An ancestor to human beings who were the first species to bury their dead, take feelings and emotions to a new intensities, and they also made clothes out of animal skins and furs (200,000- 35,000 BC)
the migration of humans from Serbia to the Americas using the Bering land bridge. during this migration these people traveled over seventeen thousand kilometers and in the end reached the southern part of South America
An ancestor to humans who looked much more like humans in appearance than other ancestors
these people raise domesticated animals but do not participate in the practice of agriculture. in moving around frequently the helped spread information about other groups and technology
started in Mesopotamia, and led to hunter gatherer civilizations moving away from hunting and gathering and towards agriculture and domestication. From this permanent settlements
"Rubber People". this civilization was one of the earliest groups of agricultural societies.
one of the best known neolithic settlements that had a rapid development if specialized labor. It is located in South Central Anatolia or modern day Turkey. was occupied continuously from 7250- 5400 bc, when residents abandoned the site.
Menes founded the city Memphis; which is near Cairo; that served as his capital and cultural as well as political center of Egypt.
Asian and Australian people started establishing permanent settlements throughout Oceania
bronze was used in warfare and craftsmanship in areas like Egypt and Mesopotamia in which it became very popular
the rapid expansion from West Africa to Southern and East Africa of the Bantus. by this expansion they were able to spread their culture and language through Africa
a time in Egypt of which the pharaohs powers were at their peak height.
"Sargon of Akkad" was the creator of the Mesopotamian Empire.
the Xia Dynasty was founded by the sage-king Yu, in which authority and formal political institutions were created
at this time Egypt became reunified and the cult of Osiris became a religion of popularity in the region
two cities that were created from the agricultural surplus of the Indus valley region their citadels were very fortified and had an abundant granary
the best known reflective literature from Mesopotamia. the epic explored the themes of friendship, relations between humans and gods, and the meaning of life and death. these were principle vehicles for Mesopotamian reflections on moral issues.
The principal instrument used by fortune tellers in ancient China.
according to the Old testament of the Christian bible,The Hebrew Patriarch Abraham came from the Sumerian city of Ur and helped to establish and collect texts to form the teachings of the Hebrews.
styled himself as the "King of the four quarters of the world".
He improved on Sargon's administrative techniques by relying on a centralized bureaucratic rule and regular taxation and also created a code of law.
the dynasty that followed the Xia. this dynasty had great advances in bronze metallurgy, horse drawn chariots and political organization.
during this time Egypt had become extremely productive and prospered. An agricultural surplus created a population that neared four million people.
the dynasty that followed after the Shang dynasty, which instituted the Mandate of Heaven, and also extended the territory drastically from the previous Shang dynasty
A religion that appeared in the Andes and dissipated in 300 bc. the religion enjoyed huge popularity and spread to Peru
a type of tool that was used by societies like the Bantu for warfare and craftsmanship.
"A sitting in front of". was the practice of disciples gathering before a sage for discussion of religious issues. This is also another Aryan piece of literature that was used to teach various qualities, such as karma. this is also one of the many things that the Hindu faith blended into their religion
Aryan text that represented a priestly perspective on affairs as well as shed light on early Aryan society in India.
Founded by Siddhartha Gautama. A religion that follows The teachings of the Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct, wisdom, and meditation releases one from desire, suffering, and rebirth, its core values were the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eight Fold Path.
the founder of Buddhism who believe that life is suffering and the only way to live a right life was to remove ones self from the outside world. he was a peaceful nonviolent man.
Created the first Persian empire. he eventually expanded his rule from India to Egypt
Confucius created a very influential religion, and his strong willed morality set a precedent for his followers.
A religion that developed in early China that stressed respect and humanity.
the first great Persian Empire that was founded by Cyrus the Great through military power. was expanded throughout the Middle East
Darius created one of the largest early empires through his military power, he expanded the kingdom far and made it grow to a size of 3000 kilometers.
The period in time in which the Roman empire acted as a republic, after the overthrow of the monarchy
was one of the most well known scholars of Daoism and founded it as well.
