Modern Devotion ( Brothers of Common Life)

1300 - 1400

A lay religious movement begun by Gerard Groote in the 1300s. They stressed practical religion and actively conducted school.

Thomas a Kempis

1380 - 1471

Wrote the "Imitation of Christ", summarizing the philosophy of the Brothers.


1466 - 1536

Prince of the Humanists and took the advantage of the printing press. Called for educational and religious reform. His work inspired Catholic and Protestant reformers.

Columbus discovers the New World


Bosch's The Garden of Earthly Delights

1505 - 1510

By Hieronymus Bosch. An oil painting that depicts the creation of man, the sin of man, and the consequences of that sin.

Erasmus’ In Praise of Folly


A fantasy which starts off as a learned frivolity but turns into a full-scale ironic encomium. Considered to be the finest example of a new form of Renaissance satire. It ends with a straightforward and touching statement of the Christian ideals.


1517 - 1586

Handpicked by Phillip II to head the council in Netherlands. His plans of Catholic arousal failed as William of Orange and Count Egmont work together to secure Granvelle's depart.

Margaret of Parma

1522 - 1586

Phillip II returns to Spain and leaves half-sister Margaret in charge.

Revolt in Netherlands


Duke of Alba

1567 - 1573

Head of Council of Troubles to stop the oppression in Netherlands.

Pacification of Ghent


A.K.A the Spanish Fury. Catholic South and Calvinist to force Don John to sign the humiliating Perpetual Edict.

Union of Utrecht


Spanish determination helps break Netherlands into the Union of Aaras in the North and the South, Utrecht.

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Believed in deduction: deriving conclusion from premise. But was lost to Bacon's induction.

Dutch make first compound microscope


Dutch East India Co.


Dutch West India Co.


On June 3, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies (meaning the Caribbean) by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America.

United Provinces independent


William II

1672 - 1702

Became king and after his death, the bobbles prevented a new strong stadholder from rising.

Amsterdam Bourse

1680 - 1700

The most advanced financial system at the time allowing Netherlands to stay on the map in the 1700s.

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1750

The Agricultural rev also occurred in the rest of the Low Countries.

Treaty of Utrecht marks end of the War of the Spanish Succession



Ferdinand marries Isabella


Marriage of Ferdinand & Isabella


Their accomplishments together included: Subduing their realms, secure their borders, venture abroad militarily and Christianize the whole of Spain.

Between 1482 and 1492 they conquered the Moors in Granada.
Naples became a Spanish possession in 1504.

Jews expelled from Spain


Expulsion of Jews from Spain


Christopher Columbus Discovers the New World


He was financed by Isabella and Ferdinand to discover the 'new world'.

Treaty of Tordesillas


Spain enters the League of Venice


AKA the Holy League.

The Pope formed an alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy: himself; Ferdinand of Aragon, who was also King of Sicily; Emperor Maximilian I; Ludovico in Milan; and the Republic of Venice. (SOURCE: Wikipedia).

Juan Ponce de León discovers Florida


An expedition led by him discovers Florida in 1513.

The Spanish conquer Mexico


Hernan Cortes

1519 - 1521

Discovers and conquers Montezuma's Aztec empire in Mexico.

Fransisco Pizarro reaches Cajamarca


Overran the Inca empire in Peru, and captures ruler Atahualupa.

Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)


Prince Phillip II rules Spain

1555 - 1598

Reign of Phillip II

1556 - 1598

Defeat of the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto


Last naval victory of Spain. Drove the Turks out of Spain.

Defeat of the Spanish Armada


Victory of the English.
Most of the English ships that fought the Armada were smaller than the Spanish vessels, but they were fast and easily maneuvered. In addition, they were armed with heavier long-range guns.

Miguel Cervantes writes Don Quixote

1605 - 1615

Religious Wars against French

1635 - 1659

Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France, wanted to weaken the power of the Hapsburgs and take the province of Alsace from the HRE. In addition, he had designs against Spain and its Hapsburg king, Philip IV.

Treaty of Pyrenees


Awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands. and some territory in Northern Spain.

King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage of his daughter Maria Theresa to King Louis XIV of France.

Reign of Charles II

1665 - 1700

Philip V rules Spain

1700 - 1746

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch (SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA).

Occupation of Spain by Napoleon

1808 - 1814

Spain was occupied by 1808 to 1814 by France's Napoleon, which resulted in a destructive 'war of independence'.

Spanish Revolution

1820 - 1823

In these years Spain loses a majority of its colonies in America.
Most of the Spanish territories and vassals suffers terrible inner rebellions.

The Spanish Revolution ends in 1823 when the French army crossed the Pyrenees and brutally suppresses the rebels.

Spain ruled by France

1823 - 1827

France temporary occupated Spain after supressing its Revolution.


Dante Alighieri

1265 - 1321

Famous for his 'Vita Nuova' and 'Divine Comedy'.
considered one of the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature (and language) .


1267 - 1337

Considered to be the father of Italian Renaissance art.

Unam Sanctam


Boniface VIII stated his claim to papal supremacy in uncompromising terms, insisting that the resistance to the will of the pope was the resistance to the will of God.

