Major Italian poet who wrote Divine Comedy. ''Father of the Italian Language.''
Decline of Gothic Art
Developed in France before the Renaissance took over with new ideas that triumphed medieval thinking.
1304 - 1374
Father of Humanism
Avignon Papacy(Babylonian Captivity)
1309 - 1376
French Pope, moves papacy to Avignon, France. Precursor to Great Schism. This gave France control of the papacy and took power away from Italy as the College of Cardinals always tried to elect a pope from their own region.
1313 - 1375
Author of Decameron, written about responses to the Black Death.
Lollards: John Wycliffe
1328 - 1384
John Wycliffe was an English philosopher and lay preacher. His followers were called Lollards. He was one of the first opponents of papal authority and advocate for vernacular-translation of the Bible.
The Hundred Years War
1337 - 1463
War between England and France.
Philip IV of France took English lands of Aquitaine.
Edward III of England claims the French Throne.
A claim dating to 1328 when Charles IV of France had died without a male heir.
The Black Death
1348 - 1350
The disease was carried by rats on trade ships along the Silk Road and resulted in a series of religious and economic uprisings. Huge drop in population.
The Golden Bull
Established electoral college that elected Holy Roman Emperor. Made Emperor weak.
French peasant revolts caused by frustration about poverty among the peasants.
Hussites: John Huss
1369 - 1415
Huss was a religious reformer. He = questioned the Catholic Church, and was excommunicated for attacking the clergy. His followers were called Hussites.
Renaissance in Italy
1375 - 1527
Marked the transition between Medieval Europe and Modern Europe. There was new interest in classical ideas.
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
When the Western Church was divided from the Catholic Church as three popes fought over superiority for years.
Early Exploration- Portugal & Spain
1394 - 1550
In order to find new trade route, Spanish and Portugese explorers were sponsored by governments to take trips in order to find those routes to make trading quicker and more efficient.
1400 - 1750
People blamed witches for siding with the demon. The witches were seen as scapegoats.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1418
The council that ended the Great Schism by electing a new Pope
Printing Press- Guttenberg
Johann Guttenberg of Germany invented movable type using the Printing Press, making it possible to spread ideas farther at a faster and more efficient rate.
1450 - 1750
Trade between ''Old World'' and the ''New World''.
1450 - 1700
A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism in Europe. Results were the discovery of spices, silks, and exotic commodities, a desire for trade, and searches for new trade routes.
1466 - 1536
Northern humanist. Criticized the pope. Proponent of religious toleration. Advocated for reform within the Catholic Church.
Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain) (r/married)
1469 - 1504
Brought stability to Spain and established the Golden Age. Sponsored Christopher Columbus in 1492. Elevated Spain to dominant world power. Introduced the Spanish Inquisition to convert all Spaniards to Catholicism.
1490 - 1520
The cultural and artistic movement of northern Europe featuring greater emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance.
Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola
1491 - 1540
Dedicated Catholics who are loyal to the pope.
Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire
Christopher Columbus discovered America and allowed Spain to expand its territories and ideas, and import new resources. Also leads to colonization of the Americas
Italy's Decline by Invasions
1494 - 1527
Caused by Charles VIII’s march through Italy, Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia family, Pope Julius II, and Machiavelli began to fight with each other. France troops had been invited in and then they turned on them
Pope Julius II (r)
1503 - 1513
The Fearsome Pope and The Warrior Pope. Papacy marked by foreign policy, building projects, and patronism in the arts. He led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy
Henry VIII (Eng)
1509 - 1547
King of England known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church by separating the Anglican church from papal authority. This was a result of his attempt to create a male heir by divorcing his first wife, which is prohibited in the Catholic Church. He had six different wives in his time as king.
John Calvin- Geneva
1509 - 1564
A French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation who established a form of Protestantism called Calvinism. He is known for his belief in predestination.
Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation.
1517 - 1685
The Reformation was the 16th century conflict within Western Christianity that started with Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. Reformers protested the rituals of the Roman Catholic Church and created a new Protestant Church. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which ended European religious wars.
Luther- 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms
October 31, 1517 - 1546
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation. The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.
Mannerism: (until the Baroque)
1520 - 1580
A period of art in Europe that emerged late from the Italian Renaissance and dissipated before the Baroque period. (Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo). The art from this period is marked by perspective, elongation, strained poses, and intense color.
