Brain not heart central organ of sense. Cut nerve behind eye to understand optic nerve function. Dissect humans.
Observation and study of human body. Rational explanation for disease. Used chick eggs to study embryology.
Man rational - head of life. Can use animals. Recognised similarities between physiology in man and animals
First record of vivisection. Study of anatomy. Animals don't have a soul or mind so can't feel pain. Screaming mechanical response.
Only humans are rational, animals exist for human needs and have no moral status or soul.
Demonstrated blood circulation using vivisection. Public demonstrations. Caused a significant increase in vivisection.
Humanist philosophy. Soul distinguishes humans from all other animals. 'I think, therefore I am'. Beast machine - responses to pain are mechanical.
Public lectures and demonstrations involving vivisection.
Gladiators, animal slaughter, cruelty, entertainment.
Animals not rational but responsible for actions. People more worried about survival. Animals shared homes with people.
Renewed interest in science an philosophy.
Roman philosopher, compassion for animals
Roman poets, compassion for animals
Patron saint of animals
Criticism of vivisection - agony suffered by animals distorts results. Rejected Harvey in favour of earlier theories of Galen. 'The miserable torture of vivisection surely places the body in an unnatural state'.
Writer. Play 'The Idler'. Opposed to vivisection. Knowledge seldom obtained, and knowledge of physiology gained at expense of humanity.
'The question is not, Can they reason? nor Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?' Founding father of modern utilitarianism.
SPCA gains royal patronage from Queen Victoria. Objects to vivisection in 1850s and Queen Victoria also objects in 1874.
Now Battersea Dog's Home
Human autonomy. Actions are morally right in virtue of their motives - duty not inclination. The right actions are those that can be applied universally. Basis of animal rights.
Concern over welfare of animals. Convinced animal cost justified by benefits.
Concern over animal welfare - experimentation justified by benefits.
Five principles to govern animal experimentation. Eventually became basis of 1876 Cruelty Against Animals Bill.
Bentham's modern heir. Utilitarian. The Animal Liberation Movement. Speciesism.
Butcher cut off sheep feet and made them run through town. They were not his sheep.
Richard Martin (1754-1834) Offence to wantonly abuse animals that are the property of someone else. Can still abuse your own.
1772 - 1846. 'Others property' clause removed from Martin's Act.
of Animals in Scientific Procedures 1989
Founded Victoria Street Society for the Protection of Animals from Vivisection. 1898 - British Union for Abolition of Vivisection. Still exists today.
Founded by Richard Martin (1754-1834). Society of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
Extended Kant's theory of dignity to animal's.