A lay religious movement begun by Gerard Groote in the 1300s. They stressed practical religion and actively conducted school.
Wrote the "Imitation of Christ", summarizing the philosophy of the Brothers.
Prince of the Humanists and took the advantage of the printing press. Called for educational and religious reform. His work inspired Catholic and Protestant reformers.
By Hieronymus Bosch. An oil painting that depicts the creation of man, the sin of man, and the consequences of that sin.
A fantasy which starts off as a learned frivolity but turns into a full-scale ironic encomium. Considered to be the finest example of a new form of Renaissance satire. It ends with a straightforward and touching statement of the Christian ideals.
Handpicked by Phillip II to head the council in Netherlands. His plans of Catholic arousal failed as William of Orange and Count Egmont work together to secure Granvelle's depart.
Phillip II returns to Spain and leaves half-sister Margaret in charge.
Head of Council of Troubles to stop the oppression in Netherlands.
A.K.A the Spanish Fury. Catholic South and Calvinist to force Don John to sign the humiliating Perpetual Edict.
Spanish determination helps break Netherlands into the Union of Aaras in the North and the South, Utrecht.
Believed in deduction: deriving conclusion from premise. But was lost to Bacon's induction.
On June 3, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies (meaning the Caribbean) by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America.
Became king and after his death, the bobbles prevented a new strong stadholder from rising.
The most advanced financial system at the time allowing Netherlands to stay on the map in the 1700s.
The Agricultural rev also occurred in the rest of the Low Countries.
Their accomplishments together included: Subduing their realms, secure their borders, venture abroad militarily and Christianize the whole of Spain.
Between 1482 and 1492 they conquered the Moors in Granada.
Naples became a Spanish possession in 1504.
He was financed by Isabella and Ferdinand to discover the 'new world'.
AKA the Holy League.
The Pope formed an alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy: himself; Ferdinand of Aragon, who was also King of Sicily; Emperor Maximilian I; Ludovico in Milan; and the Republic of Venice. (SOURCE: Wikipedia).
An expedition led by him discovers Florida in 1513.
Discovers and conquers Montezuma's Aztec empire in Mexico.
Overran the Inca empire in Peru, and captures ruler Atahualupa.
Last naval victory of Spain. Drove the Turks out of Spain.
Victory of the English.
Most of the English ships that fought the Armada were smaller than the Spanish vessels, but they were fast and easily maneuvered. In addition, they were armed with heavier long-range guns.
Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France, wanted to weaken the power of the Hapsburgs and take the province of Alsace from the HRE. In addition, he had designs against Spain and its Hapsburg king, Philip IV.
Awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands. and some territory in Northern Spain.
King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage of his daughter Maria Theresa to King Louis XIV of France.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch (SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA).
Spain was occupied by 1808 to 1814 by France's Napoleon, which resulted in a destructive 'war of independence'.
In these years Spain loses a majority of its colonies in America.
Most of the Spanish territories and vassals suffers terrible inner rebellions.
The Spanish Revolution ends in 1823 when the French army crossed the Pyrenees and brutally suppresses the rebels.
France temporary occupated Spain after supressing its Revolution.
Famous for his 'Vita Nuova' and 'Divine Comedy'.
considered one of the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature (and language) .
Considered to be the father of Italian Renaissance art.
Boniface VIII stated his claim to papal supremacy in uncompromising terms, insisting that the resistance to the will of the pope was the resistance to the will of God.
There is no salvation outside of the Roman church.
The father of Humanism.
Celebrated ancient Rome in his 'Letters to the Ancient Dead'.
His most famous contemporary work was a collection of highly introspective love sonnets to a certain Laura, a married woman he admired romantically from a distance.
A pioneer of Humanist studies, he was most famous for his work 'Decameron'. It depicted a sympathetic look at human behavior.
One of the earliest and most prominent humanist writers was Francesco Petrarch, often known as the founder of humanism. Many historians cite April 6, 1341, the date on which Petrarch was crowned Poet Laureate upon the Capitol in Rome, as the true beginning of the Renaissance. (Source: Sparknotes)
The actual black death swept through Europe from late 1347 to 1350.
One of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering and even ship design. (Source: Wikipedia)
The election of Clement VII began the Great Schism.
