Neanderthal- Paleolithic individuals did not limit their creative thinking to strictly practical matters of subsistence and survival. They reflected on the nature of human existence and the world around them. Place: western Germany
An early form of modern human (Homo sapiens) inhabiting Europe in the late Paleolithic Period and characterized by a broad face and tall stature. It is known from skeletal remains first found in the Cro-Magnon cave in southern France.
Small numbers of migrants crossed the Bering land bridge or by sailing or drifting with the currents. These numbers quickly grew as time goes on. Place: Bering sea
the initial transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture in prehistory. Key hearths are in mesoamerica, Andean South America, amazon river valley, west Africa, southwest Asia, east Asia, Southeast Asia, and sudanic Africa
best known for its specialized labor and grew from a small village into a bustling town for 5,000 inhabitants. Evidence of manufactured pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone, metal tools, wood cravings, carpets, beads, and jewelry were found.
a conqueror who started as an ambitious minor official from southern Egypt who rose to power and extended his authority north and into the delta. He created the pharaoh and founded he city Memphis, near Cairo. Place: Egypt
a groups of African people who migrated from west Africa towards the Congo river basin and the Great Lakes, absorbing local populations of hunting, gathering, and fishing peoples into their agricultural societies
a piece of literature that survived in the Assyrian library. This epic is conpiled of stories that recount the adventures of this hero and his cherished friend Enkidu as they sought fame, relations between humans and gods, and the meaning of life and death. It was an epic to teach on moral issues
the power of the pharaoh was greatest. Existing symbols of their authority are massive pyramids constructed as royal tombs.
Fortified citadel with large granaries, suggesting they served as center of political authority and sites for collection and redistribution of taxes paid in the form of grain. They had patterns that shaped the larger society such as weights, measures, architectural styles, and even brick sizes consistent through out the harapphan society. Place: Indus River.
founder of the Akkad empire. He created the first empire when he created an army to conquer each city state in mesopotamia, one by one
They established a precedent for the hereditary monarchical rule in china. The founder, Sage-king Yu, organized an effective flood control projects which helped establish recognized authorities and formal political institutions. They encouraged the founding of cities and the development of metallurgy. Place: Erlitou, near Luoyang, China
principal instruments used by fortune tellers in ancient china. Diviners used specially prepared broad bones and inscribed a question in the bone, then subjecting it to hear. When heated the bone developed a network of cracks and splits. Fortune tellers studied these patterns and determined the answer to the question inscribed on the bone
the Hebrew patriarch who came from the Sumerian city of Ur but migrated to northern Mesopotamia
"king of the four quarters of the world". He improved on sargon's administrative techniques by relying on centralized bureaucratic rule and regular taxation. He had a set of laws called Hammurabi code that establish high standards of behavior and stern punishment for violators. Place: Babylon, near modern Baghdad
This dynasty has bronze metallurgy and horse drawn chariots to explain their rise and success. They used this technology to devastate effect against adversaries who lacked horses and chariots. This dynasty rested on a vast network of walled towns whose local rulers recognized Shang rulers.
Place: Tarim basin, Xinjiang province in modern time. Cap: Yin, near Anyang
high agricultural surpluses, elaborate army and bureaucracy. Pharaohs did not build enormous pyramids but numerous temples, palaces, and monumental statues. Place: Egypt
aryans did not write but compose numerous sings and poems by memorizing and transmitting them orally. The earliest of these works are the Vedas, a collection of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring the various gods of the aryans.
Austronesian speaking peoples possessed a sophists tend maritime technology. They sailed large, ocean going canoes with twin hulls joined by a deck in which they carried supplies. When they found uninhibited lands, their food crops and domesticated animals enabled them to established agricultural societies on the islands.
Olmecs: The "Rubber People." They are known for their colossal basalt rock heads. They constructed elaborate drainage systems of diver water that would've flooded their fields or settlements. Olmec sites are an elaborate complex of temples, pyramids, altars, stone sculptures, and tombs for rulers.
Place: Gulf of Mexico near the modern Mexican city of Veracruz.
they established the Mandate of Heaven. They relied on a decentralized administration: entrusting power, authority, and responsibility to subordinates who returned allegiance, tribute, and military support. It fell when it couldn't keep a hold on all its subordinates. Iron metallurgy was a large part of this dynasty.
a metal made into jewelry and tools. This metal is made through alloying copper with tin. It then became the product for military affairs. Farmers also used bronze knives and bronze tipped plows.
another metal used for effective tools. It was used by the Assyrians for weapons, effective in building their empire. Iron was cheaper than copper, the ingredients for bronze
It literally means, "a sitting in front of," and it refers to the practice of disciples gathering before a sage for discussion of religious issues. They often took the form of dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues that they raised.
