According to legend, the founders were Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars.
Servius Tullius was an Etruscan king who reformed the military of Rome.
The wealthy, powerful citizens of Rome-all veterans of military service-drove out the Etruscan King. They declared Rome a republic.
Veii was a principal Etruscan city only 12 miles from Rome.
The fighting opened in Sicily. Carthage fought against Rome but Rome won on both land and sea. It took control of Sicily and imposed taxes on the island.
This was the first time Rome had provinces outside the Italian peninsula.
When Hannibal defeated Rome's troops in 219 BCE, the second Punic War had begun and it continued for almost twenty years.
Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, marking the end to the war. Carthage became a dependency of Rome.
When Carthage attacked Rome's African ally, King Masinissa of Numidia, Rome sided with its ally, disregarding Carthage's legitimate claims that its land was being encroached upon. This provoked the third Punic War.
A period of peace and prosperity in Rome.