AP European History Timeline

Dylan Graves, McAvoy, Period 8

Large Scale Events and Movements

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time.

1346 - 1400

A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe

1350 - 1527

Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome

1450 - 1648

Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War

1488 - 1776

Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War

1543 - 1789

Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.

1600 - 1750

Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution

1700 - 1800

A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher's debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.

1750 - 1900

A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion, resulting from increase life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, and the Steam Engine helped progress this period.

1789 - 1799

Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,

Small Scale Events and Movements

1304 - 1374

Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.

1309 - 1376

A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.

1313 - 1375

Humanist who wrote much in agreement with Petrach.

March 1358 - July 1358

Revolt during the summer of 1358 in France, Part of the Hundred Years' War

1403 - 1431

The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation

1414 - 1418

The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.

1466 - 1534

Humanist writer who supported religious toleration.

1473 - 1543

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.

1492 - 1776

Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1750

Period of 'Hunting Witches' in small towns, using witches as excuses for bad things.

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.

1524 - 1527

German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.

1544 - 1584

Main leader of the Dutch revolt, excellent politique

1545 - 1563

Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church.

1546 - 1601

Astronomer who accurately observed the heavens

1553 - 1558

"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants.

1562 - 1598

Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes

1564 - 1616

Codified English Language, wrote many plays and sonnets

1567 - 1625
1568 - 1648

The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain.

1570 - 1650

After the Dutch Revolts, dutch trade, science, and are were superior to nearly everyone else's at the time.

1589 - 1610

Politique who changed his religion and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass"

1610 - 1643

Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.

1618 - 1648

The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.

1623 - 1662

Natural Philosopher who studied mathematics and physics.

1625 - 1649

Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War.

1632 - 1704

Enlightened thinker who urged that the role of government is to protect the people from themselves. Used idea of Natural Rights, or rights that everyone should be granted, an idea embraced by the French Revolution.

1642 - 1651

Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.

1643 - 1715

Centralized French government by building and maintaining nobles in Versailles, waged successful wars, revoked the Edict of Nantes

1684 - 1720

An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper noted, destroying their economy.

1694 - 1778

Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.

1701 - 1714

War for Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with decision that Philip could be King of Spain, but not of France as well.

1712 - 1779

Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution

1740 - 1786

Brilliant military strategist who lead Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign

1740 - 1748

War over whether Maria Theresa should keep the Austrian Throne. Ends with Maria Theresa keeping the Austrian Throne.

1754 - 1763

Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British Dominance outside Europe.

1774 - 1792

King of France under whom the Revolution of France occurred, eventually leading to his downfall.

1775 - 1783

American colonies separated from Great Britain.

July 17, 1789 - August 5, 1789

A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the Revolution

1792 - 1794

French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.

September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794

A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they though didn't support the Revolution... Which was about 25,000 people.

1795 - 1799

Frances revolutionary government

Individual Dates

1356

Established centralization of Holy Roman Empire, gave much power to Prussia.

1382

John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.

1440

Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance.

October 18, 1469

King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations.

1492

Columbus discovers America

October 31, 1517

Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Reformation

1521

A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.

1530

John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on pre-destination

1532

The Prince, by Machiavelli, is published, explaining what a good ruler should be.

1555

The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.

August 23, 1572

Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants.

August 8, 1588

The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively.

1598

Issued by Henry IV that allowed Calvinists of France many rights in attempt to promote civil unity.

May 14, 1610

Henry IV is assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.

1687

Book by Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution stating Newton's Laws of Motion

1713

An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to insure his daughter inherited his land.

1713

The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.

1756

Shift of support between England and France over Austria and Prussia, from Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France to the reverse.

1789

The Estates General meets in Versailles, and ends in the Tennis Court oath, sparking the French Revolution

1789

In order to support the French Revolution and to avoid being persecuted by the peasants, Franh nobles revoke their feudal power.

June 17, 1789

The pivotal group of Third Estates Generals formed a group against the French Monarchy, eventually beginning a revolution.

June 20, 1789

One of the meetings of the National Convention, the group that began the French Revolution. Happened after the National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.

July 14, 1789

Bastille is captured by peasants, rebellion begins

August 26, 1789

The documents that was influenced by the idea of 'Natural Rights' and declared what rights every human should have.

October 5, 1789

Paris women rioted over high bread prices and so they ransacked the Palace of Versailles, which ended with King Louis XVI to return to Paris with them.

August 22, 1795

Constitution ratified by the National Convention to establish the Directory

May 18, 1804

Napoleon becomes Emperor, and that ends Semester 1!

Types of Art

1500 - 1580

A type of art associated with the Italian Renassaince

1560 - 1650

Art that highlights daily life using still lives, or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasized peasant life.

1580 - 1800

Style of art that was very grand and furnished. Very ornate.

1750 - 1800

Art that was painted in the classical Greek and Roman style, depicting contemporary scenes.

1750 - 1800

French style similar to the ornate baroque.