everything and anything you didn't want to know about history, besides the mongols
In the yellow river valley, very isolated; they believed themselves to be the center of the world. Developed horse drawn chariots, spoked wheels; were experts in bronze, pottery and silk; a decimal system and accurate calendar. Patriarchal and ancestor venerations
Believed in the Mandate of Heaven. Feudal, but the nobles broke off and became bureaucracies.
Started the Great Wall of China under Qin Shihuangdi/ Qin Shi Huang. He unified the feudal parts and standardized everything (and you better have listened or you were killed) Patriarchal, used Legalism
Under Wu TI (Warrior Emperor) used the Silk Road to trade and they gained Buddhism, but were mainly Confucius (invented the exam that led to a stable government). Invented paper, accurate sundials and calendars.
Wang Mang had some good ideas, but ended up killing China. Also he used the Mandate of Heaven to take over.
This clan was the first and only dynasty, as in its still going on. Used divine right
Religion: Shinto; similar to Hinduism where you want to become part of THE being by being a good person and such
Brought Chinese culture with them and it spread like wild fire
Expanded China. Known for its poetry. Built canals.
Had this thing called a tribute system where all the tribes around China were like: China your awesome have some gifts (vassal states)
First and only woman in charge (Wu Zhao) though it had no impact for women rights, in fact foot binding became popular
Korea became a vassal-state which increased cultural diffusion and the Vietnamese people became a vassal state but they revolted all the time
Brought by Prince Shotoku who based it off Chinese ideas. However Confucianism did not take control (education isn't important, birth is!)
China's influence abated and this new family (Fujiwara) married everyone in the Yamamoto clan and they became REALLY powerful, so powerful that Japan turned feudal.
Same time as Europe, same principles
King: Emperor (had no power)
Shogun (had the real power)
Vassals: Samurai (followed Code of Bushido similar to Chivalry)
Known for its encyclopedias and history books (can they write one for us!)
PRINTING here!!!! Along with the beginnings of moving type (Effect: cultural diffusion even to the lower class who now had access to literature.
Gunpowder starts here, and a magnetic compass
Worked on canals for transportation
They pumped out iron like no other (also they produced steel)
Champa rice (origin: Vietnam) led to population increase
They avoided the Mongols.
Government: Traditional Confucian Principles, restarted the exam
Zheng He (Chinese Explorer) led fleets to Africa (long before the Europeans), but China became isolationists and failed to rule the world
Europeans though came searching for China, which had a weakened economy due to inflation of silver, and they set up a city called Macao.
Famine and peasant revolts along with the weak economy led to the Ming's downfall.
Portuguese set up trade, Christian Missionaries landed, Jesuits took control of a trading city.
Capital: Edo (Tokyo)
Western ideas were shunned
1600 Tokugawa Shogunate started a strict government and caste system
1635- National Seclusion Policy=secluded Japan and no travel in or out.
1640- Portuguese attempt to ask for openness he executed everyone of them
Religion: Buddhism and Shinto
Kabuki theater and Haiku became popular
You could call this the Japanese Renaissance
They were asked to help the Ming Emperor, but instead took over. The civil service exam led to class change as the Manchus looked for the best talent.
Conquered a lot of new land.
Controlled trade with Europeans
Commodore Mathew Perry (US) shows up in steam boats with this fancy technology and Japan realized how bad isolationism was for them because they were WAY far behind.
The US made the Treaty of Kanagawa which was an unequal treaty in favor of the US
Because of the treaty of Kanagawa Japan's citizens became resentful (like in China) and they kicked the shogun out, restored emperor Meiji, and started industrializing. They lost the samurai, but all men were required to join the military.
Through this they established equal trading rights with the westerners.
In 1895 they defeated China and became a world super power.
China lost Vietnam to France. Founded French Indochina
Japan becomes independent
Japan forces Russia out of Manchuria and starts its sphere of influence there.
Japan had gained a large amount of influence in Asia. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, which was a pact against communism in Russia, with Germany
1937- Rape of Nanjing in which Japan slaughters a lot of Chinese
Split into two
General MacArthur led the fight back and forth
Six Party talks occur to try to have peace (and not a nuclear bombing of the world), but North Korea left the talks
French tried to hold onto Indochina but Vietminh nationalists fought and the guerrilla warfare helped them upset France. Geneva Accord split Vietnam into North and South
Communists- Ho Chi Minh (used the Viet Cong for fighting)
Democratic- Ngo Dihn Diem (helped out by France and the US)
Vietnam unified as communist
Buddhists were frustrated over taxes and corruption in the government and they rebelled. This did not help because China had internal and external forces going against it.
China takes over British opium in Canton
The British won and forced China to sign the first of unequal treaties called the Treaty of Nanjing
Britain takes over Hong Kong in 1843 which created a colony
China is forced to open the land to Christian missionaries (probably why Christianity is illegal there)
Developed the start of spheres of influence in China
This guy claimed to be the brother of Jesus and led a rebellion and ALMOST won in tearing down the Manchu government
China resists, but the Brits win again.
This was a humiliating defeat and showed the world that China wasn't the super power they had thought. And thus starts internal rebellion
Attempted to stabilize the crumbling country
Taiwan leaves Chinese administration and Japan gets trade rights in favor of Japan
Boxers were Anti-Manchu, Anti-European, Anti-Christian, the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
They wanted everything that wasn't Chinese and the Chinese government out.
They failed , but China had to sign the Boxer Protocol, which made them pay for all it did to upset the Europeans and formally apologize
Three Principles of the People- nationalism, socialism, and democracy
Kuomintang/KMT which went against the leaders Three Principles of the People
Sun Yat-sen's successor (Chiang Kai-shek) makes the KMT the ruling party
In WWII the US gave the KMT money to defeat Japan
Foot- binding abolished, Chinese Examination system is eliminated
And most important: The first republic is established under Sun Yat-sen
Ruler: Mao Zedong led peasants
Zedong starts the People's Republic of China (Communist)
Which split Taiwan and China even though both think they are the real China
Goal: to become Marxist by vamping up the agricultural production
The people couldn't meet the quotas so they lied and many starved because of it
Mao was a purist which meant that he wanted China to stay communist and never stray
So he started the Cultural Revolution to rid China of all Western influences and schools were shut down and educated people were forced to work on farms. The Little Red Book was distributed
Deng Xiaoping becomes ruler
China's current government was set up
China implemented one child rules and social classes were abolished
Tiananmen Square massacre shut down political reforms
The economy was doing great
China creates special economic zones that are exempt from communist rules in which the "made in China" tag becomes very popular around the world
Khyber Pass was there only way out/ they were pretty isolated. Major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Had great plumbing for ancient civilizations. Polytheistic. Used potters wheel, grew cotton and made cloth (important trade item). Mysterious abandonment around 1900.
