Animals not rational but responsible for actions. People more worried about survival. Animals shared homes with people.
1350 - 1600
Renewed interest in science an philosophy.
Animals have Value
0106 BC - 0043 BC
Roman philosopher, compassion for animals
Ovid and Virgil
Roman poets, compassion for animals
Plutarch and Seneca
0004 BC - 120
St Francis of Assisi
1181 - 1226
Patron saint of animals
1614 - 1681
Criticism of vivisection - agony suffered by animals distorts results. Rejected Harvey in favour of earlier theories of Galen. 'The miserable torture of vivisection surely places the body in an unnatural state'.
1709 - 1784
Writer. Play 'The Idler'. Opposed to vivisection. Knowledge seldom obtained, and knowledge of physiology gained at expense of humanity.
1748 - 1832
'The question is not, Can they reason? nor Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?' Founding father of modern utilitarianism.
SPCA gains royal patronage from Queen Victoria. Objects to vivisection in 1850s and Queen Victoria also objects in 1874.
The Home for Lost and Starving Dogs
Now Battersea Dog's Home
1724 - 1804
Human autonomy. Actions are morally right in virtue of their motives - duty not inclination. The right actions are those that can be applied universally. Basis of animal rights.
1627 - 1691
Concern over welfare of animals. Convinced animal cost justified by benefits.
1635 - 1703
Concern over animal welfare - experimentation justified by benefits.
1790 - 1857
Five principles to govern animal experimentation. Eventually became basis of 1876 Cruelty Against Animals Bill.
Bentham's modern heir. Utilitarian. The Animal Liberation Movement. Speciesism.
Agitation for Anti-Cruelty Laws
Butcher cut off sheep feet and made them run through town. They were not his sheep.
Richard Martin (1754-1834) Offence to wantonly abuse animals that are the property of someone else. Can still abuse your own.
1772 - 1846. 'Others property' clause removed from Martin's Act.
Cruelty to Animals Act
Protection of Animals Act
Performing Animals (Regulation) Act
Pet Animals Act
Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966
Zoo Licensing Act
Animal Health and Welfare Act
Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986
The Code of Practice for the Housing and Care
of Animals in Scientific Procedures 1989
Welfare of Animals at Slaughter
Animal Health Act
Animal Welfare Act
1822 - 1904
Founded Victoria Street Society for the Protection of Animals from Vivisection. 1898 - British Union for Abolition of Vivisection. Still exists today.
Founded by Richard Martin (1754-1834). Society of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.