Sunil Clark Period 8 McAvoy
Major Italian poet who wrote Divine Comedy. ''Father of the Italian Language.''
Developed in France before the Renaissance took over with new ideas that triumphed medieval thinking.
Father of Humanism
French Pope, moves papacy to Avignon, France. Precursor to Great Schism. This gave France control of the papacy and took power away from Italy as the College of Cardinals always tried to elect a pope from their own region.
Author of Decameron, written about responses to the Black Death.
John Wycliffe was an English philosopher and lay preacher. His followers were called Lollards. He was one of the first opponents of papal authority and advocate for vernacular-translation of the Bible.
War between England and France.
Philip IV of France took English lands of Aquitaine.
Edward III of England claims the French Throne.
A claim dating to 1328 when Charles IV of France had died without a male heir.
The disease was carried by rats on trade ships along the Silk Road and resulted in a series of religious and economic uprisings. Huge drop in population.
Established electoral college that elected Holy Roman Emperor. Made Emperor weak.
French peasant revolts caused by frustration about poverty among the peasants.
Huss was a religious reformer. He = questioned the Catholic Church, and was excommunicated for attacking the clergy. His followers were called Hussites.
Marked the transition between Medieval Europe and Modern Europe. There was new interest in classical ideas.
When the Western Church was divided from the Catholic Church as three popes fought over superiority for years.
In order to find new trade route, Spanish and Portugese explorers were sponsored by governments to take trips in order to find those routes to make trading quicker and more efficient.
People blamed witches for siding with the demon. The witches were seen as scapegoats.
The council that ended the Great Schism by electing a new Pope
Johann Guttenberg of Germany invented movable type using the Printing Press, making it possible to spread ideas farther at a faster and more efficient rate.
A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism in Europe. Results were the discovery of spices, silks, and exotic commodities, a desire for trade, and searches for new trade routes.
Trade between ''Old World'' and the ''New World''.
Northern humanist. Criticized the pope. Proponent of religious toleration. Advocated for reform within the Catholic Church.
Brought stability to Spain and established the Golden Age. Sponsored Christopher Columbus in 1492. Elevated Spain to dominant world power. Introduced the Spanish Inquisition to convert all Spaniards to Catholicism.
The cultural and artistic movement of northern Europe featuring greater emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance.
Dedicated Catholics who are loyal to the pope.
Christopher Columbus discovered America and allowed Spain to expand its territories and ideas, and import new resources. Also leads to colonization of the Americas
Caused by Charles VIII’s march through Italy, Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia family, Pope Julius II, and Machiavelli began to fight with each other. France troops had been invited in and then they turned on them
The Fearsome Pope and The Warrior Pope. Papacy marked by foreign policy, building projects, and patronism in the arts. He led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy
A French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation who established a form of Protestantism called Calvinism. He is known for his belief in predestination.
King of England known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church by separating the Anglican church from papal authority. This was a result of his attempt to create a male heir by divorcing his first wife, which is prohibited in the Catholic Church. He had six different wives in his time as king.
The Reformation was the 16th century conflict within Western Christianity that started with Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. Reformers protested the rituals of the Roman Catholic Church and created a new Protestant Church. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which ended European religious wars.
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation.
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation. The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.
A period of art in Europe that emerged late from the Italian Renaissance and dissipated before the Baroque period. (Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo). The art from this period is marked by perspective, elongation, strained poses, and intense color.
The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.
The Schmalkadic Wars- (1546-1547) Between Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkadic League (group of Lutheran princes with Protestant Churches that banded together to protect each other from Imperial action).
The Thirty Years’ War- (1618-1648) Involved most major European powers and fought mostly on German territory. Began as a religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the HRE. Famine and disease took over populations. Germany’s population was reduced by 30%.
Peasants revolt because of Luther’s ideas. Luther condemns them so he can stay under the protection of the rulers
16th-century movement against abuses of the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Protestant Church.
Machiavelli’s book written in Italian dedicated to Lorenzo de’Medici that explained the ideal Machiavellian ruler (absolutist).
Main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish. United Netherlands against Spain. Politique
English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as “Supreme Head of the Church of England.”
Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to calculate a reasonable heliocentric model. (Copernican Revolution).
The Council of Trent was an assembly of the Roman Catholic Church to issue condemnations on Protestant heresies and defined Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, and the Eucharist. Get rid of corruption.