Diet of Worms
The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
Peasants revolt because of Luther’s ideas. Luther condemns them so he can stay under the protection of the rulers
Specific Religious wars…
1524 - 1697
The Schmalkadic Wars- (1546-1547) Between Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkadic League (group of Lutheran princes with Protestant Churches that banded together to protect each other from Imperial action).
The Thirty Years’ War- (1618-1648) Involved most major European powers and fought mostly on German territory. Began as a religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the HRE. Famine and disease took over populations. Germany’s population was reduced by 30%.
1529 - 1547
16th-century movement against abuses of the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Protestant Church.
The Prince: Machiavelli
Machiavelli’s book written in Italian dedicated to Lorenzo de’Medici that explained the ideal Machiavellian ruler (absolutist).
William of Orange (The Silent)
1533 - 1584
Main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish. United Netherlands against Spain. Politique
Act of Supremacy
English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as “Supreme Head of the Church of England.”
Copernicus on the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to calculate a reasonable heliocentric model. (Copernican Revolution).
1545 - 1563
Began with the Council of Trent and ended with the Thirty Years’ War.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
The Council of Trent was an assembly of the Roman Catholic Church to issue condemnations on Protestant heresies and defined Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, and the Eucharist. Get rid of corruption.
1546 - 1601
Danish nobleman recognized for his accurate map of the planets/stars that Kepler used to refine planetary motion theories.
Mary I (England)
1553 - 1558
Also known as Bloody Mary. Restored Roman Catholicism and burned over 280 religious heretic at the stake during her reign. Conversion of religion was reversed by Elizabeth I after her death.
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. Ended conflict between the two groups and made the division in Christianity permanent in the HRE. Cuius regio, eius regio allowed state princes to decide if their individual state would be Lutheran or Catholic.
French Religious Wars
1562 - 1598
Fought between French Catholics and Huguenots over the aristocratic houses of France after the rise of Calvinism and factions. The wars ended with the edict of Nantes.
Thirty Nine Articles
Statement of the position of the Church of England in relation to the Catholic Church.
1564 - 1616
English poet and playwright. Codified english language
Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands(Dutch Revolt)
1568 - 1648
The successful revolt of the Protestant Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands against the militant religious policies of Roman Catholicism pressed by Philip II of Spain.
Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age
1572 - 1702
Dutch economy increases along with trading of tulips and ship building.
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
August 22, 1572
This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France. This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France
Pacification of Ghent
November 4 1576
After Spanish Fury. Spanish mercenaries killed 7000 people in Antwerp. An alliance of the Hapsburg Netherlands to remove Spanish mercenary troops from the country
Union of Utrecht
William of Orange unites Netherlands
Mary Stuart executed
Executed for planning to kill Elizabeth I
Elizabeth (England) I r.
1588 - 1603
Last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Father was Henry VIII Mother is Anne Boleyn, was imprisoned by half-sister Mary. Established the English Protestant church.
The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism. Spanish attack of Protestant England ruled by Elizabeth I. Resulted in an economic disaster for Spain, and made Sir Francis Drake in England a hero. The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism.
Henry IV (France) (r)
1589 - 1610
First monarch of Bourbon France. He was a Huguenot and led Protestant forces against the French Royal Army. Known as a poitique with great religious tolerance.Later changed from Protestant to a Catholic. Enacted the Edict of Nantes to give Protestants freedoms.
1590 - 1800
Raised standard of living. More products for consumption.
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry IV of France. Gave Huguenots rights in France
Age of Mercantilism
1600 - 1800
Economic system controlled by the government based on the idea that there are limited resources.
Baroque Art: (Catholic Nations)
Encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church so that the arts would communicate religion (established at Council of Trent). Exaggerated motion and detail to draw attention to drama, tension, and sculptures/paintings/architecture.
James I (England)
1603 - 1625
The son of Mary Queen of Scotts. He created a new bible. Fought with Parliament. Catholic.
Cervantes: Don Quixote
A novel written by Miguel de Cervantes. It is considered one of the most influential pieces from the Spanish Golden Age.
Kepler: The New Astronomy
Took Brahe’s observations and used them to support heliocentric. Discovered elliptical motion of planets.
