established American independence from Great Britain.
Economic conditions were bad and farmers were suffering. Many had large debts that they could not repay, and were jailed for that. Their state gov't did nothing to help.
1. Putting debtors in jail will not help, as they won't be able to work and will use up money instead of earning it.
2. Tax dollars go to the interest of the state and the rich, not to help the debt.
3. Suspension of the writ of Habeas Corpus: people who stand up for the farmers are put in jail.
4. The debt collectors and sheriffs are abusing their power, accusing people out of revenge and hatred.
national government isn't doing anything
This divided land north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachians into territories. They also set requirements for admitting new states:
1. Congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges.
2. When a territory has 5,000 voting residents, the settlers could write a temporary constitution and elect their own gov’t.
3. When the total population of the territory reached 60,000 free inhabitants, the settlers could write a state constitution, which had to be approved by Congress before becoming a state.
Decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation and make a constitution.
Alliance between the U.S. and France
Established the first federal courts and organized the Supreme Court comprised of a chief justice and five associates, as well as 13 federal district and 3 circuit courts. It
Allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised.
Said that federal laws were still the "supreme Law of the Land".
After the Battle of Fallen Timbers, settled the western border.
opened navigation on Mississippi River.
Adams tried to fill the Judicial branch with Federalists.
Marbury was a midnight judge who hadn’t yet received his papers, so he wanted to require Madison to deliver them. However, Madison declared this unconstitutional, and chief justice John Marshall agreed. This affirmed the concept of judicial review, where the Supreme Court can rule an executive act unconstitutional.
No trade with Europe.
Protected property rights through broad interpretation over contract clause; national government controls property.
Ends war of 1812.
Gives broad powers to the national govt; Maryland cannot tax an institution created by Congress.
Guards property rights, especially those of chartered corporations.
Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into two, one for slave and one for free settlers.
The Supreme Court can review state court judgments if it's an issue about the U.S. Constitution or a federal law.
Forbidding Spain and Portugal and other European countries from colonizing in the Western Hemisphere.
Congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce.
the federal gov’t would fund treaties that would force Native Americans to move west
The Cherokee teamed up with Worcester, a missionary who was jailed for teaching Indians without a license. In Worcester v. Georgia, the Cherokee won recognition, and Georgia could not invade them. Jackson refused this, though and the Cherokee were forced to leave on the Trail of Tears.
Pennsylvania Democrat David Wilmot heightened regional tensions by proposing the Wilmot Proviso, which said that slavery would be illegal in any territory that the U.S. might gain from war with Mexico. This meant California, Utah, and New Mexico would be closed to slavery forever.
Proposed by Stephen Douglas, which would divide the western territory into the Nebraska and Kansas territories, and in each the issue of slavery would be determined by popular sovereignty instead of the Missouri Compromise.
John Brown and his followers killed five men from the proslavery settlement of Pottawatomie Creek. This attack became famous and led to cries to revenge.
This Supreme Court case concerned Dred Scott, a Missouri slave, whose owner had taken him north of the Missouri Compromise line in 1834. For four years they lived in free territory. When, they returned to Missouri, Scott’s owner died. Scott then sued to gain his freedom because he claimed that he had become free by living in free territory for several years. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that slaves did not have the right of citizens and that Dred Scott could not be free because he had been living in the slave state of Missouri when he sued. Furthermore, the Court ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because Congress cannot have the power to forbid slavery in any of the territories. Doing so would interfere with slaveholders’ right to own property, a right protected by the 5th Amendment.
The proslavery gov’t at Lecompton, Kansas, wrote a constitution and applied to be admitted into the Union. Free-Soilers, who outnumbered the proslavery settlers in Kansas by a large number, rejected the constitution because it protected slaveholders. President Buchanan supported this.
In the 2nd Lincoln-Douglas debate held at Freeport, Lincoln asked Douglas: could the settlers of a territory vote to exclude slavery before it became a state? Lincoln implied that popular sovereignty was an empty term because the Dred Scott decision said territories could not exclude slavery.
Douglas’s response to this question with the Freeport Doctrine. He said that slavery couldn’t exist anywhere without support of local police regulations so the people of a territory were Free-Soilers, then all they had to do was elect representatives who wouldn’t enforce slave property laws. Basically, people could get around the Dred Scott decision.
John Brown led 21 men into Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He wanted to take the federal arsenal there, distribute the arms to slaves, and start a slave uprising. However, no slaves came forward. Local troops killed 8 of Brown’s men. Then a detachment of U.S. Marines captured Brown.
Jefferson Davis attacks the fort, marks the beginning of the civil war.
An army of inexperienced Union soldiers on its way to the Confederate capital at Richmond fell upon an equally inexperienced Confederate army camped near Bull Run. Lincoln commanded attack. The battle was a seesaw. Confederates held firm, inspired by General Thomas J. Jackson. Confederate reinforcements arrived and turned into the first victory of the South.
Grant gathered his troops near a Tennessee church named Shiloh, which was close to the Mississippi border. On April 6 Confederate troops surprised them in an attack. Grant reorganized his troops, ordered reinforcements, and counterattacked the next day. The Confederate troops retreated.
Determined to save Richmond, Confederate Robert E. Lee fought against McClellan. The Confederate soldiers were fewer and had more casualties, but Lee’s determination and unorthodox tactics unnerved McClellan so much that he backed away from Richmond.
Virginia seceded, but the western counties of Virginia were antislavery, so they seceded from Virginia and were admitted into the Union as West Virginia in
Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation, which would free all slaves in the states that were rebelling against the Union.
This was the turning point of the Civil War. This battle crippled the South so badly that General Lee would never again have enough forces to invade a Northern state.
Announced by Lincoln. The gov’t would pardon all Confederates who swear allegiance to the Union except those accused of war crimes. If 10% of the 1860 voting lists took this allegiance, the Confederate state could form a new state gov’t and gain representation in Congress.
The Radicals responded to the Ten-Percent Plan by passing this, which proposed that Congress, which proposed that Congress, not the president, be in charge of Reconstruction. It also declared that for a state gov’t to be formed, a majority, not just 10%, of 1860 voters would have to swear allegiance to the Constitution. Lincoln used a pocket veto to kill this bill.
Johnson announced this, which said that each remaining Confederate state would be readmitted if it withdrew its secession, swear allegiance to the Union, annul Confederate war debt, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery. Johnson’s plan differed little from Lincoln’s.
Granted citizenship and equal protection under the law to African Americans.
Voted in by Congress. This plan assisted former slaves and poor whites in the South. It also set up hospitals, schools, industrial institutes, etc.
Radicals and moderates joined in passing this, which did not recognize state gov’ts formed under Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plans. The act divided the 10 former Confederate states into 5 military districts, each ruled by a Union general. The voters in these districts, including African Americans, would elect delegates to conventions in which new state constitutions would be made. In order for a state to reenter the Union, its constitution had to give African Americans the vote and the state had to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Stated that the president could not remove cabinet offices without the consent of the Senate during the appointer’s term.
Made all people "born or naturalized in the U.S." citizens. If a state barred some of its citizens from voting, they would lose some congressional seats.
No one can be kept from voting because of race.
Protected voting rights of African Americans and gave the federal gov't power to enforce the Fifteenth Amendment.
Chartered 2nd bank of U.S.