Began with the Council of Trent and ended with the Thirty Years’ War.
Danish nobleman recognized for his accurate map of the planets/stars that Kepler used to refine planetary motion theories.
Also known as Bloody Mary. Restored Roman Catholicism and burned over 280 religious heretic at the stake during her reign. Conversion of religion was reversed by Elizabeth I after her death.
A treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. Ended conflict between the two groups and made the division in Christianity permanent in the HRE. Cuius regio, eius regio allowed state princes to decide if their individual state would be Lutheran or Catholic.
Fought between French Catholics and Huguenots over the aristocratic houses of France after the rise of Calvinism and factions. The wars ended with the edict of Nantes.
Statement of the position of the Church of England in relation to the Catholic Church.
English poet and playwright. Codified english language
The successful revolt of the Protestant Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands against the militant religious policies of Roman Catholicism pressed by Philip II of Spain.
Dutch economy increases along with trading of tulips and ship building.
This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France. This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France
After Spanish Fury. Spanish mercenaries killed 7000 people in Antwerp. An alliance of the Hapsburg Netherlands to remove Spanish mercenary troops from the country
William of Orange unites Netherlands
Executed for planning to kill Elizabeth I
The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism. Spanish attack of Protestant England ruled by Elizabeth I. Resulted in an economic disaster for Spain, and made Sir Francis Drake in England a hero. The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism.
Last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Father was Henry VIII Mother is Anne Boleyn, was imprisoned by half-sister Mary. Established the English Protestant church.
First monarch of Bourbon France. He was a Huguenot and led Protestant forces against the French Royal Army. Known as a poitique with great religious tolerance.Later changed from Protestant to a Catholic. Enacted the Edict of Nantes to give Protestants freedoms.
Raised standard of living. More products for consumption.
Issued by Henry IV of France. Gave Huguenots rights in France
Encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church so that the arts would communicate religion (established at Council of Trent). Exaggerated motion and detail to draw attention to drama, tension, and sculptures/paintings/architecture.
Economic system controlled by the government based on the idea that there are limited resources.
The son of Mary Queen of Scotts. He created a new bible. Fought with Parliament. Catholic.
A novel written by Miguel de Cervantes. It is considered one of the most influential pieces from the Spanish Golden Age.
Took Brahe’s observations and used them to support heliocentric. Discovered elliptical motion of planets.
He was the French King with his advisor Cardinal Richelieu. Made France a leading Power. Patron of the arts.
Henry IV is assassinated in Paris by an extreme Catholic.
Conflict between Protestants and Catholic in the Holy Roman Empire.
English philosopher and scientist who established the scientific method, established empirical evidence and reason. Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Bacon written in Latin that stated the Baconion method using reduction and inductive reasoning.
Said “leap of faith.” That it was better to believe in God than not, just in case because there is no consequence for having faith.
Struggle for power with Parliament, levied taxes without consent. Was mistrusted because he did not support Protestants during 30 years war and married a Catholic. Executed for high treason.
Galileo’s support of the heliocentric model caused the Catholic Church to condemn him for challenging the Bible.
Roman Catholic. Wanted to become an absolute monarch. Rule was taken away after the Glorious Revoultion.
A French philosopher who advocated a rational theory. Needed rational deduction to prove anything.
Long Parliament: passed financial bills, could only be dissolved with agreement of its members. Short Parliament: Charles I needed money because of military struggles.
A series of conflicts between the Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Loyalists (Cavaliers). The war ended with a Parliamentarian victory. Stuarts; James I of England: believed in the absolute power of the Monarchy, rocky relationship with parliament. Charles I of England: fought with Parliament about levying taxes, dissolved Parliament in 1629. Cromwell: An English military and political leader who led the Glorious Revolution. Sided with the Roundheads. Puritan Revolution: Also known as the English Civil War. Restoration: Charles II restored the English, Scottish, and Irish monarchies. Glorious Revolution: The revolution against James II in Scotland and Ireland. English Bill of Rights: an act of the English Parliament that limited the power of the monarch.
Moves palace to Versailles. Diminishes power of nobles. Succeeded by his grandson, Louis XV.
Ends the Thirty Years War. Calvanism is now legal. Prussia and Austria two powerful German states.
A civil war in France as a rebellious movement against Cardinal Mazarin.