For the next four decades, there were two popes, one at Rome and the other at Avignon, each claiming to be the true vicar of Christ on earth.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi AKA Donatello, was an early Renaissance Italian painter and sculptor from Florence. He is, in part, known for his work in bas-relief, a form of shallow relief sculpture that, in Donatello's case, incorporated significant 15th-century developments in perspectival illusionism. SOURCE: wikipedia.com
Christine de Pisan's City of Ladies
The Great Schism had a negative impact on the religious life of Catholic Europe. In an effort to end the split, a council of some five hundred bishops and other churchmen met at Pisa. The council deposed both Gregory XII (Rome) and Benedict XIII (Avignon) and elected a new pope, Alexander V. But now there were 3 popes!
Aimed to end the Great Schism, end heresy, and to reform the church. In 1417, the council elected Pope Martin V, who won recognition from all factions. However, there were little improvement achieved.
In 1480 becomes the ruler of Milan.
Ludovico asked the French king for help and invited them to enter Italy to revive claim to Naples. He did not realize that France also had claims to Milan, and this caused immense troubles - thus he joined the League of Venice.
Alliance between Milan, Naples and Florence.
AKA Lorenzo the Magnificent.
Full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
Pope Paul III summoned the Council of Trent, which met in three sessions (1545-1547, 1551-1552, 1562-1563). It was an assembly of archbishops, bishops and other church leaders, both defined Roman Catholic doctrine and initiated a program to eliminate abuses in the church.
Considered to be a masterpiece, the painting depicts the moment at which Jesus Christ inspires Matthew to follow him.
Placed on the Index of Forbidden Books, it compared the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system.
Published in 1637.
One of the most famous pieces of baroque music.
Advanced his proposals for bringing law and justice into conformity with the rational laws of nature. Barbarous punishments, he believed , failed to deter crimes - the certainty of punishment was a far more effective deterrent than its severity.
He believed further that justice should be swift and that punishment should focus on the rehabilitation of the criminal.
Considered to be the father of English literature, and is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages
Best known for his Canterbury Tales.
Henry VII (Lancaster) beats the House of York and begins the Tudor dynasty. This also shaped a new court system.
Rewarded as "the defender of the faith" for his Catholicism despite the spreading of Protestantism. His wife Catherine failed to produce a male heir. Reformation Parliament declares Henry as the Head of Church in England. In 1533, Henry marries Anne Boleyn. Enacts the "Act of Supremacy" and "Act of Succession" .
Goes to Elizabeth for help after public scandal. Her catholic beliefs disturbed Elizabeth. Sir Francis Walshingham uncovers Spanish plots against Elizabeth and Mary. Mary is executed and Phillip II calls for war
Enacted Calvinist reform
Reverted to England Catholicism established by Henry VIII. She married Phillip II and formed a strong Catholic coalition.
Led a religious compromise that led to the Anglican Church. 39 Aristotle proclaims Moderate Protestantism as official religion. She dealt with Presbyterians and brutally with Puritans
Regent of Louis XV. Had to concede to parliaments the right to approve law. These parlements became centers for aristocratic opposition.
The father of empiricism. Favored induction, which is reasoning from facts to principles. Supported innovation, change and linked progress with science and government.
New leader of Parliament. Calls Parliament to be called once every three years. Parliament passed the Militia Ordinance and the Civil War begins.
Spanish Armada loses to the English. The defeat of the Spanish gives the Protestants hopes that it will end of Spanish domination.
Wrote Leviathan. Hobbes believed in a political contract which placed a ruler above. He feared anarchy more than tyranny.
The Company was granted a Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth in 1600, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies.
Succeeded Elizabeth and inherited a large debt and a divided church. First Stuart King. At the Hampton Court, he snorted "No Bishop, No King" and disappointed the Protestants.
Custom duties laid by James I
The Authorized Version (AV), commonly known as the King James Version (KJV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible by the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
It was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts
One of few women who broke into the science circle and attended Royal Society of London meetings
Charles went to the Parliament for funds. Parliament enacted the Petition of Right, making the king ask for permission from Parliament about taxes, and prohibit quartering soldiers
The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing. Passed on 7 June 1628, the Petition contains restrictions on non-Parliamentary taxation, forced billeting of soldiers, imprisonment without cause, and restricts the use of martial law.