There is no salvation outside of the Roman church.

Francesco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

The father of Humanism.
Celebrated ancient Rome in his 'Letters to the Ancient Dead'.
His most famous contemporary work was a collection of highly introspective love sonnets to a certain Laura, a married woman he admired romantically from a distance.

Giovanni Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

A pioneer of Humanist studies, he was most famous for his work 'Decameron'. It depicted a sympathetic look at human behavior.

Petarch crowned Poet Laureate


Rise of Humanism


One of the earliest and most prominent humanist writers was Francesco Petrarch, often known as the founder of humanism. Many historians cite April 6, 1341, the date on which Petrarch was crowned Poet Laureate upon the Capitol in Rome, as the true beginning of the Renaissance. (Source: Sparknotes)

Black Death Sweeps Through ITALY


The actual black death swept through Europe from late 1347 to 1350.

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

Lifetime of Filippo Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

One of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering and even ship design. (Source: Wikipedia)

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The election of Clement VII began the Great Schism.
For the next four decades, there were two popes, one at Rome and the other at Avignon, each claiming to be the true vicar of Christ on earth.

Donatello's Lifetime

1386 - 1466

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi AKA Donatello, was an early Renaissance Italian painter and sculptor from Florence. He is, in part, known for his work in bas-relief, a form of shallow relief sculpture that, in Donatello's case, incorporated significant 15th-century developments in perspectival illusionism. SOURCE: wikipedia.com

Establishment of the Medici Bank


City of Ladies


Christine de Pisan's City of Ladies

Council of Pisa


The Great Schism had a negative impact on the religious life of Catholic Europe. In an effort to end the split, a council of some five hundred bishops and other churchmen met at Pisa. The council deposed both Gregory XII (Rome) and Benedict XIII (Avignon) and elected a new pope, Alexander V. But now there were 3 popes!

Council of Contance

1414 - 1418

Aimed to end the Great Schism, end heresy, and to reform the church. In 1417, the council elected Pope Martin V, who won recognition from all factions. However, there were little improvement achieved.

Cosimo De Medici becomes the Ruler of Florence


Ludovico il Moro

1452 - 1508

In 1480 becomes the ruler of Milan.

Ludovico asked the French king for help and invited them to enter Italy to revive claim to Naples. He did not realize that France also had claims to Milan, and this caused immense troubles - thus he joined the League of Venice.

Treaty of Lodi


Alliance between Milan, Naples and Florence.

Lorenzo De Medici becomes the Ruler of Florence


AKA Lorenzo the Magnificent.


1475 - 1564

Full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni

Sandro Botticelli paints the Birth of Venus


King Charles VIII of France invades Italy


Leonardo Da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa


Michelangelo paints the cieling of the Sistine Chapel

1508 - 1512

Raphel paints The School of Athens

1510 - 1511

Machiavelli writes The Prince


Castiglione publishes The Courtier


The Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Pope Paul III summoned the Council of Trent, which met in three sessions (1545-1547, 1551-1552, 1562-1563). It was an assembly of archbishops, bishops and other church leaders, both defined Roman Catholic doctrine and initiated a program to eliminate abuses in the church.

Caravaggio’s Calling of St. Matthew

1559 - 1600

Considered to be a masterpiece, the painting depicts the moment at which Jesus Christ inspires Matthew to follow him.

Michelangelo's Pieta Brueghel


Galileo's 'The Dialogue of the Two World Systems'


Placed on the Index of Forbidden Books, it compared the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system.
Published in 1637.

Bernini's Four Rivers Fountain


Vivaldi's Four Seasons


One of the most famous pieces of baroque music.

Cesare Beccaria publishes the Essay on Crimes and Punishments


Advanced his proposals for bringing law and justice into conformity with the rational laws of nature. Barbarous punishments, he believed , failed to deter crimes - the certainty of punishment was a far more effective deterrent than its severity.
He believed further that justice should be swift and that punishment should focus on the rehabilitation of the criminal.


Geoffrey Chaucer

1343 - 1400

Considered to be the father of English literature, and is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages
Best known for his Canterbury Tales.
(source: wikipedia)

End of Hundred Years War


War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Henry VII (Lancaster) beats the House of York and begins the Tudor dynasty. This also shaped a new court system.

Henry VIII rules England

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Rewarded as "the defender of the faith" for his Catholicism despite the spreading of Protestantism. His wife Catherine failed to produce a male heir. Reformation Parliament declares Henry as the Head of Church in England. In 1533, Henry marries Anne Boleyn. Enacts the "Act of Supremacy" and "Act of Succession" .

Reformation Parliament

1529 - 1536

Henry VIII becomes head of English Church


Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy


Mary Queen of Scots

1542 - 1567

Goes to Elizabeth for help after public scandal. Her catholic beliefs disturbed Elizabeth. Sir Francis Walshingham uncovers Spanish plots against Elizabeth and Mary. Mary is executed and Phillip II calls for war

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

Enacted Calvinist reform

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Reverted to England Catholicism established by Henry VIII. She married Phillip II and formed a strong Catholic coalition.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Led a religious compromise that led to the Anglican Church. 39 Aristotle proclaims Moderate Protestantism as official religion. She dealt with Presbyterians and brutally with Puritans

Sir William Cecil

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth's advisor

Beginning of reign of Elizabeth Tudor


Duke Orleans

1560 - 1641

Regent of Louis XV. Had to concede to parliaments the right to approve law. These parlements became centers for aristocratic opposition.

