England vs. France, causes were France and England were too close and caused tension. England had French territory. Tug-o-war for territory. Joan of Arc helped bring about the end of the war. Effects after was the peasants paid taxes to fund war.
Spread through Asian trade routes, beginning around the Black Sea, spreading to trade ports and throughout the continent. Particularly affected dense populations in urban areas some secluded areas spared by the plague.
French revolts in which the peasants rose up against the aristocracy during the Hundred Years War in opposition of ever increasing taxation.
A large movement including economic prosperity and much increase in thought, discovery, and art in Italian port cities or other cities along trade routes.
John Wycliffe, and his followers, the Lollards, maintained that personal merit, not rank in office should be the way to determine religious authority. He was accused of herecy.
Believer of Wycliffe's theory on Catholicism, died at the stake after being declared a heretic.
Included the teachings of Erasmus (humanism) and reform in Germany, England, France, and Spain. Also included the printing press.
The gradual advance in scientific, economic, and agricultural industries throughout Europe.
In need of a male heir and desperate, Henry passed the Act of Supremacy to allow himself to adopt the new Lutheran religion as the head of the church in England in order to marry and re-marry in order to have a male heir. Many attempts, in 6 marriages, yielded a sickly male heir to rein when he died Edward VI.
The Prince discussed the various techniques of ruling people from an objective perspective. Discussed the most effecting way to rule citizens as a prince.
Martin Luther, a leader of a monastery and a believer of religion by "faith alone," witnessed the selling of indulgences by John Tetzel and, enraged, posted his 95 theses for the reformation of the Catholic Church on his local church door for all to see. His ideas soon spread all around Europe, creating many different religions.
Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses and through print culture and word of mouth the idea of "faith alone" and defying the Catholic church spread widely across Europe. The reformation brought about Lutheranism, Calvinism, and the Anabaptists.
A meeting in the Holy Roman Empire... Martin Luther presented his ideas to the newly elected Charles V. he was ordered to recant but Luther declared that doing so would be acting against scripture, reason, and his conscience. Luther was placed on imperial ban.
Peasants saw Lutheranism as helpful and justification for their release from serfdom. Peasants elicited Luther's support of their "christian," political, and economic rights. Luther condemned them as unchristian and allowed a slaughter by the landlords. 70-100 thousand peasants were killed.
A meeting of the Catholic Church to address the grievances of the protestants, without giving the protestants any recognition. The church discussed repealing the selling of indulgences and squashed the corruption within the clergy to create a more perfect Catholic Church. Won many worshipers back from Lutheranism.
The attempt by King Phillip of Spain to invade England by way of the English Channel. The English won a surprising victory, scattering and devastating the Spanish Naval Power and establishing England as a force to be reckoned with on the seas.
The artistic movement characterising a "passing of high renaissance painting" around the end of the 1500s and beginning of the 1600s
Criticized the knights of old and the old ways of chivalry and honor. The criticism progressed people forward into a modern age.
Promoted by Catherine De Medicis in response to a failed assassination of protestant leader Coligny, a slaughter of protestant leaders in France (Huguenots) adding up to about 20,000 protestant deaths.
Included Holy Roman Empire. Preconditions: Fragmented Nation (almost ungovernable, almost 360 entities), religious division between Catholics and Protestants. 4 periods of war: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, Swedish-French. Turned into a political war for land, ended with the treaty of Westphalia that included religious toleration for Lutheranism and Catholicism ONLY.
Oliver Cromwell dominated the puritan republic, after coming into power after Charles I was executed in 1649. Dominated Scotland and Ireland consolidated everything into Great Britain. His protestant army oppressed Irish Catholics. House of Commons wanted to disband his army but he disbanded them, and became Lord Protector.
Charles II returned to England after somber puritanism. Had house of lords only when summoned to discuss matters of the state. had sympathies Catholics and advocated toleration. The glorious revolution. It was hoped that James II, a hated ruler, would be succeeded by Mary Queen of Scots, but when his heir was born, parliament allowed for William of Orange to invade and take over.
Restricted power of the monarch, everything went through parliament, and included the toleration act.
Dutch vs. Spain
The area now known Belgium in the south and the northern part now known as the Netherlands unified in opposition to Spain in the Pacification of Ghent.
Netherlands push Spain out by declaring independence from Phillip II and unite under the politique, William of Orange.