Wrote "Treatise of Government". Believed in "Life, Liberty and Property" in a constitutional monarchy. He believed that reason and religion were compatible
Tax enacted by Charles I to raise his revenue.
Charles and Laud try to impose English episcopal system to Scotland, leading to revolt
Established on November 3rd, 1640
Charles calls Parliament for funding but Parliament refuses unless Political/religious problems are addressed. Charles dissolves Parliament.
April through May: Short Parliament
November, Long Parliament convenes.
Put forth the ideas of gravity. Wrote the "Principle". Upheld empiricism and rationalism
Cromwell's New Model Army wins a battle against Charles I. Virtually a military dictator causing chaos and death. England rejoiced with Cromwell's death, and Charles II restores the king.
Colonel Pride barred Presbytarians from entering Parliament.
Philosopher's attempt to discuss new science. Formed the basis of the Enlightenment
Parliament excludes Catholics, Independents, and Presbytarians.
Financed new agricultural experiments. Known from his iron plow.
Alienated Parliament and displayed Catholic sympathies.
The birth of James II's son made Parliament invite William of Orange to invade England. A bloodless revolution.
William and Mary agreed to the Bill of Rights which limited the powers of the monarchy.
Tolerated all Protestants but no Catholics and Anti-Trinians
Provided for the crown to go to the Protestant house of Hanover.
Demand for textiles grew rapidly. Invented the flying shuttle which allowed for faster weaving.
Fearing loss of power, they turned to James Edward. George defeated James and took the throne.
Whigs sought favor of George of Hanover
Established the first police system or "bobbies". Encouraged England to honor the national debt and saved England's financial integrity.
Instituted Crop rotation.
Pioneered methods of animal breeding.
Took textiles out of the home and into factories with the Water Frame.
Invented by John Kay which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution by greatly accelerating weaving.
His steam engine made effective Newcomen's practically untransportable steam power in the 1700s. The engine became the primary mover for all industry.
Preached utilitarinism or the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
Romantic religion which revolted against deism and rationalism. Led by John Wesley.
Ended the open-field system and made land more efficient. Small landowners who needed common land, were forced off in the new system.
The increasing demand for cotton textiles were met through the spinning jenny.
Later patented in 1770.
Introduced a new puddling process which increased the demand for versatile and cheap iron.
Major British socialist who made utopian societies in New Lanark and New Harmony.
Suppressed reform and drove out radical thinker: Joseph Priestly. Suspended Habeaus Corpus.
Responsible for police forces being placed in London
Written by Thomas Malthus, it contended that population must eventually outstrip the food supply, because although the human population grows geometrically, the food supply can expand only arithmetically.
There was little that could be done in averting the disaster, except through late marriage, chastity and contraception.
He believed that the immediate plight of the working class could only become worse. If wages were raised, the workers would simply produce more children, who, would in return, consume both the extra wages and more food.
Later he suggested that if the working class could be persuaded to adopt a higher standard of living, their increased wages might be spent on consumer goods rather than on begetting more children.
Wrote the "Genius of Christianity". Argued that the essence of religion is passion.
A true rebel who skeptically rejected old traditions and championed personal liberty.
Maintained high prices for crops.
In his essay, David Ricardo transformed the concepts of Malthus into the ''iron law of wages'. If wages were raised, more children would be produced. They, in turn, would enter the labor market, thus expanding the number of workers and lowering wages. As wages fell, working people would produce fewer children. The wages would then rise, and the process would start all over again.
In the long run however, wages would always tend toward and minimum level.
His arguments supported employers in their natural reluctance to raise wages and also provided strong theoretical support for opposition to labor unions.
Forbade large unauthorized meetings, raised fines for libel, speeded trails, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited training armed groups, and allowed home searches.
Local militia massacred, putting an end to reform movements.
Rotten Boroughs were abolished and number of city representatives increased.
he Opium Wars, also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, divided into the First Opium War from 1839 to 1842 and the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860, were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire.
Organized by manufacturers, it was made because the league wanted to abolish the tariffs protecting the domestic price of grain. that change would lead to lower food prices, which would then allow lower wages at no real cost to the workers. In turn, the prices on British manufactured goods could also be lowered to strengthen their competitive position in the world market.