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

The father of empiricism. Favored induction, which is reasoning from facts to principles. Supported innovation, change and linked progress with science and government.

John Pym

1584 - 1643

New leader of Parliament. Calls Parliament to be called once every three years. Parliament passed the Militia Ordinance and the Civil War begins.

Spanish Armada


Spanish Armada loses to the English. The defeat of the Spanish gives the Protestants hopes that it will end of Spanish domination.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Wrote Leviathan. Hobbes believed in a political contract which placed a ruler above. He feared anarchy more than tyranny.

English East India Co.


The Company was granted a Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth in 1600, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies.

James I rules England

1603 - 1625

James I

1603 - 1625

Succeeded Elizabeth and inherited a large debt and a divided church. First Stuart King. At the Hampton Court, he snorted "No Bishop, No King" and disappointed the Protestants.

Shakespeare publishes King Lear


English settlement in Virginia




Custom duties laid by James I

King James Bible


The Authorized Version (AV), commonly known as the King James Version (KJV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible by the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

Plymouth Colony settled


It was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts

Margaret Cavendish

1623 - 1673

One of few women who broke into the science circle and attended Royal Society of London meetings

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Petition of Right


Charles went to the Parliament for funds. Parliament enacted the Petition of Right, making the king ask for permission from Parliament about taxes, and prohibit quartering soldiers

Petition of Right


The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing. Passed on 7 June 1628, the Petition contains restrictions on non-Parliamentary taxation, forced billeting of soldiers, imprisonment without cause, and restricts the use of martial law.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Wrote "Treatise of Government". Believed in "Life, Liberty and Property" in a constitutional monarchy. He believed that reason and religion were compatible

Ship Money


Tax enacted by Charles I to raise his revenue.

William Laud


Charles and Laud try to impose English episcopal system to Scotland, leading to revolt

Long Parliament is established


Established on November 3rd, 1640

Short Parliament


Charles calls Parliament for funding but Parliament refuses unless Political/religious problems are addressed. Charles dissolves Parliament.

Short Parliament and Long Parliament


April through May: Short Parliament
November, Long Parliament convenes.

English Civil Wars

1642 - 1648


1642 - 1726

Put forth the ideas of gravity. Wrote the "Principle". Upheld empiricism and rationalism

Execution of Charles I



1649 - 1660

Cromwell's New Model Army wins a battle against Charles I. Virtually a military dictator causing chaos and death. England rejoiced with Cromwell's death, and Charles II restores the king.

Pride's Purge

1650 - 1660

Colonel Pride barred Presbytarians from entering Parliament.

Hobbes' Leviathan


Navigation Act


Royal Society of London


Philosopher's attempt to discuss new science. Formed the basis of the Enlightenment

Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan


Boyle's law formulated Verneer


Clarendon Code

1661 - 1665

Parliament excludes Catholics, Independents, and Presbytarians.

Great Fire of London


Milton's Paradise Lost Huygens


Jethro Tull

1674 - 1741

Financed new agricultural experiments. Known from his iron plow.

James II

1685 - 1688

Alienated Parliament and displayed Catholic sympathies.

Newton publishes his 'Principia'


Newton's Principa Mathmematica


Glorious Revolution


The birth of James II's son made Parliament invite William of Orange to invade England. A bloodless revolution.

Bill of Rights


William and Mary agreed to the Bill of Rights which limited the powers of the monarchy.

Toleration Act


Tolerated all Protestants but no Catholics and Anti-Trinians

Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding


William and Mary

1689 - 1702

Bank of England chartered


Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1750

Act of Settlement


Provided for the crown to go to the Protestant house of Hanover.

Reign of Queen Anne, the last of the Stuarts

1702 - 1714

John Kay

1704 - 1779

Demand for textiles grew rapidly. Invented the flying shuttle which allowed for faster weaving.

Act of Union creates UK




Fearing loss of power, they turned to James Edward. George defeated James and took the throne.



Whigs sought favor of George of Hanover

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

Established the first police system or "bobbies". Encouraged England to honor the national debt and saved England's financial integrity.

Charles Townshend

1725 - 1767

Instituted Crop rotation.

Robert Blakewell

1725 - 1795

Pioneered methods of animal breeding.

Richard Arkwright

1732 - 1792

Took textiles out of the home and into factories with the Water Frame.

Invention of the flying shuttle


Invented by John Kay which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution by greatly accelerating weaving.

James Watt

1736 - 1819

His steam engine made effective Newcomen's practically untransportable steam power in the 1700s. The engine became the primary mover for all industry.

British Industrial Revolution

1740 - 1869

Jeremy Bentham

1748 - 1832

Preached utilitarinism or the greatest happiness for the greatest number.



Romantic religion which revolted against deism and rationalism. Led by John Wesley.

