The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.
The Black Death
1346 - 1400
A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe
1350 - 1527
Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome
1450 - 1648
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War
1488 - 1776
Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776
1517 - 1648
The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War
1543 - 1789
Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.
1600 - 1750
Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution
1700 - 1800
A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher's debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.
1750 - 1900
A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion, resulting from increase life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, and the Steam Engine helped progress this period.
1789 - 1799
Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,
Small Scale Events and Movements
1304 - 1374
Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.
1309 - 1376
A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.
1313 - 1375
Humanist who wrote much in agreement with Petrach.
March 1358 - July 1358
Revolt during the summer of 1358 in France, Part of the Hundred Years' War
John Hus and the Hussites
1403 - 1431
The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation
Council of Constance
1414 - 1418
The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.
1466 - 1534
Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
1473 - 1543
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.
1492 - 1776
Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution
1500 - 1750
Period of 'Hunting Witches' in small towns, using witches as excuses for bad things.
Rule of King Henry VIII of England
1509 - 1547
Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1527
German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.
King William of Orange the Silent
1544 - 1584
Main leader of the Dutch revolt, excellent politique
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.
1546 - 1601
Astronomer who accurately observed the heavens
Rule of Mary I of England
1553 - 1558
"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.
French Wars on Religion
1562 - 1598
Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes
1564 - 1616
Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets
Rule of James I of England
1567 - 1625
1568 - 1648
The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.
Dutch Golden Age
1570 - 1650
After the Dutch Revolts, dutch trade, science, and are were superior to nearly everyone else's at the time.
Rule of King Henry IV of France
1589 - 1610
Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass"
Rule of Louis XIII
1610 - 1643
Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.
Thirty Years' War
1618 - 1648
The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.
1623 - 1662
Natural Philosopher who studied mathematics and physics.
Rule of Charles I of England
1625 - 1649
Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War.
1632 - 1704
Enlightened thinker who urged that the role of government is to protect the people from themselves. Used idea of Natural Rights, or rights that everyone should be granted, an idea embraced by the French Revolution.
English Civil War
1642 - 1651
Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.
Rule of Louis XIV
1643 - 1715
Centralized French government by building and maintaining nobles in Versailles, waged successful wars, revoked the Edict of Nantes
1684 - 1720
An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper noted, destroying their economy.
1694 - 1778
Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
War for Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with decision that Philip could be King of Spain, but not of France as well.
1712 - 1779
Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution
Rule of Fredrick the Great of Prussia
1740 - 1786
Brilliant military strategist who lead Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
War over whether Maria Theresa should keep the Austrian Throne. Ends with Maria Theresa keeping the Austrian Throne.
Seven Years' War
1754 - 1763
Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British Dominance outside Europe.
Rule of King Louis XVI of France
1774 - 1792
King of France under whom the Revolution of France occurred, eventually leading to his downfall.
1775 - 1783
American colonies separated from Great Britain.
The Great Fear
July 17, 1789 - August 5, 1789
A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the Revolution
1792 - 1794
French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.
Reign of Terror
September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794
A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they though didn't support the Revolution... Which was about 25,000 people.
1795 - 1799
Frances revolutionary government
The Golden Bull
Established centralization of Holy Roman Empire, gave much power to Prussia.
John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.
Invention of the Printing Press
Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance.
Ferdinand and Isabella marry
October 18, 1469
King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.
Columbus's Discovery of the New World
Columbus discovers America
Luthers posts his 95 Thesis
October 31, 1517
Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Reformation
Diet of Worms
A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.
John Calvin and the Calvinists
John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on pre-destination
The Prince is Published
The Prince, by Machiavelli, is published, explaining what a good ruler should be.
Peace of Augsburg
The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
August 23, 1572
Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.
Spanish Armada attacks
August 8, 1588
The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.
Assassination of Henry IV of France
May 14, 1610
Henry IV is assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.
Principa Mathematica is published
Book by Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution stating Newton's Laws of Motion
An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to insure his daughter inherited his land.
Treaty of Utrecht
The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.
Shift of support between England and France over Austria and Prussia, from Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France to the reverse.
Estates General is Called and Meets
The Estates General meets in Versailles, and ends in the Tennis Court oath, sparking the French Revolution
Nobles renounce feudal priveledge
In order to support the French Revolution and to avoid being persecuted by the peasants, Franh nobles revoke their feudal power.
Formation of the National Assembly
June 17, 1789
The pivotal group of Third Estates Generals formed a group against the French Monarchy, eventually beginning a revolution.
Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789
One of the meetings of the National Convention, the group that began the French Revolution. Happened after the National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.
Storming of Bastille
July 14, 1789
Bastille is captured by peasants, rebellion begins
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
August 26, 1789
The documents that was influenced by the idea of 'Natural Rights' and declared what rights every human should have.
Women's March on Versailles
October 5, 1789
Paris women rioted over high bread prices and so they ransacked the Palace of Versailles, which ended with King Louis XVI to return to Paris with them.
Constitution of the Year III
August 22, 1795
Constitution ratified by the National Convention to establish the Directory
Napoleon becomes Emperor
May 18, 1804
Napoleon becomes Emperor, and that ends Semester 1!
Types of Art
1500 - 1580
A type of art associated with the Italian Renassaince
Dutch Golden Age Art
1560 - 1650
Art that highlights daily life using still lives, or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasized peasant life.
1580 - 1800
Style of art that was very grand and furnished. Very ornate.
1750 - 1800
Art that was painted in the classical Greek and Roman style, depicting contemporary scenes.