Dylan Graves, McAvoy, Period 8
The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.
A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe
Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War
Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776
The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War
Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.
Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution
A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher's debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.
A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion, resulting from increase life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, and the Steam Engine helped progress this period.
Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,
Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.
A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.
Humanist who wrote much in agreement with Petrach.
Revolt during the summer of 1358 in France, Part of the Hundred Years' War
The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation
The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.
Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.
Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution
Period of 'Hunting Witches' in small towns, using witches as excuses for bad things.
Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.
Main leader of the Dutch revolt, excellent politique
Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.
Astronomer who accurately observed the heavens
"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.
Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes
Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets
The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.
After the Dutch Revolts, dutch trade, science, and are were superior to nearly everyone else's at the time.
Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass"
Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.
The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.
Natural Philosopher who studied mathematics and physics.
Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War.
Enlightened thinker who urged that the role of government is to protect the people from themselves. Used idea of Natural Rights, or rights that everyone should be granted, an idea embraced by the French Revolution.
Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.
Centralized French government by building and maintaining nobles in Versailles, waged successful wars, revoked the Edict of Nantes
An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper noted, destroying their economy.
Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.
War for Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with decision that Philip could be King of Spain, but not of France as well.
Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution
War over whether Maria Theresa should keep the Austrian Throne. Ends with Maria Theresa keeping the Austrian Throne.
Brilliant military strategist who lead Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign
Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British Dominance outside Europe.
King of France under whom the Revolution of France occurred, eventually leading to his downfall.
American colonies separated from Great Britain.
A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the Revolution
French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.
A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they though didn't support the Revolution... Which was about 25,000 people.
Frances revolutionary government
Established centralization of Holy Roman Empire, gave much power to Prussia.
John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.
Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance.
King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.
Columbus discovers America
Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Reformation
A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.
John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on pre-destination
The Prince, by Machiavelli, is published, explaining what a good ruler should be.
The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.
Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.
The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.
Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.
Henry IV is assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.
Book by Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution stating Newton's Laws of Motion
An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to insure his daughter inherited his land.
The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.
Shift of support between England and France over Austria and Prussia, from Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France to the reverse.
In order to support the French Revolution and to avoid being persecuted by the peasants, Franh nobles revoke their feudal power.
The Estates General meets in Versailles, and ends in the Tennis Court oath, sparking the French Revolution
The pivotal group of Third Estates Generals formed a group against the French Monarchy, eventually beginning a revolution.
One of the meetings of the National Convention, the group that began the French Revolution. Happened after the National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.
Bastille is captured by peasants, rebellion begins
The documents that was influenced by the idea of 'Natural Rights' and declared what rights every human should have.
Paris women rioted over high bread prices and so they ransacked the Palace of Versailles, which ended with King Louis XVI to return to Paris with them.
Constitution ratified by the National Convention to establish the Directory
Napoleon becomes Emperor, and that ends Semester 1!
A type of art associated with the Italian Renassaince
Art that highlights daily life using still lives, or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasized peasant life.
Style of art that was very grand and furnished. Very ornate.
French style similar to the ornate baroque.
Art that was painted in the classical Greek and Roman style, depicting contemporary scenes.