Enclosure Acts

1750 - 1850

Ended the open-field system and made land more efficient. Small landowners who needed common land, were forced off in the new system.



The increasing demand for cotton textiles were met through the spinning jenny.

James Hargreaves's spinning jenny invented


Later patented in 1770.

James Watt's steam engine patent



1770 - 1780

Introduced a new puddling process which increased the demand for versatile and cheap iron.


1771 - 1858

Major British socialist who made utopian societies in New Lanark and New Harmony.

Pitt the Younger


Suppressed reform and drove out radical thinker: Joseph Priestly. Suspended Habeaus Corpus.

Power loom invented


Robert Peel

1788 - 1850

Responsible for police forces being placed in London

Malthus' Essay on the Principle of Population


Written by Thomas Malthus, it contended that population must eventually outstrip the food supply, because although the human population grows geometrically, the food supply can expand only arithmetically.

There was little that could be done in averting the disaster, except through late marriage, chastity and contraception.

He believed that the immediate plight of the working class could only become worse. If wages were raised, the workers would simply produce more children, who, would in return, consume both the extra wages and more food.

Later he suggested that if the working class could be persuaded to adopt a higher standard of living, their increased wages might be spent on consumer goods rather than on begetting more children.


1805 - 1810

Wrote the "Genius of Christianity". Argued that the essence of religion is passion.

Lord Byron

1805 - 1810

A true rebel who skeptically rejected old traditions and championed personal liberty.

Corn Laws


Maintained high prices for crops.

Ricardo's Principles of Poltical Economy


In his essay, David Ricardo transformed the concepts of Malthus into the ''iron law of wages'. If wages were raised, more children would be produced. They, in turn, would enter the labor market, thus expanding the number of workers and lowering wages. As wages fell, working people would produce fewer children. The wages would then rise, and the process would start all over again.

In the long run however, wages would always tend toward and minimum level.

His arguments supported employers in their natural reluctance to raise wages and also provided strong theoretical support for opposition to labor unions.

Six Acts


Forbade large unauthorized meetings, raised fines for libel, speeded trails, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited training armed groups, and allowed home searches.

Peterloo Massacre


Local militia massacred, putting an end to reform movements.

Catholic Emancipation Act


British extend male suffrage

1832 - 1867

Great Reform Bill 1832


Rotten Boroughs were abolished and number of city representatives increased.

The Opium Wars (both wars combined)

1839 - 1860

he Opium Wars, also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, divided into the First Opium War from 1839 to 1842 and the Second Opium War from 1856 to 1860, were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire.

British child labor legislation

1842 - 1847

Irish Famine

1845 - 1847

Anti Corn Law League


Organized by manufacturers, it was made because the league wanted to abolish the tariffs protecting the domestic price of grain. that change would lead to lower food prices, which would then allow lower wages at no real cost to the workers. In turn, the prices on British manufactured goods could also be lowered to strengthen their competitive position in the world market.

The reason for Robert Peel's repeal of this law was the Irish famine. He realized that he had to open British ports to foreign grain in order to feed the starving Irish. He accompanied the abolition measure with a program for govt aid to modernize British agriculture.

The repeal marked the opening of an era of free trade.

Repeal of the Corn Laws



The Golden Bull establishes a system..


The Golden Bull establishes a system for the election of the HR Emperor.

Under Luxembourg Emperor Charles IV.

Habsburg rule begins


Gutenberg's printing press


Life of Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Philipp Melanchthon

1497 - 1560

German reformer who restructured academic curriculum and supported the reading of primary sources.

His projects reflect the tie between humanist ideals and Protestantism.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Set forth his theology in The Institutes of the Christian Religion, the most important single work to emerge from the Protestant Reformation of the 16th cent.
He agreed with Luther that the Bible was the only source of Christian doctrine and that there were only two sacraments, baptism and holy communion.

But he emphasized the doctrine of salvation by election - aka predestination.

Martin Luther publishes the Ninety Five Theses


Ulrich Zwingli


A Humanist and Catholic priest who originally hoped that the Catholic Church would reform himself. But in this year he led the church of Zurich in its break from Roman Catholicism. Like Luther, he believed in the supremacy of the Bible. BUT! He believed that the baptism and holy communion were ceremonies symbolizing the believer's affiliation with the Christan church, rather than true sacraments.

Reign of Charles V

1519 - 1556

Diet of Worms


The HR Emperor Charles V orders Luther to appear before the Diet of the HRE at its meeting in Worms. When he was called to recant, Luther refused. The emperor then declared him an outlaw, and Elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony provided the reformer with refuge at the Wartburg Castle.

Edict of Worms


Declared Martin Luther a heretic

German Peasant Revolt

1524 - 1525

Martin Luther refused to support this revolt despite the pleads, as he supported social conformity.

Charles V sacks Rome


Diet of Augsburg


M. Luther appeared before Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg, where he presented a statement of his faith, which came to know as the Confession of Augsburg. The Diet found it unacceptable.

Calvin returns to Geneva


Back in Geneva, he drafted the text to be later discussed with the city's councils, in which he clearly defined the power of the Church and the power of the City. The purpose was not an early separation of the Church from the State, but the sharing of the tasks.

