Kingdom in the southeast of the peninsula of Korea. Encouraged by the Tang to take control of much of the peninsula. Relied on support from the Tang, and it collapsed as the Tang fell in the early 900s
Africans exported large quantities of gold from Ghana. Collapsed due to invading Muslim Berbers attempting to spread Islam. Depended on a well-developed agriculture base and control of the lucrative regional and trans-Saharan trade routs. Preceded Mali in the western Sudan.
Called the "Plague of Justinian." Demographic crisis. Shared by the late Roman Empire and Byzantium.
Arab prophet. Founder of the religion of Islam. Experienced revelations about one god and about what would happen to souls after death until his death. Spoke to by the angel Gabriel.
Dynasty under which the reunification of China after centuries of division took place. Collapsed after only 34 years. Paved the way for the powerful and long-lasting Tang dynasty. Its practices strongly influenced the Tang.
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia. The Tang emperors presided over magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs. From the capital Damascus, Umayyads ruled an empire that extended form Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Japan's early capital. Provides invaluable evidence of the wooden architecture long since vanished form China. Showed how well the Japanese mastered Chinese building techniques.
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas. Overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests, he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Sponsored brief intellectual revival.
Capital of Japan moved from Nara. Provided invaluable evidence of the wooden architecture long since vanished form China.
Empire in central and southern China (960-1126). Empire in southern China (1127-1279). Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
Relief on the Abbasid caliph after a century under the thumb of the Shi'ite Buyids. Sunni Turks. Cities shrank as pastoralists overran their agricultural hinterlands. Tax revenues and irrigation works suffered.
Formal split in the religious community. "Great Western Schism". Division of churches.
Led by William the Conqueror, the duke of Normandy. Brought Anglo-Saxnon domination of the island to and end.
Captured Jerusalem in 1099. Established four crusader principalities, the most important being the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Original religious ardor had so diminished that the commanders agreed, at the urging of the Venetians, to sack Constantinople first to help pay the cost of transporting the army by ship.
The Fourth Crusade. To support the cost of transporting the army by ship.
The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols. It means the "oceanic" or "universal" leader. Founder of the Mongol Empire.
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent. Created by Muslim invaders.
Capital city of Cambodia. Complex systems were vulnerable to disruption. Irrigation systems fell to ruin.
Created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa. Famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. Succeeded Ghana. Bigger than Ghana. Rulers were Muslim who fostered the spread of Islam among the political and trading elite of empire.
City, now in ruins, with many stone structures built when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Last of the Mongol Great Khans and founder of the Yuan Empire. Gave Confucians lower statuses. Capital was called "Great Capital" or "City of the Khan". Encouragement of medicine.
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan. Destroyed the Southern Song.
Led by Genghis Khan, and later Kublai Khan defeating many dynasties and kingdoms including the Southern Song and the Jin Dynasty.
Served the emperor Khubilai Khan as an ambassador and as the governor of a Chinese province for many years. His accounts are questioned.
Most traveled scholar of his time. Moroccan Muslim. Wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands fro China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Ruler of Mali. Pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca from 1324 to 1325 established the empire's reputation fro wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Also called "Timur". Member of a prominent family of the MOngols' Jagadai Khanate. Through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. Consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire for nearly a century and founded the Mughal Empire in India.
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France. Involved English and French royal families and French noble families.
Based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. Emperor Yongle sponsored the building of he Forbidden City and voyage of Zheng He. Later years saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline.
Imperial eunuch and Muslim. Entrused by Ming Emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, form Southeast Asia to Africa. Cemented alliances with the Ming Empire, collect taxes, and pursued commercial relations with the Middle East and possibly Africa.
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
With it came the end of the Byzantine Empire. Ottomans had come in the same wave of Turkic migrations as the Seljuks.