Plato was the apprentice of Socrates of which he documented much of Socrates' work and advanced the idea of aristocracy.
A philosophical ideologist who was sentenced to death due to his radical new ideas and due to fear of having an uprising or rebellion break out.
this time period was the violent last few centuries of rule under the Zhou dynasty, of which it ended with the establishment of the Qin dynasty in 221 bc
He was philosopher whom was also the apprentice of Plato.
He was one of Confucius' most learned scholars. He influenced Confucian tradition, aiming to "bring peace to all".
Alexander was the son of Philip of Macedon. He expanded the Persian Empire through his military dominance.
Founded by Chandra Gupta, this was the first Indian empire
Chandra Gupta founded the Gupta dynasty and also conquered and formed alliances with neighboring lands thus expanding his empire even further.
this was a philosophy that helped benefit the state as a whole instead of an individual level.
Ashoka was the grandson of Chandragupta and the heir to the throne. he seized control of the Kalingian empire and successfully governed it.
Daoism served as an opposition to Confucianism. the followers of Daoism did not believe you could fix everything in the world.
During this time Qin rulers looked to create a centralized rule and provided a large scale political organization.
Qin Shihuangdi provided large scale political organization as well as a tradition of centralized rule
this dynasty was defined by a policy of centralization and imperial rule and the political responsibilities were given to the administrative bureaucracy.
the Maya were a fascinating society that had over 80 large ceremonial centers in the lowlands that also had pyramids, palaces, and temples.
this route was a series of paths and roads that linked parts of Asia as well as Europe through trade and the diffusion of ideas such as religion and philosophy.
this is a Mayan creation myth that describes Mayan religious and cultural traditions.
Al Roman leader that expanded Rome through his conquests
The nephew and heir to Julius. he change the government to a monarchy which changed rule dramatically.
the Roman Empire was characterized by autocratic form of government and large territorial land holdings around the Mediterranean.
the founder of the christian faith of whom stated that he was divine and of which his ideas conflicted with Roman beliefs and ideologies
a peasant revolt in China during the Han Dynasty, of which was caused by a great amount of taxation
The decision made by the current emperor of that time emperor Constantine to relocate Rome's capital to Constantinople.
Means "Roman Peace". this is the period of time characterized by peace that allowed for trade between the Atlantic and Mesopotamia.
used to widely spread texts, scriptures, and ideas through print in China.
he attempted to save the Roman Empire during his rule by dividing it into separate units.
The split of the Roman Empire was the split of imperial administration between East and West Rome.
An African Christian kingdom that was one of the centers of the faith in Africa during this time.
Constantine was one of the "last" true rulers of the roman empire; he constructed Constantinople and made it the new capitol of the roman empire and allowed for the practice of Christianity.
"Holy Wisdom". a well known church that was made by Justinian and it also shows the great influence of Christianity through art work and construction.
a series of invasions by Germanic tribes that led to the downfall of the western roman empire
The decline of Rome due to various military, social, political, and economic problems, such as inflation and social classes.
a set of laws made up by Justinian that was a code for the romans
A powerful and influential empire that was in eastern Europe; it was a focal point in the transit from Europe to the Middle East.
The "sleepless emperor" of the Byzantine empire.
the wife of emperor Justinian who aided him during his rule.
the wife of the prophet of Islam Muhammed
the founder of Islam
The first caliph following the death of Muhammad.
The largest canal in the world; completed during the Sui dynasty and served as a great public work project to bring economic development to China and help it prosper as well as connect china more together
A dynasty that brought all of China under control.
these were state based exams that were used to place people in government positions if the passed.