Life of Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

A Danish astronomer who collected vast amounts of accurate, astronomical data about the stars and planets. These discovers served to undermine the Ptolemaic view of the universe. Nevertheless, he did not fully accept the heliocentric theory advanced by Copernicus, because he concluded that while the planets revolved around the sun, the earth remained stationary.

The Peace of Augsburg


The contending forces of Germany reached a compromise agreement to reconcile its Lutheran and Catholic tensions. This Peace of Augsburg gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state (one of the two).

CUIUS REGIO, EIUS RELIGIO (whose religion, his religion).
It did not provide the recognition of other religious groups such as the Calvinists or Anabaptists.

Reign of Emperor Ferdinand I

1558 - 1564

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

A German astronomer who accepted the fundamental validity of the heliocentric theory. He took Brahe's data and proceeded to develop three laws of planetary motion, publishing the first two in 1609 and the third in 1619.
According to the first law, the planets, including the earth, revolve around the sun in elliptical (rather than circular) orbits.
The second law stated that the velocity of the planets varies according to their distance from the sun. A planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun than when it is farther away.
The third law set forth a complex mathematical formula explaining the physical relationship among the moving planets.

Catholic League

1609 - 1635

Established to counteract the Protestant Union (formed 1608), whereby the participating states concluded an alliance "for the defence of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire.

The Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

Between the Catholics and the Protestants within the HRE.
France was trapped between two Habsburgs: HRE and Spain. Richelieu wanted to make France a dominant power, so they tried to break up the HRE without France becoming directly involved.

This war decentralized the HRE, limited the Habsburgs, and led to the rise of the Bourbon dynasty.

Ferdinand II

1620 - 1637

Reign of Ferdinand III

1637 - 1657

Peace of Westphalia


The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.

German composer Bach

1685 - 1750

Johann Wolfgang von goethe

1749 - 1832

considered as the supreme genius of modern German literature. His works span the fields of poetry, drama, prose, philosophy, and science.

Life of German Ludwig Van Beethoven

1770 - 1827

Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers.

Lifetime of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

1770 - 1831

The most important philosopher of the Romantic Period. He believed that ideas develop in an evolutionary fashion that involves conflict. Wrote "Phenomenology of the Mind" and "Lectures on the Philosophy of History."

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

It was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.

Sought to maintain peace and repair the damage done by Napoleon's sweep through Europe. It failed to consider the powers of nationalism and liberalism.

Marx/Engels publish The Communist Manifesto



Ivan III the Great

1462 - 1505

Henry VII becomes first Tudor king of England


Ivan the Terrible becomes Tsar


Russian "Time of Troubles"

1584 - 1613

Michael Romanov becomes Tsar


Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

1700-21 Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Catherine the Great Empress of Russia

1762 - 1796

Russia at war with Ottomans

1768 - 1774

Russia annexes


Decembrist Revolt


In December of 1825 in St. Petersburg, Russia, a group of military officials staged a revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. These rebels were liberals who felt threatened by the new ruler's conservative views. They were, however, defeated by the tsar's forces. As a result of this revolt, Nicholas I implemented a variety of new regulations to prevent the spread of the liberal movement in Russia.


Frederick William I rules Prussia

1713 - 1740

Frederick II invades Silesia


King of Prussia, Frederick II invades Silesia

Prussia ends serfdom



The Warsaw Confederation


Important confederation that extended religious tolerance to nobility within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Considered to be the beginning of religious freedom in that Commonwealth.

Liberum Veto


In 1652, this parliamentary device is introduced, allowing any member of the legislature (Sejm) to force an end to the session and to nullify any legislation that was being passed at the moment.

Was very ineffective - made it very difficult for Poland to get anywhere or come to any mutual agreement because one 'voice' or objection could make the government crumble, forcing the nation to rebuild itself once more.

It considered to be a democratic element that would check the royal power.

Reign of John Sobieski III

1674 - 1696

War of Polish Succession

1733 - 1738

Resulted in the Treaty of Vienna.

Waged to determine the successor of the king of Poland, Augustus II the Strong.

Involved: Augustus III, King of Poland; France, Spain

It was a civil war over Polish king after death of Augustus II; France and Spain attempted to check the growing power of the Austrian Habsburgs in Western Europe.

Augustus III became the Polish successor and was supported by the Habsburgs and Russia.

Partitions of Poland

1772 - 1795

Russia and Austria ambitions collided in Danube. Russia gave Danube in exchange for a large portion of Eastern Poland.

1st Partition of Poland


Partitions of Poland - 1772


Partitioned by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria amongst themselves.

Ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The first partition was decided in 1772.

2nd Partrition


Partitions of Poland - 1793


Partitioned by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria amongst themselves.

Ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The second partition was decided in 1793.

Partitions of Poland - 1795


Partitioned by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria amongst themselves.

Ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The third partition was decided in 1795.

This last partition ultimately dissolved sovereign Poland for 123 years.

Constitution of 1815 of the Kingdom of Poland


Signed by Alexander I on Nov. 17, 1815.
Under it, the Kingdom of Poland became a constitutional monarchy linked to the Russian Empire.

