Estonian Historical Events

Mostly centred around the years between 1935-1950

Estonian Events

Independence Demonstration

04/08/1917

"On 8 April 1917, Estonian organisations and military personnel totalling 40 000 people held a demonstration in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) in support of Estonian self-government. "

Provisional Gov. Handed to Estonians

04/12/1917

"The Russian Provisional Government signed the Law on Estonian Autonomy, which united the Livonian counties of Tartu, Võru, Viljandi, Pärnu and Saaremaa with Estonia. For the first time an Estonian, Jaan Poska, was appointed as a Provincial Commissioner of Estonia."

Estonia is declared independent

02/24/1918 - 08/05/1940

After Russia had underwent a communist revolution, Estonia had decided to break free of the grasps of the empire. However, it was only until 1920 that Estonian independence was recognized, and after the 1939 Soviet-Nazi pact, Estonia was near fated to become reincorporated into a new Russian Empire

Republic of Estonia declared

02/24/1918

Proclaimed in the city of Tallinn. This proclamation would later have to be defended against by both Bolshevik Russia and the German Empire

Estonian War of Independance

11/28/1918 - 02/02/1920

The Estonian War of Independence, during which Estonia and its allies (Great Britain, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, the Baltic Germans, Russian and Jewish volunteers) fought against the attacking Red Army and the Baltic Landeswehr.

No enemies

02/24/1919

By February 24th, 1919, all enemy armies in Estonia had been marched out

Final Bolshevik Counterattack

01/30/1920

Estonian-Soviet peace treaty is signed

02/02/1920

Signed in Tartu, the treaty concluded that Estonia was now an independent state.

Cmnst. conspiracy fails

12/01/1924

On Dec. 1st, 300 communist conspirators, mostly Russian, tried to hijack Estonian communications to call in Soviet troops. This failed, and resulted in the Communist Party of Estonia being outlawed.

Soviet–Estonian Mutual Assistance Treaty is signed

09/28/1939

Although the treaty in word promised to reasses the independence of the two nations, the treaty in practice allowed the USSR to establish a military hand in Estonian bases

Estonia is occupied by USSR

08/06/1940 - 08/31/1941

Although the ending of the first Soviet occupation of Estonia is ambiguous, I marked it here as the end being when Nazi Germany occupied Tallinn, although several other parts of Estonia were occupied before and after.

Ind. Day Rebellion

02/24/1941

Rebellious activities such as raising Estonian flags and handing out political leaflets occurred - such a wide showing of rebellion will not be seen for a few decades

FB Strike

06/06/1941

A Forest Brothers group blew up a section of railroad track, derailing a Destruction Battalion unit

First Mass Deportation

06/14/1941

Over 10,000 people were deported from Estonia in this single night to Siberian work camps

Nazi, Soviet forces clash

06/22/1941 - 08/31/1941

Hitler broke the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact by entering into Soviet-occupied land on June 22nd, 1941. In response, Stalin asked for a "scorched-earth" policy, creating specialized destruction brigades to burn the land. This policy resulted in several Estonians fleeing to protect the forest they loved. This is the beginnings of the "forest brothers"

Estonia is occupied by Nazi Germany

09/01/1941 - 09/16/1944

Soviet Attack near Narva

02/14/1944

"A special Soviet army unit that landed near Narva on February 14 had been instructed to eliminate all the civilians it encountered as potential enemies. Before their attack was stopped, this unit succeeded in murdering a large number of civilians, including a young woman and her infant. Although the Red army units sweeping into Estonia in the summer and fall of 1944 had no such instructions, they unleashed acts of unspeakable terror on the local population...Pillaging and looting were common, as well as the rape of captured women." War in the Woods

Soviet Air Raid on Tallinn

03/09/1944 - 03/10/1944

"On 9 - 10 March 1944, the Soviets carried out a large-scale air raid on the capital, Tallinn, inflicting serious damage in the central part of the city and causing a large number of civilian casualties. "

Soviet, Nazi forces clash

09/17/1944 - 09/22/1944

"Hitler ordered the evacuation of Estonia on 16 September 1944. On the next day, the Red Army began a fresh offensive. From 17 until 22 September, Estonian units serving in the two opposing armies came face to face, resulting in bloody armed clashes between fellow countrymen."

