AP Euro 1st Semester Timeline

Main

Dante

1265 - 1321

Paved way for Italy's vernacular literature.

Renassiance in Italy

1304 - 1550

The "rebirth" of classical ideas, from ancient Greece and Rome, put into new light such as art, humansim, literature, etc.

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism

Avingnon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1377

Used reputation for gaining ammunition, created own funds, and Church doctrine on purgatory.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Student and friend of Petrarch.

The Hundred Years' War

May 1337 - October 1453

This war was a struggle of national identity and territory.

The Black Death

1346 - 1348

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Lollards: John Wycliffe

1350 - 1384

In England, they believed that personal rights are better than rank. Lollards preached in the vernacular dissminated translations of the Holy Scripture, and championed clerical poverty.

The Golden Bull

1356

Established seven-memeber electorial college.

Jacquerie

1358

French peasant rebellions during the Hundred Year War.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

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The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

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Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

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Nothern Renassiance

1443 - 1509

Intially simulated by importtaion of Italian learning. The printing press was created, 1450, the father of humanism, Erasmus, and included England, Germany, France, and Spain. It stirred religious and educational reform.

Printing Press-Guttenberg

1450

Mainz, Germany (HRE) Printed religous texts in vernacular and helped spread ideas of the reformation.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Most famous northern humanist. Aspired to unite ideals of humanism with Christianity.

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire

1492

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Early Exploration: Portugal & Spain

1492 - 1600

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Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

This is due to invasions from France.

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

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Pope Julius II (r.)

1503 - 1513

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Henry VIII r.

1509 - 1547

Created the Six Articles of 1539 which reaffirmed transubstntiation and contivatiation of oral confession.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Believed in predestination and indiviual responsibility to reorder society.

Machivelli's The Prince

1513

A satire writting of how a ruler should rule mostly because he wanted to see a strong ruler emerge from the Medici family.

Reformation

1517 - 1603

To have religious reform to end the corruption.

Catholic/Counter Reformation

1517 - 1563

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Luther- 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

October 31, 1517 - 1521

Martin Luther, angered by the selling of indulgences (by John Tetzel), posted 95 thesis. It was made public, people began to discuss it, ideas spread, accidental religion began called Lutherism. The church excommunicated Luther at the Diet of Worms.

Mannerism

1520 - 1580

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Diet of Worms

1521

Excommunicated Martin Luther

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasants revolted against landowners, killing princes. Luther condemed them as being "un-christian" and about 100,000 peasants died.

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

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William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

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Act of Supremacy

1534

Declared Henry the only supreme head in Earth of the Church of England.

Jesuits Society of Jesus Ingatius of Layola

1534 - 1600

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Geneva

1540

By John Calvin: established political and religious independence from Bern.

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Hevenly Spheres

1543

Heliocentrism

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Limited to higher level of clergy, stop curtail of selling church and religious items, and reaffirmed scholastic education of clergy. Was created to stop corruption.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Constructed instruments and looked at the planets with naked-eye.

Mary I (Eng. r.)

1553 - 1558

"Bloody Mary": killed many protestants and married Phillip II of Spain.

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

Cuius regio, eius religio= ruler of land determines religion.

Elizabeth I (Eng. r.)

1558 - 1603

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French Religous Wars

1562 - 1598

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Thirty NIne Articles

1563

Revision of original 42 and brought official religion in England.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Codefied English literature.

Rise of the Netherlands: Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1610

Trade, tulips, banking, etc.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24 1572

20,000 Huguenots killed in 3 days.

Pacifiction of Ghent

November 8 1576

Modern Beligium and Modern Netherlands.

Union of Utrecht

1579

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Treaty of Utrecht

1581

From the Spanish Succession...

Richelieu

1585 - 1642

Louis XIII's personal assistant.

Spanish Armada

May 30 1588

Spain attacked England, but failed miserably.

Henry IV (Fr. r.)

1589 - 1610

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Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

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Edict of Nantes

1598

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Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1598

By Louis XIV

Edict of Nantes

April 13 1598

By Henry IV: gave Hugenots freedom of worship, right to assembly, etc. Only created a state within a state.

Oliver Cromwell

1599 - 1658

Created Parlimentary army, "godly men", and took them around Scottland and Ireland againsts Catholics.

