Izzy's AP Euro Chapter 9-19

McAvoy Period 8

Main

Decline of Gothic Art

1200 - 1400

Emergence of Baroque and Mannerism art styles. Old religiously influenced art declines

Dante

1265 - 1321

Auhor of Dante's Inferno. Published and read during the Renaissance

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Poet known as the "Father of Humanism"

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Period of time when the papacy was cut off from Roman estates and had to raise their own funds.

Henry VIII r.

1313 - 1375

King of England. Had many wives and fleeting romances.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Author of Decameron. Death marked the beginning of the Renaissance

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

A religious organization begun by John Wycliffe. They supported

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

A conflict between France and England that greatly affected European politics

Black Death

1346 - 1350

Great plaque that wiped out 40 percent of Europe's population

Italian Renaissance

1350 - 1545

Age of artistic, educational, and technological reforms beginning in Italy.

The Golden Bull

1356

Agreemen to create a sevn member council to elect the Holy Roman Emperor

Jacquerie

1358

French peasant revolts

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Period of time whrn the Catholic church was led by 2 and at one point 3 popes

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Council summoned in Constanceto assert its supremacy and elect a new pope

Hussites - John Huss

1415

Fllowers of John Huss who questioned the Catholic teaching of the Eucharist

Early Exploration: Portugal + Spain

1419 - 1507

Portugal was the country in the lead in the aspects of exploration of the New World but Spain soon surpassed.

Printing Press- Guttenberg

1441

Invented by Gutenberg. Proved profitable to printers and as a great aid to the Reformation

Northern Renaissance

1443 - 1509

Renaissance in Northern Europe. Reformers were more concerned with religious and educational rerforms.

Witch Hunts

1466 - 1750

Period of time where women were singled out and murdered for evidence of performance of "witchcraft"

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Leader of the Northern Renaissance. Aspired to unite classical beliefs with civic virtue and piety

Ferdinand and Isabella (married)

1469

Political marriage between two future sovereigns that secured the success of both of their states

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1648

European encounter with Native's in the New World. Brought diseases that killed Natives and returned diseases from the New World to Europe

Columbus/Start of Spanish Empire

1492

Spanish Queen Isabella funds Christopher Columbus' voyage to the New World. Began Spain's long term dominance of colonial empires

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1750

Period of European economic expansion, colonialism and mercantilism

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Considered the "warrior pope." Raised the papacy in the Renaissance to its military and diplomatic peak.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Powerful Protestant religious movement beginning in Germany during the late 16th Century and early 17th century.

Luther - 95 Theses

October 31, 1517

A document written by Martin Luther opposing the selling of indulgences by the Catholic church.

Mannerism: Until Boroque

1520 - 1580

Artistic style. Emphasizes human bodies and portrays humans in dramatic poses, situations and settings

Diet of Worms

1521

Luther's excommunication from the Catholic church.

German Peasants Revolt

1524 - 1525

These revolts were caused by Martin Luther's views on the Catholic church and their practices however, Luther did not support these revolts.

Stuarts

1530

A royal family. Origins in Scotland.

Jesuits - Ignatius of Loyola

1530 - 1556

Impertnent in the Counter-Reformation. Believed in full submission to the authorities

English Civil War

1531 - 1558

War among the English states. Parliament and King struggle for power

The Prince - Machiavelli

1532

A book written by Machiavelli for rulers on how to be a good ruler

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

Ruler who placed political auontomy and well-being of his people above religion

Act of Supremacy

1534

Henry VIII verdict that he was head over the Catholic Church. Because he needed a male heir.

John Calvin-Geneva

1536

Geneva was a Calvinist woman's utopia. Calvinists believed in predestination

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Challenged Ptolemaic views in a conservative way

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

A meeting of leaders of the Catholic church in response to the Reformation to reform church practices.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Geocentric models. Greatly influential during the Scientfic Revolution.

Mary I (England) r.

1553 - 1558

Restored the throne to Catholic influence with an unpopular religious marriage to a Spanish king.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Decree recognizing that the ruler chooses th religion of his region. cuius regio, eus religo

Elizabeth I (England)

1558 - 1603

Writer of the 39 Articles. Moderated Protestant views. Queen of England

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Age of religious wars within France. Between Protestants and Catholics

William Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Renaissance poet, actor and playright. Works influenced modern English language.