The reason for Robert Peel's repeal of this law was the Irish famine. He realized that he had to open British ports to foreign grain in order to feed the starving Irish. He accompanied the abolition measure with a program for govt aid to modernize British agriculture.
The repeal marked the opening of an era of free trade.
The Golden Bull establishes a system for the election of the HR Emperor.
Under Luxembourg Emperor Charles IV.
German reformer who restructured academic curriculum and supported the reading of primary sources.
His projects reflect the tie between humanist ideals and Protestantism.
Set forth his theology in The Institutes of the Christian Religion, the most important single work to emerge from the Protestant Reformation of the 16th cent.
He agreed with Luther that the Bible was the only source of Christian doctrine and that there were only two sacraments, baptism and holy communion.
But he emphasized the doctrine of salvation by election - aka predestination.
A Humanist and Catholic priest who originally hoped that the Catholic Church would reform himself. But in this year he led the church of Zurich in its break from Roman Catholicism. Like Luther, he believed in the supremacy of the Bible. BUT! He believed that the baptism and holy communion were ceremonies symbolizing the believer's affiliation with the Christan church, rather than true sacraments.
The HR Emperor Charles V orders Luther to appear before the Diet of the HRE at its meeting in Worms. When he was called to recant, Luther refused. The emperor then declared him an outlaw, and Elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony provided the reformer with refuge at the Wartburg Castle.
Declared Martin Luther a heretic
Martin Luther refused to support this revolt despite the pleads, as he supported social conformity.
M. Luther appeared before Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg, where he presented a statement of his faith, which came to know as the Confession of Augsburg. The Diet found it unacceptable.
Back in Geneva, he drafted the text to be later discussed with the city's councils, in which he clearly defined the power of the Church and the power of the City. The purpose was not an early separation of the Church from the State, but the sharing of the tasks.
A Danish astronomer who collected vast amounts of accurate, astronomical data about the stars and planets. These discovers served to undermine the Ptolemaic view of the universe. Nevertheless, he did not fully accept the heliocentric theory advanced by Copernicus, because he concluded that while the planets revolved around the sun, the earth remained stationary.
The contending forces of Germany reached a compromise agreement to reconcile its Lutheran and Catholic tensions. This Peace of Augsburg gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state (one of the two).
CUIUS REGIO, EIUS RELIGIO (whose religion, his religion).
It did not provide the recognition of other religious groups such as the Calvinists or Anabaptists.
A German astronomer who accepted the fundamental validity of the heliocentric theory. He took Brahe's data and proceeded to develop three laws of planetary motion, publishing the first two in 1609 and the third in 1619.
According to the first law, the planets, including the earth, revolve around the sun in elliptical (rather than circular) orbits.
The second law stated that the velocity of the planets varies according to their distance from the sun. A planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun than when it is farther away.
The third law set forth a complex mathematical formula explaining the physical relationship among the moving planets.
Established to counteract the Protestant Union (formed 1608), whereby the participating states concluded an alliance "for the defence of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire.
Between the Catholics and the Protestants within the HRE.
France was trapped between two Habsburgs: HRE and Spain. Richelieu wanted to make France a dominant power, so they tried to break up the HRE without France becoming directly involved.
This war decentralized the HRE, limited the Habsburgs, and led to the rise of the Bourbon dynasty.
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
considered as the supreme genius of modern German literature. His works span the fields of poetry, drama, prose, philosophy, and science.
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers.
The most important philosopher of the Romantic Period. He believed that ideas develop in an evolutionary fashion that involves conflict. Wrote "Phenomenology of the Mind" and "Lectures on the Philosophy of History."
It was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Sought to maintain peace and repair the damage done by Napoleon's sweep through Europe. It failed to consider the powers of nationalism and liberalism.
In December of 1825 in St. Petersburg, Russia, a group of military officials staged a revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. These rebels were liberals who felt threatened by the new ruler's conservative views. They were, however, defeated by the tsar's forces. As a result of this revolt, Nicholas I implemented a variety of new regulations to prevent the spread of the liberal movement in Russia.
King of Prussia, Frederick II invades Silesia
Important confederation that extended religious tolerance to nobility within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Considered to be the beginning of religious freedom in that Commonwealth.
"I DO NOT ALLOW!"
