but it gets passed. VP John Calhoun resigned and became irate and threatened that South Carolina may secede. In addition, Jackson booted Indians off their land so that whites could mine for gold in the case Worchester v. Georgia, which later is known for its “Trail of Tears.” Jackson despised the national bank, and thus, after re-chartering, Jackson took money from the national bank and put it in pet banks in the west. This later caused the Panic of 1837, which occurred when American currency became inflated, and no one could pay off their loans.
• Panic of 1837
• Martin Van “Ruin”
Takes the fault of all of Jackson’s actions, and thus, becomes one of the most hated Presidents in history. Nothing of major significance occurred.
• Closet Democrat (“Tippy Canoe”)
• Texas not part of Mexico or America
• Annexed Texas
After Harrison’s death, Tyler takes over and instead of embodying Harrison and fellow Whig ideals, Tyler is a closet Democrat and makes many decisions based on their ideals. Tyler steals Polk’s thunder by annexing Texas into America.
• Died of pneumonia after one month in office. (VP is John Tyler)
• Common Man President
Wasn’t able to do anything in office. But an 1812 war hero none the less. Prided himself for being of the common man, and was known for his log cabin and drinking hard cider.
• Texas (says 5 states if they want to be part of the Union)
• Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848-ends the war, gives America Texas and promises Mexican-Americans will be treated respectfully)
• Oregon Dispute (1846, 54-50 or fight, compromise at 49 degrees)
• Wilmot Proviso (1846, not passed)
Leader of America during the Mexican American War. Helped keep the country together and propelled them to a big victory. America gained a lot of land, including Texas, California, and everything in between. England had its eye on the land so it was important that America won it. This then begs the question of slavery in the new territory.
• Mexican-American War hero
• Dies in office
• Compromise of 1850 (California in as a free state, popular sovereignty for the rest of west)
• Fugitive Slave Law
Taylor dies in office, but is part of a very important plan called the Compromise of 1850, which allowed California in as a free state and opened the rest of the west to popular sovereignty. The south likes their chances now and this sets America on a crash course!
• Gadsden Purchase (1853, strip of land under New Mexico and Arizona bought to make a railroad)
• Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851, gives Indian protection and land)
• Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852, shows truth of slavery, the two sides on slavery beginning to split further and further)
Fillmore continued to grow the country and after the Gadsden Purchase, was responsible for the land of the continental United States. Fillmore also passes a law that gives Indians land for reservations and gives them protection. Finally, during his term, Harriet Beecher Stow’s novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, became a bestseller and the abolitionist movement grows.
• Kansas Nebraska Act (1848, K and N open to popular sovereignty but transcontinental railroad passes as well)
• Bleeding Kansas (1855-1856)
• Dred Scott decision (1857)
Pierce was in office during a period where tensions grew even further and violence occurred. Events in his term further divided the country and moved it closer to civil war, especially when he delayed the slavery decision by passing the Kansas Nebraska Act.
• Harper’s Ferry (1859)
• Secession(S. Carolina seceded before Lincoln was even inaugurated)
Buchanan has been known for doing pretty much nothing significant during his term.
• Lincoln Douglas Debates
• Secession (deep south first and struggle to keep border states)
• Suspends Habeas Corpus
• Emancipation Proclamation (1863, actually frees no slaves)
• CIVIL WAR
• Beginning plans or reconstruction (accepting the south)
• Assassination (became through death what he could never be in life)
• Copperheads (Lincoln’s opposition)
Lincoln faced a very hard task during the Civil War and his main goal was to preserve the union. Lincoln did not ever truly believe the South seceded from the Union and was not an abolitionist, as much as people believe he was. Lincoln was a great political speaker, and great at timing events, such as the Emancipation Proclamation after the battle of Antietam. Lincoln was one of the top presidents of all time for his Civil War contributions. And if it had not been for John Wilkes Booth, Reconstruction would have been much less controversial. Through his death, Lincoln became more than he could ever be.
• Reconstruction (Congress v. Johnson)
• 13th Amendment (1865, no slavery)
• Freedmen’s Bureau (aid to free blacks in time of need)
• 14th Amendment (1868, defines blacks were citizens)
• Reconstruction Acts of 1867 (military occupation of the South)
Johnson was in charge of Reconstruction, and since he was a southern sympathizer, his plan allowed the south to re-enter the union without much. Johnson faced a great deal of criticism due to his radical republican Congress, and thus it made it very hard for either side. Congress’ plan won out in the end and believed that Johnson was blocking their path. This lead to his impeachment.