Brought by the Aryans developed into Hinduism
Took over the Indus Valley Civilization, used horses, were polytheistic and believed in reincarnation and wrote their beliefs in the VEDAS and evolved into Hinduism and the caste system.
Chandragupta Maurya unified Aryan kingdoms. Ashoka Maurya, however built the magnificent empire. They traded silk cotton and elephants (Colosseum) to the Roman Empire and Mesopotamia. Had powerful military. Ashoka, however, decided he hated war and became Buddhist. Ashoka had Rock and Pillar Edicts which told the Mauryans to live generous and righteous lives.
Chandra Gupta the Great (375-415) Developed pi and zero. Devised decimal system using the Arabic numerals 1-9. Hinduism became the major religion again and the caste system became rigid. Women lost all rights and child marriage became popular. This empire died out when the Huns invaded.
Islam takes over Hinduism in India.
If you weren't Muslim you paid a tax; and there was some definite fighting going on.
India flourished quite a bit with colleges and irrigation and architecture.
Babur defeated the Delhi Sultanate
United almost all of India.
Akbar (1556-1605) used religious tolerance (the western half of India was mainly Hindu.) and eliminated that tax on Hindus.
Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal (which is that fancy palace in Aladdin), but ended religious tolerance
Europeans arrived and started trading cities (Calcutta)
England took over India
There was this British East India Company that was headed by Robert Clive. Clive started a corporate army that conquered present day Bangladesh.
They also set up administrative regions in the Mughal Empire.
The Company used Indians for work and they were called Sepoys. In 1857 they learned that the bullet cartridges were greased with pork and beef fat which violated Muslim and Hindu beliefs and so they rebelled.
In 1858 the British Parliament took away India from the East India Company and India became a colony.
Bahadur Shah II (last Mughal ruler) was exiled and that was the end of the Mughal Empire
Queen Victory became Empress
educated Indians began to organize independence
Muslim League (1906) advanced Islamic Indians interests
Amritsar massacre helped the Muslim League gain support
Mohandas Gandhi helped India protest against Britain colonial rule. He taught passive resistance/civil disobedience. He also supported Muslim and Hindu peace
Muslim League thinks about Pakistan being a good new country name
India is freed after WWII
Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted to separate Muslim and Hindu people
Britain before they left split India into India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
This caused a hectic migration of people
The sides fight in Kashmir (along the borders)
Terrorism between the two nations increased in 2008 and both have nuclear weapons
Germanic tribe. Made Paris capital. Empire divided between his sons.
This Russian Prince who decided to change from paganism to Christian Orthodoxy. Important because when the Roman Empire split with religions it explains why Russia ended up different than the rest of Europe
Tatars were a group of the Mongols that the Russians joined/ were taken over and this further separated Europe.
Ivan III declared Russia free from the Mongols
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible/ Czar (Caesar)) united and expanded. Said if peasants (called Cossacks) conquered land they were free from their lords. He also was paranoid and executed anyone who might be a threat. After he died (he killed his son) there was no successor and feudalism made a comeback
Time of Troubles (1604-1613) All the predecessors killed each other.
Michael Romanov was elected and his Dynasty lasted
Peter the Great (1682-1725) Built first navy and westernized Russia
Catherine the Great (1762-1796) Continued expanding and obtained Territory around the Black Sea.
ruler of Russia and killed his own people
Alexander II created the Emancipation Edict which abolished serfdom.
Middle class started to form
Things like the Nutcracker and Swan Lake are created
In 1881 Alexander II was assassinated by The People's Will
His son attempted to shut down all anti-Russian things through Russification which required everyone to learn Russian and convert to Russian Orthodoxy
During Nicholas II (1894-1917) reigns socialism was becoming predominant. Nicholas went to war against Japan, but lost. A peaceful protest was started and Nicholas ordered his troops to fire (Bloody Sunday)
1906 the czar appointed a prime minister and the Duma (representation of the people) but the czar disbanded them every time they didn't agree.
The Czars end
a provisional government is set up, which shared power with local authorities (soviets)
The leader and the soviets disagreed on fighting against Russia
Lenin (Marxist) mobilized while the Soviets rallied with the Bolsheviks (socialist party).
Lenin creates his April These which appealed to the working class and the Soviets
Lenin nationalized and industrialized Russia
gave a lot of Russia's land to Germany and Russia dropped out of WWI
This led to the Red Army (led by Leon Trotsky) where the Bolsheviks attempted to stop those against the revolution
Created the New Economic Policy (NEP) which leaned towards capitalism
Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin reigns
Stalin starts his Five Year Plans using collectivization (which takes private agriculture and gives it to the government)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Stalin industrialized it through force
This improved the economy fast, but at the cost of lives
The Ottoman Empire died and the leader: Ataturk set up a westernized culture instead of an Eastern culture
Stalin assassinated many of his enemies and used a secret police force
many died of famine
Bottom line: Stalin killed a lot of people in the name of communism (cough cough totalitarian cough), but the economy improved
Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader (1985) and created glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring) of the economy
Private industry is allowed
Stopped the Great Purge
The SU splits into many different countries and did so peacefully
In Yugoslavia, though, the Balkans led an "ethnic cleansing" in which Bosnian and Albanian Muslims were raped and killed by Christian Serbians
In Russia Chechnya wanted to have their own Muslim country
Russia (on paper) is a Federal state very similar to the US's government
Boris Yeltsin (Russia's first President) resigned (1999)
Vladimir Putin (former K.G.B) is elected President twice and Prime Minister in 2008 which led to corruption and Putin becomes President a third term (2012) which might turn into a fourth.