"The king exercised executive authority but shared legislative power with the Sejm, retaining for himself the legislative initiative and the right of veto. The constitution established a bicameral Sejm consisting of the Senate, appointed by the King, and the Chamber of Deputies, made up of 77 deputies from the local sejms of the nobility and 51 deputies from the town council." (SOURCE: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com)

Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland


"A constitution introduced in the Kingdom of Poland after the suppression of the Polish Uprising of 1830–31 to replace the Constitution of 1815. It was promulgated in St. Petersburg by Tsar Nicholas I on Feb. 14 (26), 1832. Although the Organic Statute abolished the Sejm and the Polish Army, it preserved such autonomous institutions as the vicegerency, the State Council, and the vicegerent’s Administrative Council. These institutions, however, gradually disappeared as the Russian imperial administration was extended to the Kingdom of Poland." (SOURCE: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com)


Charles V of France

1364 - 1380

Also known as "Charles the Wise". His reign was marked in France during the Hundred Years Wars. His army took back the territory from England at the Treaty of Bretigny.

Christine de Pizan


Considered Europe's first female professional writer. Father was the physician of Charles V of France.

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

Considered to be a French heroine and military leader who organized French resistance against the English and helped install Charles VII as monarch.

Instrumental figure in beating England in 1420s. Tried and executed in 1431.

Charles VII

1422 - 1461

Defeated the English with the help of Joan of Arc and developed a strong economy for France through national taxes: "taille" and "gabelle" (salt tax)

Gutenberg Printing Press


Gutenberg's invention coincided with the invention of cheap paper. Books were mass produced, kings used print for propaganda, clergymen mass produced indulgences, and a new literature class began to develop. Invented movable type in Mainz and Stratsbourg between 1436 -1440.

Louis XI

1461 - 1483

Louis XI of France is one of the "New Monarchs". Son of Charles VII, strengthened the bureaucracy, kept the nobles under control and promoted trade and agriculture. Began the centralization of France.

Charles VIII

1483 - 1498

French king, invaded by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war.

Louis XII

1498 - 1515

Francis I

1515 - 1547

Francis I was captured by rival Charles V. He reversed his tolerant policy towards Protestantism after anti-Catholic placards were plastered in Paris in 1534.

Henry II

1547 - 1559

Henry IV

1553 - 1610

Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty. He succeeded as King Henry IV and converted to Catholicism. Ended the fighting in France.

Prince of Conde


The Bourbons sympathized with the Huguenots. Prince of Conde led this faction

Francis II

1559 - 1560

Francis II came to the power of the regency of Catherine de Medici. The monarchy was severely weakened. The Guises, the Bourbons, Montmerency-Chatillons competed for the king's favor. The Guises secured the king's favor.

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Duke of Sully

1560 - 1641

Henry IV set the state for an absolutist state. With Sully, established several government monopolies and introduced the canal system in the Atlantic and a corvee labor tax

January Edict


Catherine de Medici sought Protestant allies to weaken the Guises. It granted Protestants some freedom. Prince of Conde acted indecisively and the opportunity of an alliance with the monarchy passed as the Guises massacred Protestant.

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Peace of St.Germain-en-Laye


Protestants are now under the leadership of Coligny, granted religious freedom after three bloody wars.

St. Bartholmew's Day Massacre


Catherine convinces Charles that Huguenot coup is imminent, resulting in a large massacre.

Marie de Medici

1573 - 1642

Regent of Louis XIII and secured a 10 year defense pact with Spain in the Treaty of Fontainbleau.

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Alliance with Henry Navarre, the Protestant leader and heir to the throne. As they were about to attack, Henry III was assassinated.


1585 - 1642

Louis's advisor and allied with Gustavus Aldophus while maintaining relationships with Spain and expanding French territory. Used intendants to subject the nobles. Ended the Edict of Nantes.

Edict of Nantes

April 1598

Granted Hugenots religious freedom to practice Calvinism.

French settlement in Quebec


Henry IV assassinated


Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Created two types of nobility: hereditary and intellectuals.

raison d'état

1610 - 1643

Propaganda and Press were used to indoctrinate the meaning of state " which Louis XIV uses.

Jean-Baptist Colbert

1619 - 1683

Finance master who simplified administration, maximized exports, and decreased tax exempts.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Influential philosopher to reconcile faith and new science. He saw science as a separate realm from religion and allied himself with Janseneits.

Richelieu and Mazarin

1624 - 1661

Richelieu and Mazarin's reign of power in France.

Jacques Bousset

1627 - 1794

"I am the state" - divine right of kings.

France enters Thirty Year War


The Fronde


Rebellions which forced Mazarin and Louis to leave Paris for a short time. People began to prefer a stronger king than a regional anarchy.

Rene Descartes publishes 'Discourse on Method'


The Discourse on the Method is one of the most influential works in the history of modern philosophy, and important to the evolution of natural sciences. Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything, so as to assess the world from a fresh perspective, clear of any preconceived notions.


1640 - 1660

Triple Alliances collapses after the Treaty of Dover. Louis attacks Holland and is stopped by William of Orange.