Founder of Buddhism who came from a Kshatriya family but gave up his inheritance and position In order to seek salvation. He quickly spread Buddhism along the Ganges valley and more through India. He and his disciples hoped to bring spiritual enlightenment to others. Time: 563 -483 BCE
Achaemenid Empire: The Achaemenids were made of the medes and the Persians who migrated from Central Asia to Persia. They possessed the equestrian skills common to many steppe people and raided the wealthy lands of Mesopotamia, when the Assyrians and Babylonians empires weakened, they embarked in a imperial venture.
he launched a Persian imperial venture. He was previously a Shepard but his military strategists skills allowed him to lay the foundation of the first Persian empire. He conquered lands from Anatolia and Egypt, all the way to the Indus River in India. His capital was Pasargadae.
the first Chinese thinker who addressed the problem of political and social order in a straightforward and self conscious way. His disciples complied his teachings and sayings into a book called the Analects which has profoundly influenced Chinese political and cultural traditions
A way of thinking that emphasis the cultivation of personal morality and the creation of junzi who would bring order to China. It helped explain particulars problems of their times. Also the flexibility of Confucianism helped with its longevity and influence in China
He was more of an administrator Persian ruler because his empire presided over 70 different ethnic groups. He created the capital city of Persepolis and introduced satrapies, administrative and taxation districts governors by satraps. He standardized laws and regularized tax levies. He also created a road and communication system.
The roman nobility deposed of the last Etruscan king and replaced the monarchy with an aristocratic republic. They built the roman forum, a political and civic center filled with temples and public buildings where leading citizens tended to government business. There were two houses the Consul and Senate, both made of Patricians.
He was more of an administrator Persian ruler because his empire presided over 70 different ethnic groups. He created the capital city of Persepolis and introduced satrapies, administrative and taxation districts governors by satraps. He standardized laws and regularized tax levies. He also created a road and communication system.
This Chinese thought considered it a waste of time and energy on problems that defied solution. They devoted their energy to reflection and introspection, I. Hopes they would understand the natural principles that governed the world and could learn how to live in harmony with them
the silk roads also included a network of sea lanes that sustained maritime commerce throughout much of the eastern hemisphere. These sea lanes connected east Africa to India to china and back to Eastern Europe.
A sage who founded daoism. The basic exposition of Daoist beliefs traditionally ascribe to Laozi. Without this man, there wouldn't have been Daoism to become the most prominent critics of Confucian activism.
A thoughtful and reflective Athenian driven by a peril urge to understand human beings and human affairs in all their complexity. He suggested that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
Disciple of Socrates who elaborated a systemic philosophy of great subtlety. He wrote a series of dialogues in which Socrates figured as the principle speaker, he also is responsible for the theory of forms and ideas
with the decline of the Zhou, territorial princes ignored the central government and used their resources to build, expand, and strengthen their states. They fought ferociously with one another in hopes of establishing themselves as leaders of a new political order.
: This thought promoted a practical and ruthless efficient approach to statecraft with strict laws. They believed that Confucian influences were not powerful enough to persuade subjects to subordinate their self interest to the needs of the state. Though legalism was rejected, it's methods out an end to the period of warring states and brought about the unification of China
Disciple of Plato, who elaborated a systemic philosophy that equaled plates work in its king term influence. Believed the philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world and then depend on reason to sort out its mysteries. He composed writings on biology, physics, astronomy, psychology, politics,mechanics, and literature. His works provided such a coherent and comprehensive vision of the world.
He was a spokesman from the Confucian school, and believed that human nature was basically good and he argued for policies that would aloe it to influence society as a whole. He placed virtue on ren and advocated government by benevolence and humanity.
Alexander of Macedon, son of Philip of Macedon; a young brilliant strategist and inspire leader of Macedon. Conquered India, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Persia and Mesopotamia. He would've conquered India if his troops didn't get tired
the first state to bring a centralized and unified government to most of the Indian subcontinent. They based their government off of the Arthashatra that outlined methods of administering the empire, overseeing trade and agriculture, collecting taxes, maintaining order, waging war, and conducting foreign relations. During the rule of Ashoka, he communicated us policies throughout his realm by inscribing edicts in natural stone formations or stone pillars.