The US watches Russia closely because of NATO and missiles and technology sales to Iran
Had little but olives to grow. City-states=polis. Main cities- Athens (center of Greece in economics and culture) and Sparta (militaristic, were relatively open). Athens had "the first democracy" Draco and Solon were these aristocrats that kept everything in Athens fair. Used slave labor. Polytheistic (Zeus and stuff)
Iliad and Odyssey.
Polytheistic (derived from the Greeks).Representative Republic. Social Hierarchy: Patricians (land owners), Plebeians (free men) and slaves.
Twelve Table of Rome was their code of law
Women had a good amount of rights
United all Greek city states to fight up against their common enemy. This included the battle at Marathon (yes this is where running the marathon came from). Even though it ended in a stalemate and with Athens practically destroyed; Greece delved into the Golden Age of Pericles.
Pericles was in charge (shocker!) Athens becomes important because this is when democracy was formed. The Parthenon was built! Delian League was formed (alliance among Greek city states) Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were in this time period. A2+B2=C2. Sound familiar? Well you can thank the Golden age for lots of math, science, art, theater and architecture.
Athens vs. Sparta. Sparta wins because of a plague and because they played on the offense. However, Sparta didn't last long as weak as it was.
Defeated Athens and the region. Philip (ruler) bore a son called Alexander (the Great)
Conquered Persia and all the way to the edge of India, splitting the empire into three (Antigonis, Ptolemaic and Seleucid. This Macedonian Emperor adopted Greek customs continuing Hellenism.
Rome won control of Sicily
Carthage (North Africa) vs. Rome
This guy Hannibal almost defeated Rome on elephants. But ended up being destroyed after the Romans gathered their forces.
The Roman Republic dies and Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar take control, but Caesar takes total control and then his senators all stabbed him to death in 44
Octavius, Marc Antony and Lepidus. Octavius takes total control, changes his name to Augustus Caesar and becomes emperor and settled Rome down starting a 200 year peace called Roman Peace (Pax Romana) where everything flourished
He split the Roman Empire into two parts, and attempted to revive the empire, but failed
Built Constantinople, and tried to revive the emperor but (wait for it) failed.
This occurred under Constantine who issued the Edict of Milan in 313 which stopped the persecution of early day Christians.
Religion: Orthodox Christianity
Money: standardized coins; extremely stable
Invaded by the Ottomans and that was the end of the Byzantine Empire
Attila and the Huns (not the same that invaded the Gupta Empire) tried to take over Germanic tribes and the Germanic tribes went into Rome and killed the emperor and the Empire deteriorated.
Justinian Code: kept ancient Roman government alive
Rome flourished: Hagia Sophia is a cathedral that still stands and shows all the architecture and size and mosaics to prove they were flourishing
Not Holy, not Roman, Not an Empire
Charlemagne (the descendent of Charles Martel) created the HRE
However it was not called this until Otto the Great (962) came into power.
The HRE was feudalistic. (had nobles and vassals and peasants/serfs in estates called fiefs/manors) They followed the code of chivalry
Came up with the three-field system (which helped the fields not be overused.)
In 843 the Empire was divided in the Treaty of Verdun between his grandsons.
Really ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, but its name lived on until 1806
William conquered Anglo-Saxon England (1066) These raids influenced the English Language (Hence why we have a German based language)
This king had the start of France because he had a small piece of land around Paris but everyone after him expanded it. The English had strong influence and control over France
The fight for the holy land between Christians and Muslims. Spread a lot of ideas and culture.
1096 ce- First Crusade started by Pop Urban because he wanted the Holy Land
1204 ce -Four more Crusades (generally unsuccessful) \
While religous reasons dominated the early crusades it also became a struggle for wealth and power.
Generally Important because they show that while nothing was ever conquered, change still did occur
Christianity: Roman Catholicism
A time between kings. Important because Europe's people were aligning themselves by language and each area took its own path. And Germany had its interregnum which led to city states instead of a strong centralized nation state
Created strict guidelines on church doctrine and heretics and Jews were persecuted.
Started the Latin Empire (1200ish- 1261) under a fourth crusade
In England this guy set up a strong monarchy
Led to the Parliament. It gave more rights to feudal lords
Wrote Summa Theologica which said that reason and religion could coexist
The date is rough; however it was an organized persecution of heretics. The church is sometimes knows as the Universal Church or the Church Militant because of dictator status
Spread from China to Europe. One third of Europe's population died. People lost faith in the church. Mongols had control of Asian Silk Roads over this time, which created more movement of trade (and disease) from Asia to Europe
Joan of Arc convinced the French leaders that she had been told by god that she was to free France. She made some progress but was later burned at the stake by the French, and this started the Hundred Year's War which ended in English freeing France from its influence. Then Bourbons (French Monarchs) unified France
Controlled trade in northern Europe. They all had the same prices so no matter where you went everyone was making a profit
Focus shifts from religious affairs to the present and reason.
You could call this the Roman and Greek throw back
Humanism (focus on well humans and their achievements)
The Medici financed art.
Architects of the day: Michelangelo, Brunelleschi
Artists: Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello (realistic human figures, used linear perspective)
Domes became big
Northern Renaissance Artists: Van Eyck and Albrecht Durer (portraitists) However they were very religiously motivated though (unlike Italy)
People started exploring because of these tools
Sternpost Rudder by the Han Dynasty
Lateen Sail by the early Roman Empire
Astrolabe by the Hellenic world
The Magnetic Compass by the Han Dynasty
Three-Masted Caravels which were large ships which were better for the LONG voyages
Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type and the printing press. Used vernacular.
Universities, Growing middle class, all these reformations led to time and the urgency to figure some stuff out for real.
Married Ferdinand which united most of Spain. They partnered with the church instead of fighting with it; This forced all Muslim and Jewish people to convert or leave the country. Started Spanish Inquisition
Grandson- Charles V Hapsburg (real big royal family) inherited a big empire (1519) like the Holy Roman Empire and in 1556 retired.
Ferdinand I became emperor next and after him Philip II (who took over Portugal) and continued the Spanish Inquisition, but Spain was dying.