Louis XIV rules France

1643 - 1715


1643 - 1715

Louis built a spectacular palace: a place of central government and to control the nobles. He calls the nobles every six months to stay at Versailles.

Cardinal Mazarin directs the French government

1643 - 1661


1663 - 1707

Military engineering perfected the art of fortifying and besieging towns: began trench warfare.

War of Devolution

1667 - 1668

Louis claimed his right to Holland as his wife's dowry renouncing her claim to Holland had not been paid.

Treaty of Dover


Charles receives financial supported from France. Charles issues the Declaration of Indulgence suspending all laws against Catholics but Parliament counteracted with the Tea Act.

Popish Plot

1678 - 1681

Catholics fears of James II colluding with Charles's Catholic wife to kill Charles II.

Nine Years' War

1681 - 1697

Louis conquers Stratsbourg. All hostilities ended with Holland and Holy Roman Empire securing its boarders.

Revocation of Edict of nantes


Louis XIV banned Huguenots from the Government. Used selective discrimination and revoked the Edict of Nantes.



Reorganized and centralized army

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Both Louis and Leopold had claims to the Spanish throne. Although negotiations had been made, Charles II gave throne to Phillip of Anjou. England, Holland and HRE formed the Grand Alliance.


1712 - 1778

Wrote "Emilie". Advocated to let children be free. Parents should only protect against dangers.

Treaty of Rastatt between France and Spain


At the First Congress of Rastatt, which was opened in November 1713, negotiations were carried on between France and Austria for the purpose of ending the War of the Spanish Succession. These culminated in the Treaty of Rastatt of 7 March 1714, ending hostilities formally and complementing the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. (source: wikipedia)


1714 - 1792

Abolished Parlements but Louis XVI reinstated them in order to gain popular support.

Louis XV becomes King of France


Mississippi Bubble


Orleans and John Law created the Mississippi Company. All gold payments were halted and Law fled France. Brought some shame to the government and installed a fear of paper money.

Jacques Necker

1732 - 1804

Claimed that French debt was not as bad as the first one and that most of it is directed to the nobles. Made it difficult for the king to raise new taxes.

Montesquieu’s Spririt of the Laws


In it, he pleaded in favor of a constitutional system of government and the separation of powers, the ending of slavery, the preservation of civil liberties and the law, and the idea that political institutions ought to reflect the social and geographical aspects of each community.


1755 - 1824

Came to throne after Napoleon. Had realized France had irreversible changes and needed to compromise. He created the Charter which allowed religious tolerations.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Support for American Revolution and debt from funding the Seven Year's War plagued French finance.

Rousseau's Social Contract and Emile


Charles Fourier

1772 - 1837

Believed that people would be happier and more productive if they preformed multiple jobs.



Realized the severity of French economic problems but any efforts were rebuffed by the nobility and clergy. 1788: Estates General were called.


1786 - 1787

Proposes drastic economic reforms. Assembly of Notables rejects Calonne's ideas and claims that only Estates General and has the power to consent new taxes.

Women's March to Versailles


National Assembly


Created by the Third Estate. Louis failed to deter the assembly, and requested to other estates to meet with the assembly. The Tennis Court Oath: promised not to disband until they have received a constitution.

Great Fear


The peasants were very unhappy about the nobles. The peasants burned all noble's documents allowing all the records of peasants to be gone. Nobles lost all their control over the nobles.

Abbe Sieyes


Questioned what the third estate meant. The third estate in reality did not have any power as voting by order allowed the clergy and nobility cooperate and gain majority.



800 urban people marched to Bastille and took weapons. Marquis de Lafayette: in charge of the National Guard.

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen


Written by Marquis Lafayette. "Liberty, property, security and resistance against oppression"

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

March on Versailles

October 1789

A bread shortage where armed women marched to Versailles demanding bread and demanded Louis to come back to Paris.


1790 - 1791

Leopold II and Fredrick III's declaration to protect the Royal family if the other major EU powers agreed.

Olympe de Gouges

1790 - 1791

Wrote the Declaration of Rights of Women, calling for women in marriage and education

Chapelier Law

1790 - 1791

Established a Metric system and abolished guilds.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790 - 1791

Which transformed the Church into a branch of state with the priests and bishops becoming employees of the state.

Constitution of 1791


Established a constitutional monarchy given a veto that could delay but not stop legislation.


1792 - 1793

shop keepers, artisans, wage workers and factory workers

September Massacre

1792 - 1793

Paris executes 1200 people in city jails and declares a republic


1792 - 1793

part of the republican Jacobins, led the new Legislative Assembly, to declare war on Austria.

Louis XVI beheaded


French "Cult of Reason"


French "Cult of Reason"


Louis XVI executed

July 1793

Committee of Public Safety

1794 - 1795

National Convention establishes the Committee of Public Safety and gains absolute control by Robespierre.

Reign of Terror

1794 - 1795

Robespierre ruled by killing anyone who was against Robespierre's republic.

Thermidorian Reaction

July 1794

The revolution began to temper the Girondists were allowed, Committee of Public Safety was weakened. A reactionary white terror executed terrorists.



