History of Psychology

Main

Plato suggested that the brain is the mechanism of mental processes.

387 BC

Aristotle suggested that the heart is the mechanism of mental processes.

335 BC

Franz mesmer detailed his cure for some mental illness...

1774 AD

...originally, called mesmerism and known as hypnosis.

Franz Gall wrote about phrenology.

1808

Idea that a persons skull shape and placement of bumps on head can reveal personality traits.

Wilhelm Wundt started the first psychological laboratory-

1879

and was known as the father of structuralism.

The psychoanalytic perspective was introduced by Sigmund Freud.

1886

It suggests that their is a structure of the mind that includes the id, the superego and the ego.

William James published "Principles of Psychology' ...

1890

which later became the foundation for functionalism. (considering everything as a whole, instead of breaking it down)

Structuralism

1896

Edward B. Titchener, a leading proponent of structuralism , publishes his outline of psychology. Structuralism is the view that all mental experiences can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events. This approach focuses on the contents of the mind, contrasting with functionalism.

Ivan Pavlov published the first studies on "classic conditioning"

1906

John E. Watson published "Psychology as a Behaviorist Views it"...

1913

..Marking the beginning of Behavioral psychology. (perspective that focuses on observable and measurable behavior)

Humanisitc Perspective

1954

Emerges as the "third force" in psychology. Led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, this approach focuses on the conscious mind, free will, human dignity and the capactiy for self-actualization.

Biopsychology--

1954

--In his studies of epilepsy, neuroscientist Wilder G. Penfield begins to uncover the relationships between chemical activity in the brain and psychological phenomena. His findings set the stage for widespread research on the biological role in psychological phenomena.

Cognitive Perspective

1967

The term was coined by Ulric Neisser when he published the book "Cognitive Psychology". This perspective examines internal mental processes, such as creativity, perception, thinking, problem solving, memory and language. It is the opposite of the behaviorist perspective.