Estonian Gov.

09/18/1944 - 09/25/1944

"The Estonian Government, which was able to function for only eight days (18 – 25 September 1944), left Tallinn just prior to the Red Army's arrival. Most cabinet members were later arrested by the Soviet authorities, and were subsequently deported to forced labour camps in Siberia. Acting President Jüri Uluots managed to escape to Sweden where he died shortly after his arrival. Before his death, he appointed August Rei as his successor, who, in 1953, in Oslo, appointed the Estonian Government in Exile."

Tank Massacre

09/21/1944

"In one incident on September 21, 1944, the commander of a Soviet tank unit that had just taken the northeastern Estonian town of Kadrina ordered the murder of about twenty young Estonian men who had just surrendered without resistance. The troops lined up the bodies along the road and drove their tanks over them repeatedly, until there was little left of the young men." War in the Woods

Kose Incident

09/22/1944

A similar incident to the Tank Massacre happened in the small town of Kose

Estonia is reoccupied by the USSR

09/22/1944 - 09/06/1991

Pärnu Falls to Russian Advance

09/23/1944

"Olaf Tammark recalls the autumn of 1944: 'Our reports said that Pärnu had fallen to the Russians on Sept 23, 1944. Those who came from the area said the coast was still teeming with refugees, although the last boats had already left.'" War in the Woods

Last Refugee Boat

11/21/1944

The last boat for those connected to the National Committee departed for Finland on November 21, 1944

Security Forces Raid

06/05/1945

"On June 5, 1945, a Security Forces unit conducted a raid in the Undriku-Manniku Village of Undla Parish in Virummaa County." War in the Woods

Estonian Independence shown in liberated cities

06/22/1945 - 06/24/1945

"On holidays dear to the Estonian people (Independence Day on February 24, Victory Day on June 22) the outlawed blue-black-and-white national flags were hoisted onto tall trees or buildings" War in the Woods

NKVD officers killed near Tallinn

07/02/1945

"On July 2, 1945, NKVD officer Babanin and poice officer Alumets were shot to death in Saue Parish near Tallinn, and polish brigadier Konigsberg was wounded. According to the latter's account, the three had gon the the Arujarve farm on...July 2 to arrest farmer Jaan Arujarve...they were attacked by two strangers...In Estonian the stalkers ordered "Hands up!"...The NKVD deputy Babanin drew a pistol from his holster and fired at one of the attackers, wounding him, but the bandit directed a volley at Konisberg...Konistber threw down his rifle and escaped by running thrugh the swamp and forest." War in the Woods

FB - Red Army attack

07/14/1945

"On July 14, 1945, four Red army soldiers were killed in an attack on a Red army unit in Virumaa County's Roela Parish near Kulina Village" War in the Woods

FB-Military Transport attack

07/24/1945

"On July 24, a military transport carrying three naval officers was attacked at Valgejoe in Harjumaa County. All three were killed." War in the Woods

NKVD Officers Shot, Killed

07/26/1945

"On July 26, 1945, in Tartumaa County's Lohusuu Parish on the Narva-Tartu road, two leading workers of the Leningrad NKVD Road Construction Administration were shot to death; their driver escaped." War in the Woods

Baltic-German Deportation

08/15/1945

"On 15 August 1945 the Soviet authorities arranged the deportation of more than 400 people to Siberia; most of them were of Baltic German descent. The reason for their deportation had nothing to do with their activity during the war, which was not even investigated. It was collective punishment, the deportation of an entire national group. As a result of this deportation, Estonia permanently lost one of its historical ethnic minorities—the Baltic German" - Estonia.eu (http://estonia.eu/about-estonia/history/soviet-deportations-from-estonia-in-1940s.html)