• 15th Amendment (blacks get voting rights)
• Vote v. Property
• South returning to old habits.
Grant was a Civil War hero that became President. Grant was seen as a very moderate president during his terms, and furthered reconstruction with the passage of the 15th Amendment. However, the south was fading back to its old habits and anti-black groups were growing. In addition, Grant’s presidency was full of scandals that tarred his reputation. Overall, Grant’s moderation proved less effective for reconstruction, and after his presidency, the era ended.
With the election of Democratic Hayes, Reconstruction ends.
The Renaissance empowered monarchs to rise. They gained money to raise armies and began to fight each other over colonies.
Loose constitutionalists use the Elastic Clause ("the government may do what is right and necessary...") to propose things not specifically outlined in the Constitution, such as the formation of a national bank. Most loose constitutionalists were Federalists.
Strict constitutionalists believe that the government may only do something specifically written in the document, so they were against measures like the Bonus Bill of 1817. Most strict constitutionalists were Jeffersonians.
5 New England states discuss secession, want to reduce power of national government since Federalists are no longer in charge, fails and Federalist party dies out.
A system in Virginia to increase settlement. Any person who brought an indentured servant was granted 50 acres of land.
The British lack of enforcement of Parliamentary Acts, causing the colonists to believe that Parliament had no power over them.
Four acts that stated that the colonies could only sell and buy goods to and from English trading vessels.
England did not enforce these.
The Virginian Royal Governor decreed that the inland, poorer Virginians had to stop encroaching on native lands to avoid the costly battles. Nathaniel Bacon led a group of indentured servants (who wanted their own land to farm) against the natives.
The British Army then got involved to put down the uprising.
This marked one of the many class conflicts between the eastern, richer colonists (Tidewaters) and the inland, poorer folk (Piedmonts).
Marks another class conflict between the (poorer) Village of Salem and against the (richer) Town of Salem.
Put into place by women, these agreements called for the boycotting of British goods after the unfair taxes.
As an attempt to appease the Indians after Pontiac's Rebellion and remove war costs, the Proclamation of 1763 prohibited settlement past the Appalachian Mountains, but remained unenforced by the British.
A rallying cry of colonists against the taxes. They declared that it was not fair for Parliament to tax them, because there was no representation in Parliament for colonists. The English government replied that, as British citizens, all colonists had representation in Parliament (Virtual Representation).
Halved the duty on molasses, but was actually enforced. It also increased the taxes on non-British importations.
Prohibited the colonists from printing their won money (which controlled their trade).
A Act that originally forced the colonists to pay for the quartering of British soldier, but then was revised in 1767 to force the colonists to all British soldiers to stay in their homes.
An Act to regulation trade and raise money for the war debts by taxing paper goods (like documentation), sugar, and currency. The first direct tax, it was strongly opposed in the colonies and eventually repealed.
The Stamp Act Congress created a list of grievances they sent to the king after the Stamp Act in an attempt to cease the Stamp Act Riots.
Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, but declared that it has the power to tax the colonies: "have right and dominion over the colonies).
Placed a tax on other paper goods, glass, wine, lead, paint, and tea. It also disassembled the New York Legislative Assembly, because they refused to follow the Duties and the Quartering Act (1767).
This gave the British East India Company a monopoly on tea sold to the colonies (raising the prices on colonial and other imported teas). This led to the Boston Tea Party.
Angry colonists after the Tea Act dressed as Indians and attacked a shipment of tea, pouring tons into the Boston Harbour.
Closed the Boston Port with a navy blockade, ended town meetings, and took control of the Massachusetts government through martial law.
Important commerce states gather to discuss interstate commerce. Call for a more ambitious convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.
This rebellion shows the disadvantages of the Articles of Confederation (government should be better) and it proved to be a big catalyst towards the Constitution. Caused by angry, small farmers in Massachusetts mad about debt, heavy taxation, and the fact that many ex-soldiers never received their paycheck from the war, states had tried to print money for themselves, but it caused inflation.
Daniel Shays was a Revolutionary War captain who led the revolts (represented the common American that is struggling after the war). Federal troops fought against Shays’ followers.