Louis XIII: (r) (Richelieu)
1610 - 1643
He was the French King with his advisor Cardinal Richelieu. Made France a leading Power. Patron of the arts.
Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated
May 14, 1610
Henry IV is assassinated in Paris by an extreme Catholic.
The Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Conflict between Protestants and Catholic in the Holy Roman Empire.
Bacon: Novum Organum
English philosopher and scientist who established the scientific method, established empirical evidence and reason. Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Bacon written in Latin that stated the Baconion method using reduction and inductive reasoning.
1623 - 1662
Said “leap of faith.” That it was better to believe in God than not, just in case because there is no consequence for having faith.
Charles I (Eng) r.
1625 - 1649
Struggle for power with Parliament, levied taxes without consent. Was mistrusted because he did not support Protestants during 30 years war and married a Catholic. Executed for high treason.
James II (Eng) r.
1633 - 1701
Roman Catholic. Wanted to become an absolute monarch. Rule was taken away after the Glorious Revoultion.
Galileo’s support of the heliocentric model caused the Catholic Church to condemn him for challenging the Bible.
Descartes: Discourse on Method
A French philosopher who advocated a rational theory. Needed rational deduction to prove anything.
Long Parliament/Short Parliament
1640 - 1648
Long Parliament: passed financial bills, could only be dissolved with agreement of its members. Short Parliament: Charles I needed money because of military struggles.
English Civil War
1642 - 1651
A series of conflicts between the Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Loyalists (Cavaliers). The war ended with a Parliamentarian victory. Stuarts; James I of England: believed in the absolute power of the Monarchy, rocky relationship with parliament. Charles I of England: fought with Parliament about levying taxes, dissolved Parliament in 1629. Cromwell: An English military and political leader who led the Glorious Revolution. Sided with the Roundheads. Puritan Revolution: Also known as the English Civil War. Restoration: Charles II restored the English, Scottish, and Irish monarchies. Glorious Revolution: The revolution against James II in Scotland and Ireland. English Bill of Rights: an act of the English Parliament that limited the power of the monarch.
Louis XIV r.
1643 - 1715
Moves palace to Versailles. Diminishes power of nobles. Succeeded by his grandson, Louis XV.
The Thirty Years War: (Treaty of Westphalia)
Ends the Thirty Years War. Calvanism is now legal. Prussia and Austria two powerful German states.
1649 - 1652
A civil war in France as a rebellious movement against Cardinal Mazarin.
Academies of Science: (London First)
1650 - 1800
Societies functioned to create knowledge, discuss ideas, and to collaberate on scientific thoughts. Then went on to Paris, Berlin, and St. Petersburg,
Hobbes was an English philosopher and believed that men in the state of nature would turn to war and chaos. He believed the social contract required citizens giving up all rights to the government. Wanted a social contract, absolute rule, and a strong central government.
Charles II (Eng) r.
1660 - 1665
He made the first monarch after the Puritan Republic.
Peter the Great (Russia)
1682 - 1725
Westernizes Russia. Gains land. Moves government to St. Petersburg.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Withdrawn by Louis XIV. It takes away the rights of the Huguenots. Protestants fled France, leaving them without many skilled workers.
Newton: Principia Mathematica
A book in which Newton defined his three laws of motion. Nature is like a clock. God wound it up and then left it be.
Locke: Treatises on Gov’t (1st & 2nd)
The First Treatise on Government states that the divine right of kings will be the downfall of all countries. The Second Treatise discusses the state of nature as men are naturally equal to one another.
The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden
1700 - 1721
Russia wins and gains territory on the black sea.
1700 - 1800
Art that drew inspiration from classical art and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.
End of the Witch Hunts
End of witch hunts because of scientific revolution and empirical evidence, enlightenment and reason, and the brutality of witch trials.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
Charles II (Spanish) had no male heir when he was dying. Caused by the Bourbon family’s succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons and grants of commercial rights to English and French.
Act of Settlement (GB)
An act of the British Parliament to settle the succession to English crown to Sophia of Hanover (Protestant) since William and Mary were failing.
Death of William III of England
Emergence of Rococo
1710 - 1750
A style of art that originated in France. Very elaborate art style that uses lots of pastel colors. More elaborate than Baroque
Frederick Wilhelm / Prussian Militarism
1713 - 1740
Increases Prussia’s military power.