Created direct trade routes without middle men
1488 Portugal and prince Henry the Navigator sponsors trip around Africa to Cape of Good Hope
1497 Vasco Da Gama rounds the whole continent to India
AMERICA now officially exists
Portugal and Spain drew a line that gave the east to Portugal and the west to Spain in the Americas. The west was much larger than they had assumed so Spain grew in power.
Erasmus: wrote In Praise of Folly which made fun for foolish political moves
Sir Thomas More: wrote Utopia which describes a utopia...
William Shakespeare: I trust in your intelligence to know this. However he's important because he really hit home Greek and Roman ideas and humanism etc.
AMERIgo Vespucci- South America. He found out the size of AMERIca and that America wasn't Asia.
Ponce de Leon- 1513 went looking for the fountain of youth in Florida (Spain)
Hernan Cortes-1519 landed in Mexico (Aztec Empire) and was thought to be a god (by Montezuma) and killed everyone who wouldn't cooperate, either by force or by smallpox. (Spain)
Vasco de Balboa- 1513 explored central America (Spain)
Ferdinand Magellan- 1519 sailed around South America and his crew was to first to circumnavigate the Earth. (Portugal)
Giovanni da Verrazzano- 1524 Explored North American coast (France)
Sir Francis Drake- 1578 circumnavigated the globe (England)
John Cabot- 1597 explored coast of North America (England)
Henry Hudson- 1609 looked for North-west Passage to Asia (Dutch)
Francisco Pizarro- 1531 Went looking for the Incas. Similar to the fate of the Aztecs. (Spain)
Michelangelo painted the ceiling (very famous)
This monk nailed a list of 95 things that the church was doing wrong, and (thanks to the printing press) spread fast
Important because he wanted services to be said in local language not in Latin (which still is controversial in some places)
This basically killed the churches ultimate power
The pope of the time: Pope Leo X (he tried to arrest him, and he excommunicated him)
And Luther started the church of Lutherans and set the stage for other leaders to disown the churches power.
By Machiavellie. It spread ideas about hot to maintain power as a monarch.
Important: It said rulers and church should be separate.
Books started to become entertainment around this time to fuel the growing middle classes desire for books.
All these people starting new churches and denouncing Rome and the Catholic church
Let people think for themselves (becomes important in other reformations)
This guy didn't have an heir and his wife couldn't give him a son and the church wouldn't let him divorce his wife so he started the Church of England (under the Act of Supremacy in 1534) and gave himself power so he could get a divorce. He had six wives in total and had one son who died, so his daughter (Elizabeth) ended up taking over anyways more on that in another post.
Reevaluated themselves, which gave it more respect from those it lost to Protestant ideas.
Founded Jesuits which restored faith in Jesus' teachings (interpreted by the Catholic Church).
Led to high expectations for priests
Published his book on the heliocentric theory.
Man isn't the center of the universe!? How could that be?
Directed the Catholic Reformation
Cleared up what the church believed on every matter
Heretics were punished and Latin tried to become the official language again.
Scientific Method (yep you can thank this time period for labs) became widely used and accepted because you needed to use more than reason
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) observed at his observatory
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) introduced inductive logic
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) planetary motion based on math
Sir Isaac Newton (1697) invented Calculus (proved the above scientists correct) and the law of gravity
Science leads to questioning of God and his authority (atheists and deists)
Boasted the Muscovy Company and the British East India Company.
Defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588 freeing them from the Holy Roman Empire.
Shakespeare created masterpieces.
French Protestants= Huguenots
Catholics and Huguenots fought until Henry created the Edict of Nantes (asked for religious tolerance)
Henry was the first Bourbon King (who ruled nearly 2 centuries)
Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin was an adviser to the Bourbons and helped ease tensions between Catholics and Protestants. Helped the Protestants fight against the Catholic HRE in order to make France stronger
Brought together England and Scotland and tried to do reforms to ease all the religious feuding that was occurring
The Puritans/Calvinists started Jamestown in Plymouth in 1620
Weakened a lot of Europe especially the HRE.
Began with Hapsburg Protestants challenged the Holy Roman Emperor.
The war took place many in German territories (which hurt the area)
Signed the Petition of Right which limited taxes and forbade unlawful imprisonment to gain funding and then ignored it and Parliament didn't meet because when you have divine right you don't need people to tell you what to do.
Until... the Scottish invaded in 1640 and created the long Parliament (1640-1660) which refused to give money to the king and sparked a civil war when the king attempted to arrest some Parliament members.
The Roundheads under Oliver Cromwell defeated Charles I army and executed Charles.
Cromwell became leader (called English Commonwealth) and then reorganized the government and called himself Lord Protector. Though he did not protect Catholics and the Irish.
Wrote on the moons of Jupiter which backed up Copernicus and denied Ptolemy's theory
The church forced him to recant his views and was put on this thing called The Index, which is a list of banned works
He was 4 when he became king. Called himself the Sun King and The Most Christian King and the arts glorified France during this time period
He built the palace of Versailles
He revoked the Edict of Nantes so Protestants fled.
Jean Baptiste Colbert managed funds under his reign. Colbert wanted money and lots of it and so France went to war over and over again.
Prussia and other German states became independent
This killed the HRE.
After Cromwell died the exiled son (Charles II) was invited back and had religious tolerance.
Signed Habeas Corpus Act in 1679 which required people to only be arrested with due process.
James II took over, but was unpopular because of his open Catholic views and the Parliament kicked him out under the Glorious Revolution.
William and Mary took over in 1688 and signed the English Bill of Rights (1689) From then on all of England's rulers would Anglican and have limited power.
Germany was sort of part of the HRE but it was really feudal so the Emperor was just a figure head. And the Hapsburgs in Austria gained a lot of territory in the HRE. This city-state Prussia was gaining power.
Because of all the intermarrying of the European countries Louis XIV's (French) grandson inherited the throne to Spain and the rest of Europe did not like that because France+Spain=Really Powerful. So the grandson (Philip V) was able to be king, but he couldn't combine with France and France had to give up some territory to England/HRE
The third estate (mentioned before) was scared they were going to get cut out of the new constitution so they started a revolt and the peasants got rolling.
They wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man (similar to US's)
This terminated the feudal system and started freedom of worship.
They became the first nation-state and created a constitutional monarchy
So Austria (somehow related to the king) tried to storm France but the revolutionaries held them back.
The French leaders created a new constitution and the Convention (led by radicals called the Jacobins) became the new ruling body which was different than the peasants' monarchy. And the Convention beheaded the king
When they realized their ideas weren't working they created the Committee of Public Safety which called for the execution of anyone suspected of being against the revolution (led by Maximilien Robespierre) but after two years they beheaded Robespierre.
France gets its act together and five men run the government, which built up a great army including Napoleon Bonaparte
Used his military success to take over
Created more tolerance between the churches
Came up with the Napoleonic Codes which recognized the equality of men.
Napoleon conquered all of Western Europe and said adios to HRE.
Internal and External forces were weakening the new empire and then he tried to invade Russia and failed so horribly that he was sent into exile.
1833- Slavery abolished in Britain
1860- abolished in US
Prince von Metternich, Alexander I and Duke of Wellington all overthrew him and fought over how to restore order, so Napoleon tried to come back but they fought at waterloo and Napoleon lost. And the rulers came to an agreement at the Congress of Vienna. The Congress of Vienna ignored many of the ideas the revolutionaries fought for and restored the monarchs.
Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro gain their independence starting with Greece. Important later because other European powers wanted power over the smaller countries.
Started in 1849 when nationalism became important in Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi raised a volunteer army to kick Spain out of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies
Otto von Dismarck (of Prussia) defeats Austria and most of the non-Catholic countries. So he formed an alliance with the German Catholic states against France and then provokes France to war which is the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War. Prussia wins and manages to form all of Germany into an empire (the Second Reich). Industrialization began and Germany flourished and pursued Africa and Asia.
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy create an alliance
Germany also had a pact with Russia.
A military plan (one of many for Europe because everyone was anticipating a war)
Britain, France, and Russia create an alliance.
Ottoman Empire, Germany, and Austria-Hungary
Gavriol Princip (Serbian nationalist) shot the Archduke and his wife.
Britain, France, and Russia
Also Japan and Italy
This guy created the National FascistParty, which paid Blackshirts to fight socialist and communist groups
Mussolini wanted power so he ordered a march to Rome and the King gave in and Mussolini was named prime minister
And from there he became totalitarian of Italy
The Weimar Republic was ruling when the National Socialist Party (AKA Nazis) gained considerable power.
Because Germany was hit hard by the war and Versailles the people disliked the Weimar Republic and it governing body the Reichstag
And Hitler rose with the ideas of racial superiority and social Darwinism. Called himself the Third Reich.
Germany and Italy supported Franco taking over Spain
Italy and Germany also supported other nondemocratic groups
Germany is given Sudetenland (without Czechoslovakia) hoping to appease Germany and ask for Hitler to stop expanding.
This is called appeasement
(didn't work the next year he took over the rest of Czechoslovakia)
Italy and Germany agree to nonagression toward each other.
And so Germany freely took over Poland
Britain declared war on Germany and France followed suit
Solidarity under Lech Walesa went on strike for reform and Tadeusz Mazowiecki (member of Solidarity) became Prime Minister (1989)
1990 Communism falls and Lech Walesa becomes president
Joined NATO (1999)
Joined European Union (2004)
The Berlin Wall falls and the country reunites just like before all the wars.
Tied to the euro in the Eurozone (1999)
In the fertile crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates River. Major cities: Ur, Erech, and Kish. Known for cuneiform. Used wheels, 12 month calendar, math system using 60 (time today), geometry. They were polytheistic and used ziggurats
Dominated the region, came up with first written law
Famous for the Hammurabi code. Important because it distinguished between class and minor and major offenses.
Used iron to defeat the Hittites. Established the capital of Nineveh (if your familiar with the Bible, this is the story of Jonah and the fish)
Had King Nebuchadnezzar, who rebuilt Babylon
Developed during the Iron Age. Spread from eastern Mediterranean to Afghanistan. In order to accommodate for this they built roads (Great Royal Road). Included in the Persian Empire were the Lydians (used the barter system and coins), Phoenicians (powerful navy, came up with 22 letter alphabet which led to ours) and the Hebrews (Judaism/ monotheistic)
Known as Hijra or year 1 on the Muslim calendar
Abu Bakr became leader after Mohammad (called Caliph).
Government: Theocracy (government and religion all mixed into one)
Arabic becomes official language and they standardized coins and made everyone they conquered convert to Islam by instituting a tax if you weren't. They expanded a lot. During this dynasty the Dome of the Rock was built in Jerusalem.
He stopped the Islamic Empire from advancing in 732 in the Battle of Tours. This guy was a Frankish leader. He founded the Carolingian Dynasty and had a son called Pepin the Short. He was important because he wanted his successors approved by the pope which created a connection between the Roman Catholic Church and them
Inventions: Credit; Mohammad al-Razi published a huge medical encyclopedia
Enemies: Persians, Europeans and Byzantine
Important because the prisoners of war that they took (Chinese) had paper money which brought about their obsession with writing down everything (which really helped with the spread of info)
Gathered Egypt, Syria and Arabia into the Ottoman Turks
Founder: Osman Bey
Invaded Constantinople in 1453 renamed the capital Istanbul.\
They kidnapped young Christian boys and turned them into warriors (called Janissaries)
Suleiman I (1520-1566) Golden Age. Arts flourished.
Ruled Egypt (1517-1882)
Was kept alive by France and Britain in order to keep the Russians out of the Middle East
Muhammad Ali beat Napoleon when he tried to conquer Egypt and he also defeated the Ottomans. He tried to westernize Egypt.
His grandson, Abbas I, built the Suez Canal
Stocks in the Suez Canal were bought by Britain and Britain owned it and soon Egypt became a colony (except Egyptians still ruled)
Zionist- Jewish nationalist
Arthur Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration which allowed for the creation of Israel (Britain had control over Palestine which gave it power to make this declaration
Russian Jews escaping from pogroms(mobs)
The UN creates a Jewish Pakistan and a Muslim Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Israel (David Ben-Gurion) announced the formation of Israel
In 1948 the Arab-Israeli War starts and the Israelis won. So almost all of the Pakistanis were without a home
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Middle East countries organized their new found power with all the oil they had.