The first bank of the United States was created by Alexander Hamilton in 1791 and was to be chartered for 20 years. In 1815, President Madison vetoes the bill for re-chartering the National Bank. However, in 1816, because of the debt from the War of 1812, the 2nd National Bank receives congressional approval.
Eli Whitney created the cotton gin, which allowed an exponential increase of the cotton production. The machine uses the same amount of slaves to do much more work in the same amount of time. Prior to the invention, corn, rice, and tobacco were the top crops produced in the south. However, plantations seized on the cotton gin, and cotton became king. this also was a smart environmental idea, because tobacco had stripped the majority of the nutrients from the soil. Cotton is much gentler on the ground.
Basically, Eli Whitney caused the amount of slaves in the south to grow as COTTON=KING!
Hamilton, as part of his financial plan, imposes and excise tax on several items, including whiskey. Grain farmers shipped their products as whiskey, because it was much cheaper and efficient to transport. Thus, because of the tax, the farmers began to rebel (think of tackling the old granny in the video). George Washington sent the army to put down the rebellion, showing that the federal government will support their laws.
Renaissance ended the Feudal System
Monarchies rise- they have the power to build armies and colonize
Line of Demarcation
1: Nationalism: to build up the mother country
2: Religion: to spread and convert religion, or to escape prosecution
3: Personal gain/wealth: the MOST IMPORTANT reason.
First British attempts at a colony
failed 3 times
England becomes a viable power. Also, the English Navy rises. Lastly, it interferes in the rescuing of the Roanoke Colony.
Over 80% of the colonists died, due to the fact that they chose to plant the cash crop, tobacco, instead of food crops, meaning they starved. Their relation with the natives soured, and there were wars.
The colonists began to depend on slavery more than indentured servants, and began to lower the amount of slaves' rights.
A war fought between Metacomet (aka King Phillip, an Indian guerrilla leader) and the New Englanders over colonists encroachment on native lands.
He led a group of settlers to the prison colony of Georgia, making it the 13th colony.
A war fought between the British (and the Iroquois) and the French (and their varied Indian allies). The British won by removing the French from Quebec, taking over their fur trading and reasserting control over the colonies.
This war, although mainly won through British troops, was a huge moral and nationalism boost for the colonists.
Pontiac, an Indian chief, joined with several other tribes and attacked the British forts in the west. The colonists retaliated by sending the natives blankets with smallpox.
A radical group of townsmen led be Samuel Adams who tarred and feathered unpopular officials and boycotted British goods.
An altercation between a group of colonists and a British squad. The mob threw rocks and the British fired, killing 11 (including black Crispus Attucks).
The English ship, Gaspee, was beached while looking for smugglers near Rhode Island. A group of onlookers cheered as the boat went down.
As a last-ditch effort to halt the war, this petition was sent to the King, but it was also rejected.
Common Sense and the Crisis Papers.
Two publications appealing to the common man in the colonies, explaining why going to war against the British was not committing treason, because the King had overstepped his power.
This was a defensive agreement between the United States and France, saying that if either country were at war with Britain, the other would offer support and aid to the that country (support each other against Britain).
A Frenchman, Genet, went to America during the French Revolution to attempt to gain money and support. This strained French and American tensions, because the United States had (controversially) declared neutrality. However, Jeffersonians, who supported France, supported Citizen Genet in his quest.
In the end, he was expelled from the country, but he returned. After, Genet was declared a persona non grata.
Ambassador John Jay was sent to England to get the British to leave Western forts (but they can still dominate fur trade), to stop impressing US sailors, and to give the slaves back (some were taken to England). However, this doesn’t happen. When the treaty was approved in Congress, Thomas Jefferson quits as Secretary of State after demanding to see documents and President Washington uses executive privilege to avoid showing the said documents.
After the US remained neutral during the French Revolution despite their previous alliance with the country, the US-France relation were sour. Thus, President Adams send three ambassadors to France to smooth things over. However, the French government sent three no-name men (X,Y, & Z) to greet the dignitaries, refusing their Americans' requests to see someone higher up. They demanded bribes from the Americans, causing two of the three ambassadors to leave. The third left a while later.
This affair marred Adams' entire presidency, and started a quasi naval war with France.
After the XYZ Affair, France and the US fought a quasi war in the seas, but it was never officially announced.