Islam was a religion Founded by the prophet of god (Allah) Muhammed. this religion is still around today and it continues to be popularizing and one of the worlds biggest universalizing religions.
the dynasty that succeeded the Sui dynasty and in turn successfully brought equality throughout China
established by the song dynasty flying cash were one of the first legal tender bank notes. these improved trade by allowing for easier trade between people
the second Muslim caliphate following the death of Muhammed
the migration of Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina.
the trans-Saharan trade route was one of the most well known as well as one of the greatest trade routes in ancient times. this route was able to be traversed by camel and through trade it connected multiple African cities.
vikings were Norse seafarers that plundered and raided villages and cities leaving them destroyed and also in turn caused people to join kingdoms and kingdoms to take advantage of them for protection
A period in Japan in which literature and education grew to new heights
fought in France, the Battle of Tours was a battle between the Tours and the Poiters
the grandson of Charles Martel who reestablished centralized imperial rule during his rule of the Frankish realm
the Caliphate that followed in succession of the Umayyad Caliphate. this caliphate moved their capitol to Baghdad
this is the period in Japan where Buddhism and Daoism were at its height
the Indian Ocean trade routes were multiple networks of trade routes that linked parts of Asia to India and East Africa through the Indian Ocean
this dynasty was known for its people being rewarded for good behavior and obedience. the founder of this dynasty was Song Taizu
Created by Otto I, this empire acted as a Christian revival of the earlier Roman empire
Mahmud was the leader of the Turks in the Afganistan region whom ended up annexing several states that were in the North West India and Punjab regions
means "dwelling of a chief", Great Zimbabwe was a very well organized and complex society
this type of rice increase agricultural surplus dramatically by allowing for biannual crop harvests.
William the Conquerer was the first Norman king of England, in his lifetime he attempted to control England and a couple of other locations as well
He was the Pope who started the first Crusades as well as the attack on the Muslims
the divide of theRoman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches
translates to the "reconquest of Spain". this led to the convesion of from Islam back to Christianity in the region as well as it created tensions between the two religions
the invasion by the Normans and France in England which was led by William the Conquerer whom eventually later on became king of England
A series of attack by the Christians on the Muslim lands in order to obtain the Holy lands. was justified by the Christians as taking back the Holy land which they though was rightfully theirs.
founded by Han Yu, and Zhu Xi Neo- Confucianism was a blending and advancement in Confucianism in which there were new teachings and ideas created
named the "Great Khan" by his subjects Genghis Khan was the Leader of the Mongol empire from which he united the Mongol clans to Create one of the largest empires ever
The capture of the capital of the Abbasid caliphate by the Ilkhanate Mongols. This brought and end to the Islamic Golden Age
the Dynasty established under the rule of Khubilai Khan who ruled over all of China
this was one of the most powerful empires in the world until its fall in the 1900s. it was a Turkish ruled empire
A Muslim explorer that traveled to Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia
"Timur the Lame". He aimed to revitalized the Mongolian empire, but he failed. He founded the Timurid dynasty.
this was a series of multiple battles for control of France between France, England and their allies
this disease originated in China during the mongol empire and spread to Europe taking out a quarter of Europes' population. it then caused a decrease in trade and all political and social developments. this disease was truly the most devastating disease ever seen and it is still around today
an Empire in South America that had a population of 11.5 million and stretched over 2500 miles
The fifth Aztec emperor and king of Teotihuacan. through his rule he expanded the Aztec land and helped them gain more power.
a Portuguese sailor who was the first European sailor to sail around the souther tip of Africa
the gathering of Chinese documents and information during the Ming dynasty, which they were placed into one grand encyclopedia
Zheng He traveled to various parts of India, Africa, and Arabia, collecting plants and information all while he displayed the power the chinese had as well as the wealth they had
A South American empire that began as an alliance between Texcoco, Tenochtitlan, and Tlacopan. the empire fell when they were defeated by the Spanish
during his brief rule of the Ottoman empire he conquered Constantinople and destroyed the Byzantine empire
A European explorer who sailed to the Caribbean, Venezuela, Central America, and the Antilles.
the end of the Roman Empire of which Constantinople, its capitol was captured by the Ottoman Empire and renamed Istanbul
A Portuguese explorer who was the first to captain a ship directly from Europe to India
lived during the Renaissance era who was a famous artist, thinker, engineer, and poet.