Societies functioned to create knowledge, discuss ideas, and to collaberate on scientific thoughts. Then went on to Paris, Berlin, and St. Petersburg,
Hobbes was an English philosopher and believed that men in the state of nature would turn to war and chaos. He believed the social contract required citizens giving up all rights to the government. Wanted a social contract, absolute rule, and a strong central government.
He made the first monarch after the Puritan Republic.
Westernizes Russia. Gains land. Moves government to St. Petersburg.
Withdrawn by Louis XIV. It takes away the rights of the Huguenots. Protestants fled France, leaving them without many skilled workers.
A book in which Newton defined his three laws of motion. Nature is like a clock. God wound it up and then left it be.
The First Treatise on Government states that the divine right of kings will be the downfall of all countries. The Second Treatise discusses the state of nature as men are naturally equal to one another.
End of witch hunts because of scientific revolution and empirical evidence, enlightenment and reason, and the brutality of witch trials.
Art that drew inspiration from classical art and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.
Russia wins and gains territory on the black sea.
An act of the British Parliament to settle the succession to English crown to Sophia of Hanover (Protestant) since William and Mary were failing.
Charles II (Spanish) had no male heir when he was dying. Caused by the Bourbon family’s succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons and grants of commercial rights to English and French.
A style of art that originated in France. Very elaborate art style that uses lots of pastel colors. More elaborate than Baroque
Done by Charles IV to garuntee that the Spanish throne would go to Maria Theresa
ends War of Spanish Succession
Increases Prussia’s military power.
Since none of the nobles had to do any ruling, no one knew how to handle the country and France was weakened
Economic scheme planned by John Law to create a bank with authority to issue notes. France could not raise the money to pay back their debt so their economy collapsed.
First Prime Minister of Britian. He had influence in the Parliamentary.
War fought against Spain because they cut off Robet Jenkis ear. War based on the public opinion that the government can not stop.
King of Prussia. Declared himself ‘The First Servant of the State’. He made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms, and expanded his territory.
Prussia and France took advantage Austria being ruled by a female monarch. Great Britian chooses sides with Austria.
Leader of Austria because of Pragmatic Sanction. She was Catholic and not religious tolerant.
A period of major reforms in European agricultural practices before the Industrial Revolution that began large-scale farming and improvement of methods. Low countries: area of Europe including the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Enclosure: a method used in the agricultural revolution that fenced off areas for private farming and took away public peasant lands. Innovations: plow, seed drill, harvesting machines
The rapid development of industry in Britain brought on by the introduction of machinery. This incluced the Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, and Steam Engine
Ended France’s major power in the Americas.
Countries change sides in wars based on strategy not hostilities Britain and Austria vs. France and Prussia turned into France and Austria vs. Britain and Prussia.
Satire on Society and Religion
Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher who believed that man was good by nature, but corrupted by society.
Emile: Of the nature of man. Men and woman live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General Will means citizens give up their rights for the greater good of the state.
Englightened absolutist. Governed whil Russia was expanding rapidly. Reformed cities and towns, modernized Russia, increased reliance on serfs (led to Pugachev’s Rebellion).
Ends the Seven Years war. Makes Britain the global power.
He was an Enlightened Despot. Was the religious tolerant, tied church to state,better taxation, stripped powers from nobles, and freed the serfs.
France was in a massive financial crisis because of their involvement in the American revolution.
Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations. Invented the idea of capitalism.
England became ship building leaders causing the Netherlands to lose economic upper hand
Suggested that growing population rates would lead to a rising supply of labor that would in turn lower wages. Malthus feared that continued population growth would lead to poverty.
Created ideas of minimum wages and rent.
The 1st estate is the clergy, 2nd estate is nobles, and the 3rd estate is the bourgeoisie. Used to solve financial problems by Louis XVI
2nd Estate renounces their feudal privliages making everybody equal.
With the lack of bread peasant woman march to Versaille to demand a change.
The middle class meets.
Peasants stromed to Bastille to free the prisioners. They started a revolution when the people told the government what to do.
The national convention meets to abolish the monarchy.
citizens storm Tuileries palace.They take the king as a prisioner in Paris.
critizied Rousseau thought of seperate spheres. Within this sphere their education was limited.
Executed for treason. This started the Reign of Terror.
Deism was the religion of France when Robespierre was in charge.
Established by the Constitution of the Year III. This was over turned by Napoleon.