According to legend, the founders were Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars.
Reign of Servius Tullius
578 BCE - 534 BCE
Servius Tullius was an Etruscan king who reformed the military of Rome.
Expulsion of the Etruscan King
509 BCE - 508 BCE
The wealthy, powerful citizens of Rome-all veterans of military service-drove out the Etruscan King. They declared Rome a republic.
Capture of Veii
402 BCE - 396 BCE
Veii was a principal Etruscan city only 12 miles from Rome.
Roman armies controlled all of Italy south of the Po Valley
268 BCE - 264 BCE
First Punic War
264 BCE - 241 BCE
The fighting opened in Sicily. Carthage fought against Rome but Rome won on both land and sea. It took control of Sicily and imposed taxes on the island.
247 BCE - 183 BCE
Capture of Sardinia and Corsica
237 BCE - 227 BCE
This was the first time Rome had provinces outside the Italian peninsula.
Second Punic War
219 BCE - 199 BCE
When Hannibal defeated Rome's troops in 219 BCE, the second Punic War had begun and it continued for almost twenty years.
Battle of Zama
202 BCE - 201 BCE
Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, marking the end to the war. Carthage became a dependency of Rome.
Annex and Destruction of Spain
196 BCE - 133 BCE
Third Punic War
149 BCE - 146 BCE
When Carthage attacked Rome's African ally, King Masinissa of Numidia, Rome sided with its ally, disregarding Carthage's legitimate claims that its land was being encroached upon. This provoked the third Punic War.