He began as a conqueror and tried to take over the kingdom of Kalinga in the easy central part of the subcontinent (it was hostile to its spread). Kalinga controlled principal trade routes by land and sea. However he did take them over in a bloody battle. His policies allowed various regions of India to be well integrated and the subcontinent benefited from both an expanding economy and a stable government. He encouraged agriculture, building irrigation, and building roads.
The king of Qin who proclaimed himself the First emperor and decreed that his descendants would follow him and reign for a thousand generations. His rule established a tradition of centralized imperial rule that provided large scale political organization for Future China.
place: captial: Xianyang, China. This dynasty burned all books of philosophy, ethnics, history, and literature and executed those who criticized his regime to reassertion their authority. They standardized currencies, weights, measures, and centralized the empire. They also standardized Chinese script.
captial: Chang'an and Luoyang. This dynasty increased centralization under the rule of Liu band and Han Wudi. They built roads and canals to facilitate trade and communication between china's regions. They also levied taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries. They began the Confucians educational system. They used iron metallurgy and started the silk and paper industries
Julius Caesar: Nephew of Marius, who favored livers policies and social reform and played an active role in roman policies. Caesar spent enormous sums of money sponsoring public spectacles, which helped him build a reputation and win election to posts in the republican government. Led the roman army in conquering
heirs of the Olmecs. They built terraces designed to trap silt carried by the numerous rivers passing through the lowlands. They grew cotton and cacao. They organized themselves into scores of small city kingdoms. They created a calendar and a writing system as well as a ball game and bloodletting rituals.
a maya creation myth, taught that the gods had created human beings out if maize and water, the ingredients that became human flesh and blood.
A charismatic Jewish teacher who, the Christians recognized as their savior. A man who gave a strong foothold for Christianity by attracting large crowds with his wisdom and miraculous powers.
A man named Octavian, who gained power after the civil conflict in Rome; nephew and protege of Julius Caesar and dictators adopted son. He led a monarchy disguised as a republic. He ruled by centralizing political and military power. He changed the government by taking ll responsibility for all important government functions. He created an army loyal to him and careful who he placed in high positions.
Roman peace, a term that relates to political stability, cultural brilliance, and economic prosperity, beginning with unification under Augustus and last through the first two centuries. This peace facilitated trade and communication through the regions of Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean.
: it was created by Julius Caesar as he named himself the dictator over the lands he conquered. He centralized military and political functions under his control. He confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it to veterans of his armies and other supporters. The empire reached from Britain to northern Africa to Gaul to Anatolia and parts of Mesopotamia.
it taught the four noble truths which are The core of Buddha's doctrine that teaches that all life involves suffering; that desire is the cause of suffering; that elimination of desire brings an end to suffering. It calls for individuals to lead balanced and moderate lives, rejecting both the devotion to luxury often found in human society.These values forced Buddhists to have thoughtful reflection, quiet contemplation, and disciplined self control. They believed this would lead them to a personal salvation and escape the cycle of incarnation. These values created dharma- the basic doctrine shared by Buddhists of all sects.
A kingdom in the highlands of Ethiopia. As missionaries visited Ethiopia, kings converted to Christianity to improve relations with Christian Egypt. Missionaries established monasteries, translated the vigils into the Ethiopian language, and worked to popularize Christianity
a rebellion that occurred because Han emperors didnt address the problems of land distribution. The wealthy classes lived in relative luxury while peasants worked under difficult conditions. Desperate peasants with few opportunities tried to improve their lot and rebelled leading to a weakening of the Han state.
A religion that won recognition as a legitimate religion in the Roman Empire. Early Christian refused to honor roman state cult or the emperor as a god leading to their persecution. It appealed to low classes, urban populations, and women. It accorded honor and dignity to individuals who did not enjoy high standing in roman society and it endowed them with a sense of spiritual freedom more meaningful than wealth, power, or social prominence.
Roman emperor who tried to deal with Rome's large empire by dividing it into two districts, the west and the east.He brought all of Rome's unpredictable armies and navies under his imperial control and strengthened currency to decrease inflation
a combination of internal and external pressures weakened the empire and the sheer size of the empire posed a challenge to emperors. Epidemics spread throughout the empire and regions moved towards local and self-sufficient economies. Under Diocletian, he split the empire apart so that it could be managed more efficiently.