James I (England)

1567 - 1625

Rarely summoned parliament. Strong believer in Divine Right. Court was a center of scandal and corruption.

Dutch Revolt Against Spain

1568 - 1648

Resistance in the Netherlands to Philip's attempts to impose his will

Pacification of Ghent

1568

The union of ten Catholic provinces in response to the Spansih Flury

Union of Utrecht

1568

Northern English provinces responded to the Reformation.

Thirty Nine Articles

1571

Document that moderated Protestant religious beliefs in England

Baroque Art

1571 - 1680

Art. Greatl flmboyant, ornate, and flashy. Example: Versailles

Saint Bartholemew's Day Massacre

1572

French attacked Protestant church outside Paris.

Mary Stuart executed

1587

Mary Stuart was a threat to Elizabeth I so she was executed

Spanish Armada

May 1588

Philip II of Spain was heir to the Habsburg kingdom and head of the Spanish Armada which was defeated in 1588

Henry IV of Navarre r.

1589 - 1610

French politique, Greatly beloved by his people,

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Increase in demand for gods and services. Creaed demand for Industrial Revolution

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Henry IV's declaration of the protection and toleration of the Huguenots

Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

Period of time when Mercantilism was the primary economical structure in Europe. Mercantilism was the practice of the government holding power over trade. Limited resources. One nations wealth = anothers downfall

Rise of the Netherlands - Dutch Golden Age

1600 - 1700

Period of time when the Dutch were the lead on economics and trade

Louis XIV (Mazarin - minority)

1602 - 1661

Period of time before Louiz XIV was old enough to rule on his own. Mazarin took control.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1605

First novel written by Cervantes

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1609

Assisstant to Tycho Brahe. Discovered planets traveling in ellipses

Louis XIII (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

Ruler and bishop preceding Louis XIV. Basis of Louis XIV beliefs and practices

Henry IV Assassination

May 14, 1610

Henry of Navarre was assassinated by a Catholic in 1610

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Religious war in the Holy Roman Empire. Both sides fought viciously for their beliefs

Bacon - Novum Organum

1620

One of the most influential works of the Scientific Revolution. Portrayed the desire to seek understanding of the natural world.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Fecnh mathematician and scientist who allied himself with the Jansenists and believed in a "leap of faith" in religious matters

Charles I (England)

1625 - 1649

Attempted to rule without PArliamentary aid but needed their financial support for wars

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

Rational deduction

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

Ended all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

French peasants threw sling shots

Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

Period of time when Cromwell and Parliament ruled over England

Academies of Science

1650 - 1800

Royal Society of London. Academies focusing on scientific teachings

Decline of Netherlands

1650 - 1750

Death of William of ORange adn emergence of England as a colonial power

Hobbes: Leviathan

1651

Humankind is inherintly evil. Absolute monarchy

Act of Settlement

1652 - 1662

Gave Sophia of Hanover the English Throne

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Ruled as Lord Protector after the end of the English Civil War

Charles II (england)

1660 - 1685

Son of Charles I. Happily restored to power after Cromwell's rule

Restoration of the Monarchy

1660

Eland returned to its hereditary monarchy after the death of Cromwell and the restoration of Charles II to the throne

Royal Society of London

1660

Group of colleges that tought about the new knowledge of the natural world

Louis XIV (personal reign)

1661 - 1715

Buitl Versailles. L'etat, c'es moi. I am the state. Established Absolute rule in France. Dvinine Right

Glorious Revolution

1668

Replacement of James II by William and Mary in England. Represents beginning of Constitutional monarchy in Britain

Emergence of Rococo

1670 - 1730

Originated in France. Portrayed aristocracy at play.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Founded Petersburg. Known for his westernizing of Russia

Industrial Revolution

1685 - 1688

European economical mechanization beginning in Britain

James II (England)

1685 - 1688

Last Catholic king. Replaced by William of Orange

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

October 1685

Revoked the edict that gave French Huguenots freedom in France.