Veriora Parish Executives raided

11/02/1945

"On Nov 2, 1945, eight km from the center of Veirora Parish, a group of armed bandits, comprising six persons, stopped two trucks belonging to the Voru Consumers' Cooperative and the 22nd Rifle Division.
The bandits, seizing the trucks by force, drove them to the...building. Entering..., they killed the Baltic fleet's...sergeant major and woulded...Lieutenant Lyadin, three People's Defence soldiers, one peasant, and a local Komsomol leader from Valgamaa County. One of the bandits wore the uniform of a police lieutenant...the rest were in civilian clothes or mixed uniforms." War in the Woods

NKVD deputy killed

10/04/1946

"On the evening of Oct 4, 1946, a group of 15 FBs stopped a bus...allowed the passengers to dissembark and used no force against anyone...inspected everyone's identity papers. The target was...NKVD deputy weber...the Forest Brothers shot Veber" War in the Woods

Train Heist

12/01/1948

"On...December 1, 1948, the most sensational train heist of the postwar period took place between Somerpalu and Kurenurme in Vorumaa County, its echoes reaching as far as Moscow" War in the Woods, p.85

Second Mass Deportation

03/25/1949

"Clandestine preparations lasted over two years and by March 1949, the occupation power was ready to carry out a new deportation. In the course of the operation that began on 25 March 1949, over 20 000 people – nearly 3 percent of the 1945 Estonian population – were seized in a few days and dispatched to remote areas of Siberia. The deportation was demanded by the Communist Party in order to complete collectivisation and “eliminate the kulaks as a class”. Nearly a third of those declared to be “kulaks” managed to evade their captors...other families were “grabbed” in order to “fill the quota.” The majority of the 1949 deportees were women (49.4%) and children (29.8%)" - Estonia.eu

Colonel Paul killed by FB attack

08/16/1949

"On August 16, 1949, the Jarvamaa County security chief Colonel Paul fell victim to an ambush on the Tallin-Paide road. A tree in the roadway blocked the colonel's car. He was taken into a nearby thicket, informed of his sentence, and summarily shot to death." War in the Woods