Treaty of Utrecht
ends War of Spanish Succession
Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction
Done by Charles IV to garuntee that the Spanish throne would go to Maria Theresa
Death of Louis XIV
Since none of the nobles had to do any ruling, no one knew how to handle the country and France was weakened
Economic scheme planned by John Law to create a bank with authority to issue notes. France could not raise the money to pay back their debt so their economy collapsed.
Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole
1721 - 1742
First Prime Minister of Britian. He had influence in the Parliamentary.
War of Jenkins’s Ear
1739 - 1742
War fought against Spain because they cut off Robet Jenkis ear. War based on the public opinion that the government can not stop.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
Prussia and France took advantage Austria being ruled by a female monarch. Great Britian chooses sides with Austria.
Frederick II The Great (Prussia) r.
1740 - 1786
King of Prussia. Declared himself ‘The First Servant of the State’. He made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms, and expanded his territory.
Maria Theresa (Aus) r.
1745 - 1765
Leader of Austria because of Pragmatic Sanction. She was Catholic and not religious tolerant.
1750 - 1850
A period of major reforms in European agricultural practices before the Industrial Revolution that began large-scale farming and improvement of methods. Low countries: area of Europe including the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Enclosure: a method used in the agricultural revolution that fenced off areas for private farming and took away public peasant lands. Innovations: plow, seed drill, harvesting machines
1750 - 1850
The rapid development of industry in Britain brought on by the introduction of machinery. This incluced the Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, and Steam Engine
Seven Years’ war
1754 - 1763
Ended France’s major power in the Americas.
Countries change sides in wars based on strategy not hostilities Britain and Austria vs. France and Prussia turned into France and Austria vs. Britain and Prussia.
Satire on Society and Religion
Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:
Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher who believed that man was good by nature, but corrupted by society.
Emile: Of the nature of man. Men and woman live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General Will means citizens give up their rights for the greater good of the state.
Catherine the Great (Russia) r.
1762 - 1796
Englightened absolutist. Governed whil Russia was expanding rapidly. Reformed cities and towns, modernized Russia, increased reliance on serfs (led to Pugachev’s Rebellion).
Treaty of Paris
Ends the Seven Years war. Makes Britain the global power.
Joseph II (Austria)
1764 - 1790
He was an Enlightened Despot. Was the religious tolerant, tied church to state,better taxation, stripped powers from nobles, and freed the serfs.
1775 - 1783
France was in a massive financial crisis because of their involvement in the American revolution.
Smith- Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations. Invented the idea of capitalism.
Decline of Netherlands
1780 - 1810
England became ship building leaders causing the Netherlands to lose economic upper hand
Malthus- Principle of Population
Suggested that growing population rates would lead to a rising supply of labor that would in turn lower wages. Malthus feared that continued population growth would lead to poverty.
Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages
Created ideas of minimum wages and rent.
Rights of Man and Citizen
- March of the Fishwives:
With the lack of bread peasant woman march to Versaille to demand a change.
Nobles renounce feudal priv.
2nd Estate renounces their feudal privliages making everybody equal.
Estates General called/Meets-
The 1st estate is the clergy, 2nd estate is nobles, and the 3rd estate is the bourgeoisie. Used to solve financial problems by Louis XVI
Legislative Assembly Meets-
The middle class meets.
Storming of the Bastille: - Great Fear
July 14, 1789
Peasants stromed to Bastille to free the prisioners. They started a revolution when the people told the government what to do.
- Civil Const of Clergy-
- War w/ Austria-
Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rts of Women- - Reign of Terror-
critizied Rousseau thought of seperate spheres. Within this sphere their education was limited.
Tuileries Stormed- King captive- - Levee en Masse-
citizens storm Tuileries palace.They take the king as a prisioner in Paris.
Convention meets- Monarch Abolished - Cult of Reason-
1792 - 1795
The national convention meets to abolish the monarchy.
Louis XVI executed- - Danton Executed-
Executed for treason. This started the Reign of Terror.
Cult of the Supreme Being- - Fall of Robespierre-
Deism was the religion of France when Robespierre was in charge.
Constitution of the Year III- The Directory established
1795 - 1799
Established by the Constitution of the Year III. This was over turned by Napoleon.