Entranced to politics based on politics was throughly on property.Without popular support, the Directory came to depend on Napoleon's army.

Eugene Delacroix

1798 - 1863

French romantic painter who was the chief painter of the french romantic school, known for his use of vivid color, free drawing, and sometimes-violent subject matter.

Combination Acts


Outlawed unions

Napoleonic Wars

1800 - 1815

French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, a series of wars between 1792 and 1815 that ranged France against shifting alliances of other European powers and that produced a brief French hegemony over most of Europe. The revolutionary wars, which may for convenience be held to have been concluded by 1801, were originally undertaken to defend and then to spread the effects of the French Revolution. With Napoleon’s rise to absolute power, France’s aims in war reverted to simple aggrandizement of influence and territory.

(source: http://www.britannica.com)

Concordat of 1801


Clergymen were forced to resign. The state paid and chose the bishops.

Napoleonic Code

1802 - 1804

Napoleon: first consul of life. Napoleonic protected all forms of property overthrew privileges based on birth and instead based on merit


1803 - 1805

British declares war on Napoleon. He establishes authority over the seas.

Napoleon becomes Emperor


Napoleon I's Continental System


Established as an attempt to weaken economic Britain's power, though failed in effect as Britain had its own colonies to trade with, though the embargo had a significant effect on British trade, with British exports falling between 25% to 55% compared to pre-1806 levels.

Louis Blanc

1811 - 1882

Recognized the political power to improve worker's conditions.

Congress of Vienna

November 1814 - June 1815

Netherlands was recognized, Austria gained control of Italy, France was allowed to participate allowing Tallyrand to take lead of the congress.

Hundred Days


Napoleon escapes to France and returns to power with popular backing. He promises a liberal constitution and peace.


June 1815

The Quadruple proceeded to crush Napoleon at Waterloo and send him back to exile after a hundred days of power



Removed troops and readmitted France to good standing.

White Terror


Counterrevolution led by Count Artois and ultra royalists.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Louis Philipe

1830 - 1848

Politically liberal, replacing white bourbon flag with the tri-color flag of the revolution and abolished censorship

Four Ordinances


Charles capitalizes victory over Algeria to restrict press and dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, restrict franchise and call for new elections

July Revolution


The Four ordinances caused protest against King Charles X. The Bourbon dynasty ends and Louis Philipe becomes king.



Earliest Socialist pioneer

Proudhon publishes 'What is Property?'


Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was a French politician, mutualist philosopher, economist, and socialist. He was a member of the French Parliament and the first person to call himself an "anarchist". He is considered among the most influential theorists and organizers of anarchism. After the events of 1848 he began to call himself a federalist.

The book's publication attracted the attention of the French authorities. It also attracted the scrutiny of Karl Marx.

Other countries/events

Hanseatic League


It was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe. Established in 1358.

Conciliar Movement

1409 - 1449

The Conciliar Movement was a Christian reform movement in the 14th and 15th centuries in the Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Church as a corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the Pope. This movement occurred in Western Europe. Conciliarism was started by Pope Innocent III and is still used today in France.

Printers at Antwerp use movable type


Portugal explores African coast

1430 - 1439

Bubonic Plague sweeps through Europe

1437 - 1450

Ottomans take Constantinople


DeGama reaches India


Magellan's voyage around the world

1519 - 1522

Ferdinand Magellan is considered to be the first to navigate across the globe.

De Revolutionibus by Copernicus


Polish astronomer Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in which he offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system, which had been widely accepted since ancient times.

Witch Panics

1550 - 1560

Targeted the socially vulnerable - mostly women, especially those who were poor, socially rejected or widowed.

Antwerp's height of prosperity


Mercator project map


Battle of Lepanto


The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of southern European Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire.

Battle of Lepanto


Turks besiege Vienna


Hapsburg-Ottoman peace treaty


Scotsman Hume publishes Treatise on Human Nature


Full title: 'A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects'.

Divided into three sections:
Book 1: "Of the Understanding" – An investigation into human cognition. Important statements of Skepticism.
Book 2: "Of the Passions" – A treatment of emotions and free will.
Book 3: "Of Morals" – A treatment of moral ideas, justice, obligations, benevolence.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Diderot's Encyclopedia


Volataire's Candide


British dominance in India


Enlightened absolutist encourage economic growth

1763 - 1769

Volataire's Treaties on Toleration


Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations


Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations


Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman


Edward Jenner discovers smallpox vaccine


Revolutions in France, Belgium, Poland


American Samuel Morse patents telegraph


General railway construction boom

1840 - 1860

Austria abolishes serfdom


1848 Europe-wide Revolutions


A series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It was the only Europe-wide collapse of traditional authority to date, but within a year, reactionary forces had won out, and the revolutions collapsed.

This revolutionary wave began in France in February, and immediately spread to most of Europe and parts of Latin America. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among the revolutionaries in different countries. Five factors were involved: the widespread dissatisfaction with the political leadership; the demand for more participation and democracy; the demands of the working classes; the upsurge of nationalism; and finally, the regrouping of the reactionary forces based in the royalty, the aristocracy, the army, and the peasants.