In 1652, this parliamentary device is introduced, allowing any member of the legislature (Sejm) to force an end to the session and to nullify any legislation that was being passed at the moment.
Was very ineffective - made it very difficult for Poland to get anywhere or come to any mutual agreement because one 'voice' or objection could make the government crumble, forcing the nation to rebuild itself once more.
It considered to be a democratic element that would check the royal power.
Resulted in the Treaty of Vienna.
Waged to determine the successor of the king of Poland, Augustus II the Strong.
Involved: Augustus III, King of Poland; France, Spain
It was a civil war over Polish king after death of Augustus II; France and Spain attempted to check the growing power of the Austrian Habsburgs in Western Europe.
Augustus III became the Polish successor and was supported by the Habsburgs and Russia.
Russia and Austria ambitions collided in Danube. Russia gave Danube in exchange for a large portion of Eastern Poland.
Partitioned by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria amongst themselves.
Ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The first partition was decided in 1772.
Partitioned by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria amongst themselves.
Ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The second partition was decided in 1793.
Partitioned by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria amongst themselves.
Ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The third partition was decided in 1795.
This last partition ultimately dissolved sovereign Poland for 123 years.
Signed by Alexander I on Nov. 17, 1815.
Under it, the Kingdom of Poland became a constitutional monarchy linked to the Russian Empire.
"The king exercised executive authority but shared legislative power with the Sejm, retaining for himself the legislative initiative and the right of veto. The constitution established a bicameral Sejm consisting of the Senate, appointed by the King, and the Chamber of Deputies, made up of 77 deputies from the local sejms of the nobility and 51 deputies from the town council." (SOURCE: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com)
"A constitution introduced in the Kingdom of Poland after the suppression of the Polish Uprising of 1830–31 to replace the Constitution of 1815. It was promulgated in St. Petersburg by Tsar Nicholas I on Feb. 14 (26), 1832. Although the Organic Statute abolished the Sejm and the Polish Army, it preserved such autonomous institutions as the vicegerency, the State Council, and the vicegerent’s Administrative Council. These institutions, however, gradually disappeared as the Russian imperial administration was extended to the Kingdom of Poland." (SOURCE: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com)
Also known as "Charles the Wise". His reign was marked in France during the Hundred Years Wars. His army took back the territory from England at the Treaty of Bretigny.
Considered Europe's first female professional writer. Father was the physician of Charles V of France.
Considered to be a French heroine and military leader who organized French resistance against the English and helped install Charles VII as monarch.
Instrumental figure in beating England in 1420s. Tried and executed in 1431.
Defeated the English with the help of Joan of Arc and developed a strong economy for France through national taxes: "taille" and "gabelle" (salt tax)
Gutenberg's invention coincided with the invention of cheap paper. Books were mass produced, kings used print for propaganda, clergymen mass produced indulgences, and a new literature class began to develop. Invented movable type in Mainz and Stratsbourg between 1436 -1440.
Louis XI of France is one of the "New Monarchs". Son of Charles VII, strengthened the bureaucracy, kept the nobles under control and promoted trade and agriculture. Began the centralization of France.
French king, invaded by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war.
Francis I was captured by rival Charles V. He reversed his tolerant policy towards Protestantism after anti-Catholic placards were plastered in Paris in 1534.
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty. He succeeded as King Henry IV and converted to Catholicism. Ended the fighting in France.
The Bourbons sympathized with the Huguenots. Prince of Conde led this faction
Francis II came to the power of the regency of Catherine de Medici. The monarchy was severely weakened. The Guises, the Bourbons, Montmerency-Chatillons competed for the king's favor. The Guises secured the king's favor.
Henry IV set the state for an absolutist state. With Sully, established several government monopolies and introduced the canal system in the Atlantic and a corvee labor tax
Catherine de Medici sought Protestant allies to weaken the Guises. It granted Protestants some freedom. Prince of Conde acted indecisively and the opportunity of an alliance with the monarchy passed as the Guises massacred Protestant.
Protestants are now under the leadership of Coligny, granted religious freedom after three bloody wars.
Catherine convinces Charles that Huguenot coup is imminent, resulting in a large massacre.
Regent of Louis XIII and secured a 10 year defense pact with Spain in the Treaty of Fontainbleau.