Camels quickened the pace of communication and transportation across the Sahara. A caravan took 70-90 days to cross the Sahara and because camels could travel long distances without needing water, they were useful beasts. As Arabs introduced Islam into the north they explored potential trade across the Sahara, Islamic merchants trekked across the desert to establish commercial relations with societies in sub Saharan west Africa. They found trade routes such as Gao,a terminus of caravan routes across the Sahara that offered access to the Niger River valley, which was a flourishing market for copper, iron ware, cotton textiles, salt, grains, and carnelian beads
the government of this dynasty was decentralized, leaving the government and administration in the hands of their allies in various regions of their empire. They created advances in science such as plastic surgery, that the earth was spherical and rotates on an axis. They created Indian numerals and a calendar.
Son of Constantius, who was a coruler to Diocletian, he unified the empire under one empire after Diocletian's death. He built a new capital called Constantinople and reunified the two halves of the roman empire.
The roman emperor Constantine designated this new capital because the eastern Mediterranean was the wealthiest and most productive region of the Roman Empire. The relocation also enabled him to maintain close watch over both the Sasanid empire in Persia and the Germanic people living along the Danube river.
He laid the foundation of the Gupta empire who foraged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region and established a dynamic kingdom. He laid down the foundation of a kingdom that allowed India to have little crime and high prosperity.
Germanic invasions weakened the empire as they sacked Rome and left the empire in shambles. Rule survived in the east but in the west, roman authority gradually dissolves and nomadic people built successful states in regions formerly subject to Rome
Germanic people had migrated from their homelands in northerner rope and lived on the eastern and northern borders of the Roman Empire. The Huns placed pressure on other Germanic groups that they streamed into Rome from refuge. Without much resistance, they established settlement throughout the western half of the empire
important early Byzantine emperors. Justinian codified the roman law. Theodora was his wife and a sagacious advisor and determined supporter of her emperor husband. Justinians most notable construction project was the Hagia Sophia.
after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire, the eastern half still survived under Constantine. The capital is Constantinople. This empire is key to the bulk of the trade in Europe until they are taken over by the ottoman Turks
The old roman law was codified by Justinian who ordered a systematic review and issues the body of the civil law. It won immediate recognition as the definitive codification of roman law.
the first wife of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad
A dynasty that was similar to the Qin, built a strong centralized government with their capital at Chang'an. They constructed palaces, granaries, and repaired defensive walls, war with Central Asia and Korea, levied high taxes, and had compulsory labor services.
the work of Sui Yangdi to facilitate trade between northern and southern china, to make abundant supplies of rice and other food crops from theYangzi river available to residents of northern regions.
a prophet who started as a merchant but underwent a profound spiritual experience that transformed his life. These conviction left him thinking that there was only one true deity, Allah, who ruled the world. He was the founder of Islam.
This dynasty created a state of prosperity for China and tried to re establish policies from the Han. They maintained extensive communication networks, tried to distribute land equally, they recruited government officials through the Confucian educational system.
it was founded when Muhmmad began to share his spiritual enlightenment with his friends and family. As he gained more followers, his followers prepared a written version of his teachings in the Quran.
Muhammad's migration to Medina.
founder of the Umayyad dynasty and was chosen after Muhammad's death to serve as the caliph or ruler of empire.
The Umayyad dynasty stretches across India and Central Asia in the east to northwest Africa and Iberia in the west. This caused a variety of different ethnic groups to be absorbed into this empire. Their policy towards conquered people is to allow them to observe their own religions but you will levied a special head tax, called the Jizya, for those who didn't convert to Islam.
recruitment of government officials from the ranks of candidate who had progressed through the Confucian educational system and had mastered a sophisticated curriculum concentrating on the classic works of Chinese literature and philosophy.
common in the Tang era. The technique was printers would carve reverse image of an entire page into a wooden block, inked the block, and then pressed a sheet of paper on the top
they copied the Sui and Tang dynasties with a centralized imperial government. They created a Chinese style bureaucracy, implemented an equal field system, provided official support for Confucianism and Buddhism, and moved their baptism city to Nara and it was a replica of tang captial (Chang'an).
The Battle of Tours was fought between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman. During the battle, the Franks defeated the Islamic army and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula.