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)

1600 - 1700

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Witch Hunts

1600 - 1700

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Decline of Gothic Art

1600 - 1800

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Prussian Militarism

1600 - 1800

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Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

Economic System. Import more than export.

Mazarin

1602 - 1662

Another minister of Louis XIII.

Stuarts

1603 - 1714

Starts with James VI and ends with Queen Anne.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1603

James I (Eng.)

1605

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Kepler: The New Astronomy

1609

Planets are elliptical

Henry IV (Fr.) Assinated

1610

Assinated by a Catholic fanatic.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

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Galileo Condemmed

1616

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The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

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Bacon: Novum Organum

1620

Wrote on attacking the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Leap of Faith

Charles I (Eng. r.)

1625 - 1649

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Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

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Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

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English Civil War

1642 - 1646

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Louis XIV r.

1643 - 1715

Sun King

Treaty of Wesphalia

1648

Germany (HRE) a third is killed off, devastation all throughout.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

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Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

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Academies of Science (London First)

1650 - 1800

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Decline of Netherlands

1650 - 1750

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Hobbes: Leviathan

1651

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Royal Society of London (founded)

1660

People involved seeked in advancing new sciences such as crafts people, sailors, and workers of countryside.

Charles II (r.)

1660 - 1685

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Agricultural Revolution

1674 - 1795

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Peter the Great (r.)

1682 - 1725

Tried to Westernize Russia. Created St. Petersburg.

Glorious Revolution

1685 - 1689

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James II (r.)

1685 - 1702

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Newton: Principia Mathematica

1687

Wrote about objects in the Universe move through gravity.

Locke: Treatise of Gov't (1st & 2nd)

1690

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The Great Northern War: Russian/Sweden

1700 - 1721

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Neoclassism

1700 - 1900

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War of Spanish Succession

November 1 1700 - July 1713

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Emergence of Rococo

1710 - 1750

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Charles VI: Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

Seeked approval of family, estate realms, and major foreign power.

Rosseau

1712 - 1778

Social Contract and Emile: 1762. General will and seperate spheres of men and woman.

Mary Stuart Executed

1714

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Mississippi Bubble

February 1720

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Emergence/Dominance of Robery Wahlpole

1722 - 1742

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War of Jenkin's Ear

1739 - 1748

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Frederick II The Great (Prussia)

1740 - 1786

Enlightened Despot

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

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Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Imposed reforms derived from the phiosophe's suggestions.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

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Diplomatic Revolution

1756

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Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

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Voltaire's Candide

1759

Sitire that attacked war, religious persecution, and unwanted optiomism.

Enclosure Method

1761 - 1792

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Catherine the Great (Russia r.)

1762 - 1796

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Joseph II (Austria)

1765 - 1796

Enlightened Despot

Spinning Jenny

1765

By James Hargreaves.

Water Frame

1769

By Richard Arkwright...

Steam Engine

1769

By James Watt...

Flying Shuttle

1773

By John Kay...

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

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Smith: Wealth of Nations

1776

Capitalism, Lassiez-faire= limited role for government in economic life.

Power Loom

1787

Edmund Cartwright...

French Revolution

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Estates General Called/Meets

February 1787

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Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1787

National Assembly meets in an indoor tennis court in Versailles.

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1787

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Legislative Assembly Meets

June 17, 1789

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Great Fear

July 1789 - 1790

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Nobles Renounce Feudal Priv.

August 4, 1789

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Rights of Man and Citizen

August 27, 1789

By the National Constitutional Assembly

March of the Fishwives

October 5, 1789

7,000 women marched on Versailles agging on the Revolution.

Civil Court of Clergy

July 12, 1790

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Convention Meets: Monarch Abolished

October 1, 1791

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Wollstoncraft: Vindt. of Rhts. of Woman

1792

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Reign of Terror

1793

20-40 thousand people killed

Louis XVI Exceuted

January 21, 1793

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Levee en Masse

August 23, 1793

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Cult of Reason

November 10, 1793

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Danton Excuted

April 6, 1794

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Cult of the Supreme-Being

May 7, 1794

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Fall of Robespierre

July 27, 1794

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Constitution of the Year III-The Directory Established

1799

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The Directory

1799

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Napolean - coup Brumaire

1799

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War w/ Austria

April 20, 17942

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