The Israelis won the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and everything in between.
Israel and Egypt sign an agreement in which Egypt becomes the only Arabic state to acknowledge Israel's existence.
Though Israel's Prime Minister was assassinated later
PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) was formed and has so far unsuccessfully reached its goal of taking back the land won in the Six Days War
Reza Shah Pahlavi gave considerable rights to women and reformed education but then Islamic fundamentalist didn't think that joining the West was a good idea and in 1979 the shah was kicked out and seated Ayatollah Khomeini as leader. As a result women rights took a giant leap backwards and the Qu'ran became the legal system.
Over westernization and borders
Occurs under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki.
Though it was really just the US vs. the SU in one last battle of the cold war, but then the Soviet Union started falling apart
The Taliban won and Islamic rules became law. They provided a safe haven of Osama bin Laden (who worked for Al Qauda)
Under Ayatollah Khamenei (different than the other similarly spelled name) started producing nuclear technologies, which frightens the US
Iraq invades Kuwait under Saddam Hussein and the UN sent forces to get rid of the Iraqis is Kuwait
2003- the US and Great Britain send forces to rid Hussein from power and a democracy was set up
Ariel Sharon approves for a wall to be built between Palestinian West Bank and Israel (cough Berlin cough Wall cough)
Yassir Arafat dies in 2004 and the new president (Mahmoud Abbas) signed a cease-fire and ends the intifada
Israelis are taken out of the Gaza Strop
However there's some complication with the terrorists attacks that are prevalent
Pyramid Age. United under King Menes who built drainage and irrigation. Obelisks and pyramids built. Hieroglyphics. Had very accurate calendar because they liked astronomy. Polytheistic and mummification were important
Captured Egypt around 750 bc but then in 650 bc left and excelled at iron and trade
Golden Age. Pharaohs now buried in hidden tombs; no more pyramids
Spread to its largest. Queen Hatshepsut. Social Structure was revolutionary. Started to decline in 1100 bc. When Greeks took over it was over.
Spread from the Niger River to the east and south (Swahili Coast), they brought their language and knowledge of metallurgy. Possible movement cause: climate change made the Sahara Desert too dry.
A woman leader! Women had power during the New Kingdom. They could even divorce
First city in Sub-Saharan Africa that was unique in it organization (no hierarchical social class)
300 ce converted to Christianity
traded ivory and gold
600 ce converted to Islam
Important because it shows that there was a connection between Africa and the rest of the world.
GOLD! Islamic traders wanted it and they had a lot so they went through the Sahara Desert to get it.
The Islamic traders also started a Holy War in which you converted or died
Another gold mine, however they converted to Islam peacefully
Mansa Musa (ruler) built Timbuktu and went to Mecca carrying a lot of gold
Africa was known for its sculpting ability, but Benin created gorgeous bronze sculptures using clay mold
Basically all these goods, people, disease and ideas were being transferred between Europe, America, and Africa.
Food from the Americas started a population increase in the Old World.
Important goods: Sugar and Silver. They were brought to the people at a high cost of, well, people, especially native and African people.
Europeans traded guns and other goods for slaves (in Africa slaves were eventually released)
The Portuguese were exploring and taking slaves
The slaves would be sent to the Americas where they worked under harsh conditions farming and mining , if they lasted through the Middle Passage, until their death
Sonni Ali conquered the land that turned into this empire
Timbuktu becomes major cultural and scholarly city
In Africa as a whole, there was no written history it was oral literature
Fell at the hands of Moroccans
European countries all meet to decide who gets what of Africa
And Africa faced the consequences of European countries making them slaves and stealing their resources. Also Europe drew inconsiderate lines in divvying up the continent which led to tribal wars
Britain fights for Africa and it precious diamonds (and wins). So South Africa becomes a British colony.
In 1909 the South Africa Act was created
The Union was formed between British colonies and Dutch republics
Segregation was huge in South Africa because Black people were excluded from the government
1926 Blacks can't work in skilled areas because the Whites wanted the jobs for themselves
Apartheid (separation of races) was put into effect (1948)
South Africa gets it own name and constitution and basically rules itself for Britain.
African National Congress is formed it 1912 to begin the process of independence.
Gamal Nasser overthrew the king and created a republic in Egypt
This led the rest of Africa becoming free, but they had trouble getting on their feet once the colonial powers left, cause few were educated and native. Also because the lines were drawn for countries were not drawn around cultures.
Algerians won a war against France for independence
Kenya negotiated with Great Britain for independence.
Angola, Belgian, Congo all overthrew their governments but struggled from civil war
Zimbabwe was the last
Nelson Mandela becomes leader
The congress was put into effect to stop the apartheid and used peaceful protest
Sharpeville massacre killed protesters and then they turned to guerrilla warfare. They were protesting against passes that allowed only people who worked in certain cities to enter if the person was black
Tutsi governs Hutu and when the colonial powers left the Hutu revolted and they won, but the Hutu's leader was shot down in his airplane and the Hutu's started a genocide of all Tutsi
replaced the Organization of African Unity (OAU)
The Union consists of all but one nation
While this helps civil wars thwart plans for success
England wins against the French (and the Indians) in America over boundaries and rivers and such.
Britain says the America didn't help very much in the Seven years war
George Grenville and Charles Townshend pass the revenue Act and the Stamp Act and the Tea Act which led to no taxation without representation.
Thomas Pain writes Common Sense
Declaration of Independence is signed
France really helped out
The enlightenment really shaped American views
This was the governing body that hadn't met since the kings decided they would rule by divine right. France was in all sorts of debt because of ALL the wars they were fighting and he needed to raise taxes but wanted no revolt so he called the Estates General in. The Estates General had three estates. Bottom line: most of the people were in one estate and they got very little power, so they wanted freedoms like in the US.
U.S. says that Europe can't invade the Americas and Britain agreed to back them up so that Spain wouldn't gain anymore power
The US helps Cuban (and Philippines) revolts against Spain.