The Abbasid dynasty isn't a conquering dynasty such as the Umayyad. They managed an empire that affectively governors over a sprawling realm with scores of linguistic, ethnic, and cultural groups. This is why they turned to Mesopotamian and Persia techniques. Some of these officials are the Ulama and Qadis. To make Islam more appealing new converts, both Arab and non-Arab, are fully accepted into the Islamic community.
Charles martels grandson. He re established centralized imperial rule, maintained diplomatic relations with the Byzantine and Abbasid. He extended his authority to northeastern Spain, all the way to Rome.
Norse seafarers who turned their maritime skills towards raiding and plundering. They mostly mounted invasions against settlements from Russia and Eastern Europe to Mediterranean lands.
local rulers recognized the emperor as Japan's supreme political authority. However they ruled a ceremonial figureheads, the real rulers were behind the scenes known as the Fujiwara family. Literature imitated Chinese models and in the Chinese language. Men learned Chinese, read Classical Chinese works, and wrote in the foreign tongue.
Paper money began with the "flying cash" of the Tang dynasty around 800. The Tang government considering the inconvenience of shipping cash to distant areas where government purchases were made, paid local merchants with money certificates called "flying cash", because of its tendency to blow away. These certificates bearing different amounts of money could be converted into hard cash on demand at the capital. Since they were transferable, they were exchanged among merchants almost like currency.
the foundation of economic development in tang and song china. It expanded the supply of food, leading to population growth and urbanization.
Expanded bureaucracy based on merit creating more opportunities for individuals to seek a Confucian education and take civil service examinations. They gave great salaries for those who qualified for government appointments. Civil bureaucrats were in charge of military forces. Their weakness were in the financial aspect and their military.
Germanic princes formed the Holy Roman Empire, which they viewed as a Christian revival of the earlier Roman Empire. It is part of the many independent and regional states in Western Europe that was competing for power. Also it is a revival of the earlier strong Roman Empire but on more Christian values
In earlier times, the Bantu regarded the forest people "pygmies" as useful guides to environments that were unfamiliar to the Bantu, and oral tradition surest they relied on foragers' expert knowledge to learn about the possibilities that the new environment offered. As the Bantu population surged, It became difficult for the foragers to flourish.
leader of Turks in Afghanistan. He was a warrior who raided India and plundered its wealth. He demolished hundreds of sites associated with Hinduism and Buddhism faith.
the split of Christianity between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox.
The founders were the Normans. They were subject to Carolingians and soon the Capetian rulers but the duke of Normandy pursued their own interests with little regards for their lords. Within Normandy dukes built a tightly centralized state and authority came from the dukes. In 1066 duke William of Normandy invaded England and it was ruled by the angles, the Saxons, and other Germanic people. He introduced Norman principals and land tenure to England. The Norman kings of England kept a much more tightly centralized realm than the Capetians
a duke who invaded England, who introduced normal principals, of government and land tenure to England
a battle where the Salijuq Turks inflicted a devastating defeat in the Byzantine army and took the emperor captive
This longer than the recapture of Sicily. By 1085, Christian forces pushed as far south as Toledo and by 1150 they recaptured Lisbon, establishing their rule over half of the peninsula. Their successes brought help from France and England and in the 13th century a new round of campaigns brought the peninsula into the Christians hands.
he called for the crusades because he warned church leaders that Muslims Turks were threatening the eastern borders of Christendom. He urged European princes to stabilize Christendom borders and recapture Jerusalem, and restore Christianity rule.
the Christians attempt to take back the city of Jerusalem
Confucian of the Song Dynasty dew a great deal of inspiration from buddhism, as well as original Confucian values, and blended the two Chinese thoughts.
He forged the various Mongol tribes into a powerful alliance that built the biggest empire, the world has ever seen. His real name started as Temujin. His father was a powerful leader who forged a few Mongol clans together but was later poisoned. Temujin later mastered the art of steppe diplomacy, displays of personal courage in battle, combined with intense loyalty to allies and a willingness to betray them to get higher position, and entice clans into a cooperative relationship. By forging these powers he brought the Mongols into a confederation, proclaiming him, Chinggis khan (universal ruler)
An empire built by Mahmud's successors. It covered most of northern India. They built mosque, shrines, and fortresses and generous patrons of arts and literature.
a magnificent stone complex, a city of stone towers, palaces, and public building that served as the capital of a large kingdom situation between Zambesi and Limpopo rivers
A long distance traveler who's father was Niccolo and uncle, Maffeo were among the first Europeans merchants to visit china. Khubilai khan allowed Marco to pursue his mercantile interests in china and also sent him on numerous diplomatic missions.
khubilai's brother, Hülegü who toppled the Abbasid empire and established the Mongol ilkhanate in Persia. He captured the Abbasid captial of Baghdad after a brief siege. His troops looted the city, executed the caliph, and massacred more than 200,000 residents.
