AP European History Timeline

Dylan Graves, McAvoy, Period 8

Large Scale Events and Movements

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.

The Black Death

1346 - 1400

A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe

Itialian Renaissance

1350 - 1527

Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome

Northerern Renaissance

1450 - 1648

Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War

Commercial Revolution

1488 - 1776

Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776

Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1789

Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1750

Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher's debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1900

A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion, resulting from increase life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, and the Steam Engine helped progress this period.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,

Small Scale Events and Movements

Petrach

1304 - 1374

Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Humanist who wrote much in agreement with Petrach.

Jacquerie

March 1358 - July 1358

Revolt during the summer of 1358 in France, Part of the Hundred Years' War

John Hus and the Hussites

1403 - 1431

The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.

Erasmus

1466 - 1534

Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1776

Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1750

Period of 'Hunting Witches' in small towns, using witches as excuses for bad things.

Rule of King Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1527

German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.

King William of Orange the Silent

1544 - 1584

Main leader of the Dutch revolt, excellent politique

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Astronomer who accurately observed the heavens

Rule of Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.

French Wars on Religion

1562 - 1598

Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets

Rule of James I of England

1567 - 1625

Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.

Dutch Golden Age

1570 - 1650

After the Dutch Revolts, dutch trade, science, and are were superior to nearly everyone else's at the time.

Rule of King Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass"

Rule of Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Natural Philosopher who studied mathematics and physics.

Rule of Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Enlightened thinker who urged that the role of government is to protect the people from themselves. Used idea of Natural Rights, or rights that everyone should be granted, an idea embraced by the French Revolution.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.

Rule of Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Centralized French government by building and maintaining nobles in Versailles, waged successful wars, revoked the Edict of Nantes

Mississippi Bubble

1684 - 1720

An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper noted, destroying their economy.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

War for Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with decision that Philip could be King of Spain, but not of France as well.

Rousseau

1712 - 1779

Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War over whether Maria Theresa should keep the Austrian Throne. Ends with Maria Theresa keeping the Austrian Throne.

Rule of Fredrick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Brilliant military strategist who lead Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign

Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British Dominance outside Europe.

Rule of King Louis XVI of France

1774 - 1792

King of France under whom the Revolution of France occurred, eventually leading to his downfall.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

American colonies separated from Great Britain.

The Great Fear

July 17, 1789 - August 5, 1789

A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the Revolution

National Convention

1792 - 1794

French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.

Reign of Terror

September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794

A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they though didn't support the Revolution... Which was about 25,000 people.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Frances revolutionary government

Individual Dates

The Golden Bull

1356

Established centralization of Holy Roman Empire, gave much power to Prussia.

John Wycliffe

1382

John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.

Invention of the Printing Press

1440

Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance.

Ferdinand and Isabella marry

October 18, 1469

King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.

Columbus's Discovery of the New World

1492

Columbus discovers America

Luthers posts his 95 Thesis

October 31, 1517

Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Reformation

Diet of Worms

1521

A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.

John Calvin and the Calvinists

1530

John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on pre-destination

The Prince is Published

1532

The Prince, by Machiavelli, is published, explaining what a good ruler should be.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 23, 1572

Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.

Spanish Armada attacks

August 8, 1588

The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.

Edict of Nantes

1598

Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.

Assassination of Henry IV of France

May 14, 1610

Henry IV is assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.

Principa Mathematica is published

1687

Book by Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution stating Newton's Laws of Motion

Pragamatic Sanction

1713

An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to insure his daughter inherited his land.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

Shift of support between England and France over Austria and Prussia, from Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France to the reverse.

Nobles renounce feudal priveledge

1789

In order to support the French Revolution and to avoid being persecuted by the peasants, Franh nobles revoke their feudal power.

Estates General is Called and Meets

1789

The Estates General meets in Versailles, and ends in the Tennis Court oath, sparking the French Revolution

Formation of the National Assembly

June 17, 1789

The pivotal group of Third Estates Generals formed a group against the French Monarchy, eventually beginning a revolution.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

One of the meetings of the National Convention, the group that began the French Revolution. Happened after the National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.

Storming of Bastille

July 14, 1789

Bastille is captured by peasants, rebellion begins

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26, 1789

The documents that was influenced by the idea of 'Natural Rights' and declared what rights every human should have.

Women's March on Versailles

October 5, 1789

Paris women rioted over high bread prices and so they ransacked the Palace of Versailles, which ended with King Louis XVI to return to Paris with them.

Constitution of the Year III

August 22, 1795

Constitution ratified by the National Convention to establish the Directory

Napoleon becomes Emperor

May 18, 1804

Napoleon becomes Emperor, and that ends Semester 1!

Types of Art

Mannerism

1500 - 1580

A type of art associated with the Italian Renassaince

Dutch Golden Age Art

1560 - 1650

Art that highlights daily life using still lives, or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasized peasant life.

Boroque

1580 - 1800

Style of art that was very grand and furnished. Very ornate.

Rococo

1750 - 1800

French style similar to the ornate baroque.

Neoclassicalism

1750 - 1800

Art that was painted in the classical Greek and Roman style, depicting contemporary scenes.