This showed that the US was on the world playing field
The US is like "don't shut us out"
The US helps Panamanians gain independence so the US could build the Panama Canal
The US will help American countries with financial aid if it would keep peace between America and Europe.
German submarine sinks a ship with 100 Americans on it.
The Zimmermann telegram "Mexico, want to join us?" -Germany
Impacts: Governments took over production
Home front warfare (Industry is geared toward war)
Women gain power while all the men are at war
Germany gets the short straw in this because Germany were very much to blame in the eyes of France and Britain
Germany was asked to pay for all war reparations, but they didn't have any money.
The US tried to create future peace through the Fourteen Points, but again Britain and France wanted revenge and to cripple Germany so badly it could never stand against them again
Women can vote in US
WWI repatriations cost a lot of money and Germany was asked to pay for it all. Of course, Germany didn't have the money so the US loaned it money to pay back other countries and those other countries used that money to repay the US. If you think about it, the US was just paying itself. So when the stock market crashed and the US had no money and no one else had any money either because it was all US money that caused a lot of problems because everyone was using fake money.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Shows that while there was global trade there was also regional trade
Al Qaeda performs its first act of terrorism in the US in which it flies two planes into the World Trade Center and on into the Pentagon and the other into a field
In present day Mexico. They were a city based society that grew corn, beans, and squash. Mastered irrigation, building and had writing and a calendar. Were polytheistic.
In present day southern Mexico plus some. They were a collection of city states under one king. Built pyramids and used hieroglyphics. Golden age- 500-850. Developed complex city planning. Tikal was the political center and had about 100,000 people! Maize was very important (believed the gods created humans out of them. Used sacrifice. King and nobility fought in war and war was used to obtain slaves (their work labor) not land. Had elaborate textiles made out of cotton. Used 0 in their end of the world calendar. The Mayan just disappeared towards the end, it is unsure as to what caused this.
Capital: Tenochtitlan (Mexico City)
Known for: professional military, and conquered lands were allowed to govern themselves as long as tribute was paid, roads
Women: Could inherit property and participated in skilled crafts
Religion: Sacrificial Polytheism
Fell at the hands/disease of Hernan Cortes
Location: Andes Mountains
Known for: bureaucracy, unified language, roads/tunnels
Women: expected to be women, but could pass on inheritance to daughters and contribute to religious activities
Religion: Polytheistic, Sun god is important, small scale sacrifices of animals, and goods
Rulers were mummified and became gods upon death and owned everything on the earth
Architecture: Temple of the Sun at capital and temples in Machu Picchu
Record keeping: quipu (knotted strings)
Viceroys which governed a fifth of the land. They established the Encomienda System (their version of Feudalism) Peninsulares- Governors, got land and natives from the viceroys. Supposed to protect and convert the natives.
Creoles- 2nd generation immigrants
Mestizos- mixed American and European
Mulattos- mixed European and African
Natives- the lowest of the low. When missionaries complained about their hardship, African Slaves were brought in.
90% of the population were slaves.
Since Napoleon became ruler, and he was more focused on Europe Pierre Toussaint L'Ouverture seized the opportunity and led the first and only successful slave revolt. They resisted the Napoleon forces and with the help of yellow fever and Jacques Dessalines made Haiti a free republic
Good Neighbor is what Latin America countries called the US, but they were complaining about how they couldn't do what they wanted and uprisings and new governments started to look good to the citizens (ex Single Party Rule in Mexico's PRI)
Latin America was an export economies which relied on one or two exports
Platt Amendment- The US gets to be involved in Cuba
Batista Dictatorship- still not helping the peasants
Fidel Castro leads peasants in the Revolution
Turn of events Castro who said he was for democracy creates communist dictatorship!
President Kennedy launched the Bay of Pigs Invasion which went horribly awry.
Then the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred, and the US won the standoff
PAN/ National Action Party won
Venezuela allows Hugo Chavez to continue ruling as they nationalize telephone and steel industries
Urban people who were polytheistic. They farmed and also (since they had the coast) had seafood. Had metal tools and weapons. Used llamas for work. Important because they developed the same as other civilizations but did so isolated and without a river valley.
A Creole priest (Miguel Hidalgo) led a revolt, but Spain reacted and he was executed. Jose Morelos continued the revolution, but the upper class revolted again. In 1821 the upper class was on board and independence was declared in the Treaty of Cordoba.
Since the Spanish authorities weren't sure who to be loyal to with Europe all mixed up, they decided to appoint their own leader, Simon Bolivar and declared independence from Spain. This started a small civil war between those who wanted independence and loyalist.
Jose de San Martin (a Creole) and helped Chile and Peru gain independence from Spain
A Portuguese king (John VI) ran from Napoleon and then went back after Napoleon was exiled. His son was left behind (Pedro) and he considered Brazil his home so he declared independence. Pedro II abolished slavery in 1888, but the rich people revolted and established a republic in 1889.
Small groups of people who followed plants and animals for food. First types of people groups
People began using spoken language, fire and stone tools. People started settling down into towns. Ownership of land started. Specialization of labor could start once food surpluses began. Irrigation also began. Animals could be used for labor.
Had domesticated animals! And even used some small scale agriculture. Women had few rights (egalitarian). Constantly on the move. More cattle=rich! They started cultivating plants=Neolithic begins!
metal was beginning to be used (especially bronze) this opens up many new weapon options
The time in between the fall of Rome and the start of the Renaissance
Heresies- were people who challenged mainstream religious ideas in an attempt to return to a simpler Christianity and used reason
Universities began to take hold along with scholasticism which conflicted with the church.
The Catholic Church: Had pretty much absolute power. When it needed money it came up with "indulgences" which was a piece of paper you could purchase to decrease your time in purgatory before you went to heaven. (led to Martin Luther)
While the Mongols have been going on since early civilization that became unified under Genghis Khan.
He expanded the small tribes of Mongolia to a vast land empire.
The Empire got split up under his grandchildren into "hordes"
The Golden Horde conquered Russia (as mentioned) They were very violent in conquering, but afterward were peaceful and even facilitated trade on the Silk Roads by keeping it clear of robbers and full of safety.
They did not try to change others beliefs or culture because they were so busying capturing new areas.
Had the first pony express.