One of the most talented of Chinggis Khan's descendants. He was ruthless against his enemies but took an interest in culture matters and tried to improve welfare for his subjects. He mostly promoted Buddhism but also supported Daoism, Muslims, and Christians.
He ruled at the height of the Mongol empire, promoting a variety of religions, creating a better land for his subjects, and overall created a empire not just conquered lands time:
Chinese dynasty that was founded by the Mongol ruler Khubilai Khan. From his base at Khanbaliq, he attacked the song dynasty and eliminated resistance through china. This is when he proclaims himself emperor of the yuan dynasty
Best known Muslim traveler. He served as a qadi and advisor to the sultan of Delhi, supervised the affairs of a wealthy mosque and heard cases at law, which he enforced according to Islamic standards of justice
: Sundiata's grand nephew who observed Islamic tradition by making his pilgrimage to Mecca. He created a huge caravan that included thousands of soldiers, attendants, subjects, and slaves and hundreds of camels carrying satchels of gold. He drew inspiration from his pilgrimage. He built mosques, sent promising students to study with Islamic scholars, he established religious schools and brought in Arabian and North African teachers.
Mongol rulers in china were affected by this plague, the main carriers were the Mongols. It spread from southwestern china all the way to Western Europe. It killed over a third of an exposed population. It disrupted economies and societies in Eurasia, leading to depopulation and labor shortages.
A Turkish conqueror known as Tamerlane the whirlwind: the lame conqueror. His empire stretched across Central Asia.Although it was short his empire deeply influenced three surviving Muslims states. The Ottoman Empire in Anatolia, the Mughal in India, and the Safavid in Persia.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France and their various allies for control of the French throne.
: a vast encyclopedia that complied all significant works of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature.
A group of migrants from northwestern regions, who are often referred to as Aztecs because they dominated the alliance that built the Aztec empire in the 15th century.
Mexica launched ambitious campaigns of imperial expansion and this was their first leader. They advanced against Oxaca in southwestern Mexico, after conquering the city and staying many of its inhabitants, they populated Oaxaca with colonist and it became a bulwark for the emerging Aztec empire.
Confucian ministers mistrusted zheng he and the eunuchs who supported the voyages, argued that resources committed to the expensive expeditions would go to better uses if devote to agriculture. Also the Mongols mounted a new military threat from the northwest, and land forces urgently needed financial support. This is what caused the end of Zheng He's voyages.
By the late 15th the Incans had built a huge empire stretching through Peru, most of Bolivia and Ecuador, and parts of chile and Argentina. It had a pop. Of 11.5 million. They ruled as a military and admin. Elite. Armies were made of conquered people. They made subjects obey by taking elite leaders from their classes and when they resisted they sent those leaders with economic benefits. If a group of people rebelled they were forced to go to distant lands.
The siege of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily fortified cities in the world, took place in 1453. Sultan Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Turks, led the assault. The siege lasted for fifty days until the city fell.
he was the conqueror who captured the Byzantine capital or Constantinople. After subjecting it to a sack, he named the city his own capital under the Turkish name of Istabul.
a sculptor who sought to depict their subjects in natural poses that reflected the actual workings of human muscles rather than in the awkward and ridge postures often found I. Earlier sculptures.
founder was Osman and the ottomans quickly took over the lands of Anatolia. Once they took over Constantinople, the Byzantine empire crumbled. The captial city's name was changed to Istabul.
a Portuguese explorer who sailed around the cape of good hope and entered the Indian Ocean. Restless because of the long journey and long distance from home, Dias and his crew returned back to Portugal.
A Genoese mariner who conceived the idea of sailing west to reach Asian markets. The catholic kings, Fernando and Isabel of Spain agreed to u drew rite a voyage when the king of Portugal declined. He did not find gold, silk, and spices like he expected but he did find new lands to the Europeans in the Western Hemisphere.
Portuguese explorers with the intention of sailing to India. After rounding the cape of good hope, he cruised up the East African coast and found a Muslims pilot who showed him how to take advantage of the seasonal monsoon winds to sail across the Arabian Sea to India.