Alliance with Henry Navarre, the Protestant leader and heir to the throne. As they were about to attack, Henry III was assassinated.
Louis's advisor and allied with Gustavus Aldophus while maintaining relationships with Spain and expanding French territory. Used intendants to subject the nobles. Ended the Edict of Nantes.
Granted Hugenots religious freedom to practice Calvinism.
Created two types of nobility: hereditary and intellectuals.
Propaganda and Press were used to indoctrinate the meaning of state " which Louis XIV uses.
Finance master who simplified administration, maximized exports, and decreased tax exempts.
Influential philosopher to reconcile faith and new science. He saw science as a separate realm from religion and allied himself with Janseneits.
Richelieu and Mazarin's reign of power in France.
"I am the state" - divine right of kings.
Rebellions which forced Mazarin and Louis to leave Paris for a short time. People began to prefer a stronger king than a regional anarchy.
The Discourse on the Method is one of the most influential works in the history of modern philosophy, and important to the evolution of natural sciences. Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything, so as to assess the world from a fresh perspective, clear of any preconceived notions.
Triple Alliances collapses after the Treaty of Dover. Louis attacks Holland and is stopped by William of Orange.
Louis built a spectacular palace: a place of central government and to control the nobles. He calls the nobles every six months to stay at Versailles.
Military engineering perfected the art of fortifying and besieging towns: began trench warfare.
Louis claimed his right to Holland as his wife's dowry renouncing her claim to Holland had not been paid.
Charles receives financial supported from France. Charles issues the Declaration of Indulgence suspending all laws against Catholics but Parliament counteracted with the Tea Act.
Catholics fears of James II colluding with Charles's Catholic wife to kill Charles II.
Louis conquers Stratsbourg. All hostilities ended with Holland and Holy Roman Empire securing its boarders.
Louis XIV banned Huguenots from the Government. Used selective discrimination and revoked the Edict of Nantes.
Reorganized and centralized army
Both Louis and Leopold had claims to the Spanish throne. Although negotiations had been made, Charles II gave throne to Phillip of Anjou. England, Holland and HRE formed the Grand Alliance.
Wrote "Emilie". Advocated to let children be free. Parents should only protect against dangers.
At the First Congress of Rastatt, which was opened in November 1713, negotiations were carried on between France and Austria for the purpose of ending the War of the Spanish Succession. These culminated in the Treaty of Rastatt of 7 March 1714, ending hostilities formally and complementing the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. (source: wikipedia)
Abolished Parlements but Louis XVI reinstated them in order to gain popular support.
Orleans and John Law created the Mississippi Company. All gold payments were halted and Law fled France. Brought some shame to the government and installed a fear of paper money.
Claimed that French debt was not as bad as the first one and that most of it is directed to the nobles. Made it difficult for the king to raise new taxes.
In it, he pleaded in favor of a constitutional system of government and the separation of powers, the ending of slavery, the preservation of civil liberties and the law, and the idea that political institutions ought to reflect the social and geographical aspects of each community.
Came to throne after Napoleon. Had realized France had irreversible changes and needed to compromise. He created the Charter which allowed religious tolerations.
Support for American Revolution and debt from funding the Seven Year's War plagued French finance.
Believed that people would be happier and more productive if they preformed multiple jobs.
Realized the severity of French economic problems but any efforts were rebuffed by the nobility and clergy. 1788: Estates General were called.
Proposes drastic economic reforms. Assembly of Notables rejects Calonne's ideas and claims that only Estates General and has the power to consent new taxes.
Created by the Third Estate. Louis failed to deter the assembly, and requested to other estates to meet with the assembly. The Tennis Court Oath: promised not to disband until they have received a constitution.
The peasants were very unhappy about the nobles. The peasants burned all noble's documents allowing all the records of peasants to be gone. Nobles lost all their control over the nobles.
Questioned what the third estate meant. The third estate in reality did not have any power as voting by order allowed the clergy and nobility cooperate and gain majority.
800 urban people marched to Bastille and took weapons. Marquis de Lafayette: in charge of the National Guard.
Written by Marquis Lafayette. "Liberty, property, security and resistance against oppression"
A bread shortage where armed women marched to Versailles demanding bread and demanded Louis to come back to Paris.