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1687

A book written by Newton on mathematics and Newtonian principles

Frederick Wilhelm

1688 - 1740

Prussian ruler. Established Prussia as a military power

English Bill of Rights

1689

Document modifying English government

Locke: Treatise on Government (1st and 2nd)

1689

In the first, Locke rejected any argument for absolute government. In the second, he discussed the responsibility and response to concerns of th people

End of the Witch Hunts

1700

Ended because of scientific advances and declining wars and famine

Great Northern War: Russia v. Swedem

1700 - 1721

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

War between Spain and Franc to decide who would inherit the Habsburg throne

Death of William III

1702

Death of ruler that contributed to Netherlands decline

Charles VI + Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

Guaranteed the succession of his daughter to the throne

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession

Death of Louis XIV

1715

Nobles didnt know how to do their jobs becaus of the extravagance they'd lived in for so long at Versailles

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

Scheme concocted to increase Mississippi Company's revenue. Sold shares of the company for bonds. Businessmen sold their bonds for gold but the bank lacked the gold to reimburse,

Emergence/Dominance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

Ascendensy based on support of royals, ability to handle the House of Commons, and control of government patronage

Catherine the Great

1729 - 1796

Enlightened despot. Made reforms in Russia based on enlightenment ideals

War of Jenkins Ear

1739 - 1748

Public opinion. Spain attacekd English smugglers

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War between Prussia and France over who has power of the Austrian Silesia

Frederick (The Great) II of Prussia

1740 - 1768

Considered the first Enlightened despot. Reformed his rule with ideas from the Enlightenment. Ruled for the people

Maria Theresa r.

1745 - 1765

Preserved Prussia as a major political power

Agricultural Revolution

1750 - 1900

Period of innovations in farm productions eventually leading to scientific and mechanized agriculture

Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

When England uses Prussia as a distraction to enable it to invade France

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

The shifting of alliances to prevent worse wars

Voltaire - Candide

1759

Book making fun of extreme ideas by the philisophes

Rousseau - Emile, Social Contract

1762

Outlined political structure that he believed could overcome the corruption of he current political and societal structures

Treaty of Paris

1763

Treaty that made peace between France and England after the Seven Years Year

Joseph II of Austria

1764 - 1790

Enlightened despot. Made many economic reforms. Religious toleration

Spinning Jenny

1765

Invention allowing 16 spindles of thread to be spun at a time rather than one. Industrial Revolution invention

Water Frame

1769

Invention taking cotton textile production out of domestic life and into factories. Industrial Revolution inventin

Steam Engine

1769

Ivention originally used for pumping but modified to convenience cotton mill production. Industrial Revolution invention.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

American colonies revolt and separate from England

Smith: Wealth of Nations

1776

Capitalism

Malthus: Principle of Population

1798

Human suffering is inevitable and their aren't enough resources to support humanity

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages

1817

Laissez faire

Isabel Hope Padgett

November 11, 1996 - Present

Amazing and beautiful in every way.. Tyler will vouch

French Revolution

Great Fear

1784

Period of time when peasants were afraid of Kings backlash to the revolution

Estates General Called

1789

Estates General meets

Storming of Bastille

1789

Beginning of the radical period of the Franch Revolution. French peasants stormed the Bastille castle

Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

All men created free and equalo. Guiding document of the revolution

Tennis Court Oath

1789

Oath between the Third Estate. To establish a new government

War with Austria

1789

England's reaction to the Queen's brother's threat that they would attack if the royal family was injured

Renouncement of Noble Feudal Priviliges

August 4 1789

On paper, everyone is equal

March of the Fishwives

October 6 1789

Mob raids Versailles and captures teh royal family

Civil Constitution of Clergy

1790

The confiscation of Catholic lands. Resold with grants.

Legislative Assembly meets

1791

First meeting of the Legislative Assembly. Establishes new government

Wollstonecraft: Vindication of Rights of Women

1792

Woman philisoph. Wrote about equal woemn's rights

Tuileries Stormed: King captive

1792

King is captured and put on trial as a citizen

Conventions meets: Monarch abolished

1792

Abolishment of monarchy. First republic voted into place

Louis XIV executed

1792

Louis tried as a citizen. Found guilty of being the King -treason. Executed with the guiotine

Danton Executed

1793

Condemned for treason against the Convention

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Period of time when the Convention kills anyone who disagrees with tehm. Robespierre

Levee en masse

1793

Male draft into the French army

Cult of Supreme Being

1794

Deism made the official religion

Cult of Reason

1794

Robespierres form of deism. Ratioanl. Enlightened

Fall of Robespierre

1794

Attempted to convict people in the Convention of treason. Was executed.

Constitution of Year III - The Directory

1795

Constitution favoring the middle class.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Weak and overthrown by Napolean

Napolean: Coup Broumaire

1799

Weakened the Directory to establish himelf as Consulate