Estonian Leadership

KP

02/24/1918 - 05/09/1919

Konstantin Päts was elected Prime Minister of the Provisional Government

OS

05/09/1919 - 11/18/1919

Otto Strandman was elected Prime Minister

JTo

11/18/1919 - 07/29/1920

Jaan Tõnisson was elected Prime Minister

AB

07/28/1920 - 07/30/1920

Aadu (Ado) Birk was elected Prime Minister

JTo

07/30/1920 - 10/26/1920

Jaan Tõnisson was elected Prime Minister

AP

10/26/1920 - 12/20/1920

Ants Piip was elected Prime Minister

AP

12/20/1920 - 01/25/1921

Ants Piip was elected the Head of State

KP

01/25/1921 - 11/21/1922

Konstantin Päts was elected Head of State

JK

11/21/1922 - 08/02/1923

Juhan Kukk was elected Head of State

KP

08/02/1923 - 03/26/1924

Konstantin Päts was elected Head of State

FKA

03/26/1924 - 12/16/1924

Friedrich Karl Akel was elected Head of State

JJ

12/16/1924 - 12/15/1925

Jüri Jaakson was elected Head of State

JTe

12/15/1925 - 12/09/1927

Jaann Teemant was elected Head of State

JTo

12/09/1927 - 12/04/1928

Jaan Tõnisson was elected Head of State

AR

12/04/1928 - 07/09/1929

August Rei was elected Head of State

OS

07/09/1929 - 02/12/1931

Otto Strandman was elected as Head of State

KP

02/12/1931 - 02/19/1932

Konstantin Päts was elected Head of State

JTe

02/19/1932 - 07/19/1932

Jaan Teemant was elected Head of State

KE

07/19/1932 - 11/01/1932

Kaarel Eenpalu was elected Head of State

KP

11/01/1932 - 05/18/1933

Konstantin Päts was elected Head of State

JTo

05/18/1933 - 10/21/1933

Jaan Tõnisson was elected Head of State

KP

10/21/1933 - 01/24/1934

Konstantin Päts was elected Head of State

KP

01/24/1934 - 09/03/1937

Konstantin Päts was elected Prime Minister in the Duties of the Head of State

KP

09/03/1937 - 04/24/1938

Konstantin Päts was elected Protector of State

KP

04/24/1938 - 06/17/1940

Konstantin Päts was elected President

JU

06/17/1940 - 01/09/1945

Jüri Uluots was appointed Prime Minister in duties of the President

AR

01/09/1945 - 03/29/1963

August Rei served as Prime Minister in duties of the President

AW

03/30/1963 - 12/23/1970

Aleksander Warma was appointed Prime Minister in duties of the President

TK

12/23/1970 - 03/01/1990

Tõnis Kint was appointed as Prime Minister in duties of the President

HM

03/01/1990 - 10/06/1992

Heinrich Mark was appointed as Prime Minister in duties of the President

External Events

This is a catch-all for influential events which happened outside of Estonia, but still affected it

WWI is fought

06/28/1914 - 11/11/1918

Russia undergoes revolution

02/23/1917 - 03/02/1917

The communist revolution occurred during the reign of Czar Nicholas II, and was led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, who rallied factory workers in Petrograd to abdicate against the Russian aristocracy.

USSR ends western negotiations

08/21/1939

"On 21 August 1939 the USSR ended negotiations with Great Britain and France and chose a side, commencing to split Central and Eastern Europe into spheres of influence between the USSR and Nazi Germany."

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact is signed

08/23/1939

This pact was signed between dictators Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Joachim von Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Ribbentrop, denoting various parts of Eastern Europe to either the USSR or to Nazi Germany. Estonia was assigned to the USSR

WWII is fought

09/03/1939 - 05/08/1945

This representation of the war only includes the fighting in the European theatre. The war began when Hitler's Germany invaded Poland, and Great Britain and France declared war. The mainland war ended when Germany signed its surrender after Berlin was sieged by USSR forces

Winter War is fought

11/30/1939 - 03/13/1940

The war between Russia and Finland, generally referred to as the Winter War, lasted from November 30th 1939 to March 13th, 1940. The Winter War was a direct result of the Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact of August 1939. The public face of this treaty was a ten-year period of non-aggression between Nazi Germany and Stalin’s Russia. There was a secret side to it however, which stated that Russia would attack Poland in September 1939 and would have more rights to determine its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.

Atlantic Charter signed

08/14/1941

"The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement first issued in August 1941 that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; free access to raw materials; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations. In the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, the Allies of World War II pledged adherence to the charter's principles." Wikipedia Article

Major LLKS-NKVD Battle

1948

"In 1948, some NKVD punitive troops stumbled on the location of one of [the LLKS] courses, and lost half their members in the resulting battle. A total of nearly 100,000 Lithuanian partisans...fought during the years of resistance." War in the Woods

LLKS declares itself dominant political/military governing body in Lithuania

02/16/1949

"On February 16, the 21st anniversary of the 1918 Act of Independence of Lithuania, the Union adopted a declaration proclaiming itself to be the supreme political and military authority in Lithuania." Wikipedia Article

Events of Novel

Kalev Rutkin is born

08/03/1901

Laura Sumaa is born

04/13/1911

Andrev Volda is born

09/14/1912

Nigul Laurits Born

11/19/1929

Eha Volda is born

01/16/1933

Laura goes missing, enters FB rebellion

10/17/1940

When Eha was the age of 9, Laura went missing and disappeared overnight to Eha and Andrev. Laura reconnected with Kalev after Kalev realises he was part of a squadron led by her father, __

Events of Novel Start (Ending Date Unknown)

03/17/1949 - 05/01/1949