Vedic texts & Upanishads (more philosophical and includes critique of rituals in the Vedic texts)
Chandragupta rules w/ efficient bureaucracy
bld. roads & harbors
govt owned factories + shipyards
law enforced thru royal courts, secret police
women served as palace guards
converts to Buddhism
rule by example (ahimsa)
bld hospitals, shrines, travelers' homes
pillars for edicts
rule based in Hindu philosophy
tolerates other faiths
economy = farming + trade
wheat rice sugar cane
trade (w/E. AFrica, Middle East, SE Asia):
cotton cloth pottery metalware
Education in Hindu + Buddhist centers/ universities:
math, medicine, physics, language, lit +
ex: Buddhist University @ Nalanda
created "arabic numerals"/ zero/ decimal system
+Architecture (Hindu temples + Buddhist stupas)
+Literature (ex: Kalidasa)
Aryan society divided into varnas related to occupation.
Hinduism needs to be understood as a set of parallel practices.
It incorporates :
ritual practices + Vedas + Upanishads + devotional practice
Hindus choose 2 include / exclude bits & pieces dep on context
The exact date for the foundation of Hinduism is unknown. There is no single person who started the faith. As the texts began as oral history, dating of written scripture does not indicate an origin.
Four Noble Truths
1. Suffering exists
2. Suffering is caused by desires
3. The way to end suffering is to give up all desires
4. The way to give up desires is to live according to the Eightfold Path
Right: Understanding, Purpose, Speech, Action, Occupation, Effort, Mindfulness, Concentration
Part of the Dharmashastra
outlines caste rules & rituals (2 forgive mistakes)
rules for Brahmins
Laws 4 women = more strict
critiqued even @ the time it came out
may or may not have been used by governments
Historians do not know when Kalidasa lived. They guess it is sometime in the 4th or 5th century. His poetry and plays are in sanskrit and often deal with themes related to Hinduism.
"Look to this day:
For it is life, the very life of life.
In its brief course
Lie all the verities and realities of your existence.
The bliss of growth,
The glory of action,
The splendour of achievement
Are but experiences of time.
For yesterday is but a dream
And tomorrow is only a vision;
And today well-lived, makes
Yesterday a dream of happiness
And every tomorrow a vision of hope.
Look well therefore to this day;
Such is the salutation to the ever-new dawn!"
Yu the Great = ?founder
legends > public works
For more, see: http://history.cultural-china.com/en/46History569.html
Mandate of Heaven
feudalism = wealth/power in LAND
king owns all the land (distributes to loyal nobles)
capital @ Chang'an
constant battle btween powerful states
time of the "Hundred Schools of Thought"
Zhou tenuous hold on power
strong feudal lords vie 4 power
Qin Shihuangdi emerges as victor o' Warring States
Legalism sets tone o' empire
Etching praising Qin's rule:
Qin + Lisi -> burn books
C. scholars protest -> Qin + Lisi execute ~460 scholars
Wu Di = "the Martial Emperor"
Silk Road flourishes under his rule
Focus on defense (esp vs. the Xiongnu people o' the north & west)
Sends Zheng Qian to form alliances w/nomadic groups
aka Chang Chien, Chang Chi'en
Emperor Wu sends Zhang Qian 2 Yuezhi ppl for an alliance against Xiongnu people.
ZQ kidnapped by Xiongnu... adventures ensue
For quotes, see: http://www.quotationspage.com/quotes/Lao-tzu
Confucianism develops >
5 Basic Relationships
Filial Piety key
Book= the Analects
+influence on Qin
Law based on harsh punishment and just reward
sister to Ban Gu (32 - 92 ce)
court historian in Han
Ban Zhao completes "Han Annals"
advisor 2 Empress Deng (regent 4 son)
writes the Nu Jie aka "Lessons for Women"
For summary and text see: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/core9/phalsall/texts/banzhao.html