Timur Lang/ Tamerlane invaded India and destroyed the Sultanate, but then they left and it restored
Had horses and bows and they weren't afraid to us them
Made the world very connected and therefore can be blamed for the Black Plague
Things got a little cool.
There were these things called joint-stock companies which are similar to present day stocks.
The Muscovy Company (England) monopolized trade routes to Russia
The Dutch East India Company (Dutch!)-controlled routes to Spice Islands/Indonesia
Mercantilism- A country tries to export more than they import (especially with silver) Gave foot holes for revolutions because the colonies got all their resources taken from them and got nothing in return but taxes
Cities grew dramatically (urbanization) because so much food could be produced.
Cause: New foods from the New Word, rotating fields (back to middle age 3 field system), enclosure (land unclosed by fences=private property and private gain), new inventions,
Advancements: 1733- flying shuttle
1793- Cotton gin (Eli Whitney)
1764- spinning jenny
1769- Steam Engine(improved by James Watt)
1807- Steamship (Robert Fulton)
1820- Steam-powered locomotive (George Stephenson)
1837- Telegraph (Samuel Morse)
1876- Telephone (Alexander Graham Bell)
1879- Light bulb (Thomas Edison)
1885- Internal Combustion Engine (Gottlieb Daimler)
1890's- Radio (Guglielmo Marconi)
1903- Airplane (Orville and Wilbur Wright)
Other- Pasteurization, vaccines, x-ray, Charles Darwin's evolution, interchangeable parts, assembly line
with water power added to some of these machines the first factories were created.
Started in Britain and spread
Before the Industrial revolution the domestic system was used (things were produced inside the home)
Adam Smith- Wrote Wealth of Nations (1776) about how private ownership was the best option. Called the free market system/capitalism.
Laissez-faire capitalism- the process where the government removes them self from regulation
Karl Marx in response to factory workers pain wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) Led to Socialism and Communism. Marx prediction that the workers would revolt and organizations would not side with them happened under the Luddites
Social Mobility (movement between classes) was not unusual
Created Pollution and a changing landscape
Social Darwinism was applied to people (why Europe thought it was ok for them to dominate everyone for their own personal use) and then this poem "White Man's Burden" which was about be "civilized"
Limited workday hours and protected children and made factory work safer
Labor Unions were forming around this time to also counteract the bad conditions.
Everyone liked the idea, but few actual joined,
Blitzkrieg (look it up)
Winston Churchill takes over after Chamberlain.
Germany attacked Britain in the Battle of Britain which basically just bombed Britain cities every day.
Japan keeps expanding
Tripartite Pact- Japan, Rome, and Berlin
Pearl Harbor happened and the US joined the war
The Manhattan Project-The US creating an atomic bomb
D-Day (1944) Happens on the beaches of Normandy
Hitler commits suicide
President Truman calls for Hiroshima to be bombed with an atomic and later on Nagasaki and WWII ends
Democracy vs. Not
US vs. SU
Also the Arms Race occurred (who can obtain enough bombs to blow up the world a 100 times over first)
Yalta and Potsdam try to divide up the world
West and East Germany are created
Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift. West and East Berlin
Wall falls in 1989
Soviet Bloc/satellites and Western Bloc
Truman Doctrine-The US will help countries being forced into Communism
Warsaw Pact- Soviet military alliance in response to Truman Doctrine
East and West Korea
International Monetary Fund and the World Bank create a connection and stability of the world's economies
Also the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade reduced restrictions to international trade
Holocaust is found. Led to sympathy for the Jews to get their Israel
The US and SU became really powerful
War Crimes were punished
Japan has to form a democracy and demilitarize
Europe is in pieces
Marshall Plan is instituted for rebuilding
Colonies are almost gone
Woman gain some power
The UN is created and a lot of other regulating organizations
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty which attempted to limit who had nuclear weapons
International Atomic Energy Agency/ IAEA which watches Nuclear threats and who does what
Group Sic was a forum that included the world's major industrialized democracies
Nongovernmental organizations like the Red Cross, Doctors without Borders, Amnesty International help countries in need of help.
Separate from the G8
represents other industrialized/ developing countries
Many gods that control nature. Affected art, theater, especially early civilization, and continues even to the present.
Rigid caste system. Believe in a force called Brahma who created the universe, there are other gods that are part of Brahma. They believe in reincarnation, where they reincarnate until they join with Brahma. They follow the dharma.
The Prince became enlightened and became the Buddha (Enlightened One) and taught of how to escape suffering by rejecting earthly desires because life is suffering. They follow the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. Split into two movement after Buddha's death. Followed first in India, but spread to China and the rest of the Eastern World.
Daoists and Confucians thought it was threatening
Practiced in China. Teaches that you should be in tune with nature and not with the world. Daoists made a lot of scientific leaps forward as a result of the nature based belief system.
Occurred in China, More of a way of thinking than a religion. Confucius taught what kind of person is good for leadership which led to the Confucius exam. Women were second under his view.
Chinese Practiced. Legalists wanted strict rules and punishment that sustain an orderly society. Mostly practiced during Qin Dynasty.
Place: Middle East
Monotheistic- Allah is god
Started by Mohammad
Holy Text: Qu'ran/ Koran
Follow: Five Pillars of Islam
Accepts the Torah and Bible's major characters as prophets
Sects: Shia and Sunni (split because of who should be in charge after Muhammad.
Women: Women used to be viewed as property but the Qu'ran viewed people as equal and infanticide of baby girls was stopped, so Islam made it better for women.
A blend of Confucianism and Buddhism became big by the Song Dynasty
People first, not rulers first
Social Contract: Government is not divine right, but is there to better the lives of those it governs
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Government should keep the peace at all cost
John Locke (1632-1704) People are equal, "natural rights to life, liberty, and property" should be preserved, revolts are OK to replace corrupt government
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Majority rules, people are free to do as they please inside the community. IMPORTANT: led to colonies wanting freedom and anti-slavery
Voltaire: Religious Tolerance
Montesquieu: branches in government to protect from dictators
Enlightened Monarchs: Absolute power, but worked for the people.
God created the world and all its laws and rules, and now just sits and watches
There is no god.