Leopold II and Fredrick III's declaration to protect the Royal family if the other major EU powers agreed.
Wrote the Declaration of Rights of Women, calling for women in marriage and education
Established a Metric system and abolished guilds.
Which transformed the Church into a branch of state with the priests and bishops becoming employees of the state.
Established a constitutional monarchy given a veto that could delay but not stop legislation.
shop keepers, artisans, wage workers and factory workers
Paris executes 1200 people in city jails and declares a republic
part of the republican Jacobins, led the new Legislative Assembly, to declare war on Austria.
National Convention establishes the Committee of Public Safety and gains absolute control by Robespierre.
Robespierre ruled by killing anyone who was against Robespierre's republic.
The revolution began to temper the Girondists were allowed, Committee of Public Safety was weakened. A reactionary white terror executed terrorists.
Entranced to politics based on politics was throughly on property.Without popular support, the Directory came to depend on Napoleon's army.
French romantic painter who was the chief painter of the french romantic school, known for his use of vivid color, free drawing, and sometimes-violent subject matter.
French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, a series of wars between 1792 and 1815 that ranged France against shifting alliances of other European powers and that produced a brief French hegemony over most of Europe. The revolutionary wars, which may for convenience be held to have been concluded by 1801, were originally undertaken to defend and then to spread the effects of the French Revolution. With Napoleon’s rise to absolute power, France’s aims in war reverted to simple aggrandizement of influence and territory.
Clergymen were forced to resign. The state paid and chose the bishops.
Napoleon: first consul of life. Napoleonic protected all forms of property overthrew privileges based on birth and instead based on merit
British declares war on Napoleon. He establishes authority over the seas.
Established as an attempt to weaken economic Britain's power, though failed in effect as Britain had its own colonies to trade with, though the embargo had a significant effect on British trade, with British exports falling between 25% to 55% compared to pre-1806 levels.
Recognized the political power to improve worker's conditions.
Netherlands was recognized, Austria gained control of Italy, France was allowed to participate allowing Tallyrand to take lead of the congress.
Napoleon escapes to France and returns to power with popular backing. He promises a liberal constitution and peace.
The Quadruple proceeded to crush Napoleon at Waterloo and send him back to exile after a hundred days of power
Removed troops and readmitted France to good standing.
Counterrevolution led by Count Artois and ultra royalists.
Politically liberal, replacing white bourbon flag with the tri-color flag of the revolution and abolished censorship
Charles capitalizes victory over Algeria to restrict press and dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, restrict franchise and call for new elections
The Four ordinances caused protest against King Charles X. The Bourbon dynasty ends and Louis Philipe becomes king.
Earliest Socialist pioneer
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was a French politician, mutualist philosopher, economist, and socialist. He was a member of the French Parliament and the first person to call himself an "anarchist". He is considered among the most influential theorists and organizers of anarchism. After the events of 1848 he began to call himself a federalist.
The book's publication attracted the attention of the French authorities. It also attracted the scrutiny of Karl Marx.
It was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe. Established in 1358.
The Conciliar Movement was a Christian reform movement in the 14th and 15th centuries in the Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Church as a corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the Pope. This movement occurred in Western Europe. Conciliarism was started by Pope Innocent III and is still used today in France.
Ferdinand Magellan is considered to be the first to navigate across the globe.
Polish astronomer Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in which he offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system, which had been widely accepted since ancient times.
Targeted the socially vulnerable - mostly women, especially those who were poor, socially rejected or widowed.
The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of southern European Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire.
Full title: 'A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects'.
Divided into three sections:
Book 1: "Of the Understanding" – An investigation into human cognition. Important statements of Skepticism.
Book 2: "Of the Passions" – A treatment of emotions and free will.
Book 3: "Of Morals" – A treatment of moral ideas, justice, obligations, benevolence.
A series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It was the only Europe-wide collapse of traditional authority to date, but within a year, reactionary forces had won out, and the revolutions collapsed.
This revolutionary wave began in France in February, and immediately spread to most of Europe and parts of Latin America. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among the revolutionaries in different countries. Five factors were involved: the widespread dissatisfaction with the political leadership; the demand for more participation and democracy; the demands of the working classes; the upsurge of nationalism; and finally, the regrouping of the reactionary forces based in the royalty, the aristocracy, the army, and the peasants.