After the XYZ affair, tensions in America rose. John Adams used this time to push through four acts that work against the Jeffersonians. The three Alien Acts increased the time it takes to become a US citizen (from 5 to 14 years). The Sedition Act made it illegal to speak against the government (which, coincidentally, is against the Bill of Rights. Just sayin').
These acts not only angered the Jeffersonians, but also the Federalists, which basically ensured that Adams would not be reelected.
Decrees made by British in French Revolution instilling commercial warfare, harmed trade with neutral countries.
A newspaper editor was taken to court for seditious libel against a royal governor, but was acquitted. The trial raised questions over the freedom of speech and the press.
The idea that the courts were to decide whether acts were constitutional or not was established in the court case of Marbury v. Madison. This aids the system of checks and balances between the three governmental branches.
Martin Luther challenges Catholic Church over who holds the authority. Eventually, Lutheranism was born. John Calvin originated the idea of predestination, which was then found in Puritans and Pilgrims.
King Henry VIII revolted against the Catholic Church and created the Anglican Church.
Led by William Bradford, this group of separatists fled religious persecution in England to settle in Massachusetts. They were overtaken by the Puritans in the 1630s.
They signed the Mayflower Compact, and agreement to obey the law of the majority.
Led by John Winthrop, these colonists also left England to create a “shining city on a hill” because they wished to purify the Roman Catholic Church.
They believed in a hard work ethic and predestination, living in a theocratic, communistic society that expelled any non-Puritan beliefs and believers.
They offered free public schooling and town legislative meetings.
Almost 25,000 Puritans migrated to the colonies to escape King Charles I's persecution.
A Puritan dissenter, Williams wished to separate the Church from the government. Eventually, he left the Puritans to create the Colony of Rhode Island.
Another Puritan dissenter, Hutchinson preaches against predestination and for women's rights and individualism. She left to join the Rhode Island Colony.
A temporary alliance between the Puritan colonies in New England, made so that they could defend themselves in the Pequot War against the natives.
A group of people led by William Penn to Pennsylvania who believed in women's rights, pacifism, democracy, and complete religious freedom. All men could vote (regardless of property) and trial by jury was guaranteed. They were against predestination and for individual religion.
The Puritan society was becoming more merchant-like and less religious, so the church issued the Halfway Covenant, which allowed the children of church members to join the church even if they had not had a conversion.
A religious revival, using sermons to frighten people in to taking religion seriously. It focused on the idea that a person takes responsibility for their own salvation (straying away from the previously accepted predestination).
A group of Scots-Irish settlers in the west who marched to Philadelphia to complain about the local Indians after the French and Indian War and Pontiac's Rebellion.
A black, female poet whose works were enjoyed by George Washington.
This is the treaty that ends the Revolutionary War. In Europe, John Jay, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin agreed with England that the colonies are free and independent, the new country formed goes from the east coast to east of the Mississippi River (excluding Florida because Spain got involved), colonies gain fishing rights in Canada, British agree to leave forts they had in the West (they don’t do it), and colonists now have to protect the right of Loyalists (they don’t do it).
The predominant way women are viewed in society after the Revolutionary War: women are to raise children with republican values of democracy. This was a step forward, because it gave women new responsibilities to train the new leaders of the country, but it also was a large step backwards, as it declared a women's place to be in the house and raising the children, and not as a viable partner to a woman's husband.
Some lived in small tribes
Others in Large kingdoms
Some matriarchal/patriarchal Patriarchal
Slavery=opportunities to be free Chattel slavery
This compromise decides if slaves do or do not count as a person. The south wants the slaves to count as a person so they get more representation in Congress, but taxes are also based on population. Then, the south would want the slaves to not count. In the end, Congress resolved that a slave counts as 3/5 of a person.
A free African-American scientist, surveyor, almanac author and farmer. He also was the first African-American scientist; abolitionists praised his works.
Slave rebellion in Virginia, put down, shows consequences of depending on slavery. Frightens the southerners into tighter restrictions on slavery.
Wants to send free blacks to Africa- to Liberia.
Very diverse: each tribe differed depending on region
Usually either farmers of hunters
Limited technological advances (not pottery wheel or iron smelting)
Polytheistic (nature spirits, etc) Monotheistic
Land is not owned Fencing and handing down of land
Matrilineal & Patriarchal Patriarchal
Trade=economic & alliance-like Trade=ONLY economic