AP Euro Midterm Timeline

Sunil Clark Period 8 McAvoy



1265 - 1321

Major Italian poet who wrote Divine Comedy. ''Father of the Italian Language.''

Decline of Gothic Art


Developed in France before the Renaissance took over with new ideas that triumphed medieval thinking.


1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism

Avignon Papacy(Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1376

French Pope, moves papacy to Avignon, France. Precursor to Great Schism. This gave France control of the papacy and took power away from Italy as the College of Cardinals always tried to elect a pope from their own region.


1313 - 1375

Author of Decameron, written about responses to the Black Death.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

John Wycliffe was an English philosopher and lay preacher. His followers were called Lollards. He was one of the first opponents of papal authority and advocate for vernacular-translation of the Bible.

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1463

War between England and France.
Philip IV of France took English lands of Aquitaine.
Edward III of England claims the French Throne.
A claim dating to 1328 when Charles IV of France had died without a male heir.

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

The disease was carried by rats on trade ships along the Silk Road and resulted in a series of religious and economic uprisings. Huge drop in population.

The Golden Bull


Established electoral college that elected Holy Roman Emperor. Made Emperor weak.



French peasant revolts caused by frustration about poverty among the peasants.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

Huss was a religious reformer. He = questioned the Catholic Church, and was excommunicated for attacking the clergy. His followers were called Hussites.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Marked the transition between Medieval Europe and Modern Europe. There was new interest in classical ideas.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

When the Western Church was divided from the Catholic Church as three popes fought over superiority for years.

Early Exploration- Portugal & Spain

1394 - 1550

In order to find new trade route, Spanish and Portugese explorers were sponsored by governments to take trips in order to find those routes to make trading quicker and more efficient.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1750

People blamed witches for siding with the demon. The witches were seen as scapegoats.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The council that ended the Great Schism by electing a new Pope

Printing Press- Guttenberg


Johann Guttenberg of Germany invented movable type using the Printing Press, making it possible to spread ideas farther at a faster and more efficient rate.

Commercial Revolution

1450 - 1700

A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism in Europe. Results were the discovery of spices, silks, and exotic commodities, a desire for trade, and searches for new trade routes.

Columbian Exchange…

1450 - 1750

Trade between ''Old World'' and the ''New World''.


1466 - 1536

Northern humanist. Criticized the pope. Proponent of religious toleration. Advocated for reform within the Catholic Church.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain) (r/married)

1469 - 1504

Brought stability to Spain and established the Golden Age. Sponsored Christopher Columbus in 1492. Elevated Spain to dominant world power. Introduced the Spanish Inquisition to convert all Spaniards to Catholicism.

Northern Renaissance

1490 - 1520

The cultural and artistic movement of northern Europe featuring greater emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance.

Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1540

Dedicated Catholics who are loyal to the pope.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire


Christopher Columbus discovered America and allowed Spain to expand its territories and ideas, and import new resources. Also leads to colonization of the Americas

Italy's Decline by Invasions

1494 - 1527

Caused by Charles VIII’s march through Italy, Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia family, Pope Julius II, and Machiavelli began to fight with each other. France troops had been invited in and then they turned on them

Pope Julius II (r)

1503 - 1513

The Fearsome Pope and The Warrior Pope. Papacy marked by foreign policy, building projects, and patronism in the arts. He led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

A French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation who established a form of Protestantism called Calvinism. He is known for his belief in predestination.

Henry VIII (Eng)

1509 - 1547

King of England known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church by separating the Anglican church from papal authority. This was a result of his attempt to create a male heir by divorcing his first wife, which is prohibited in the Catholic Church. He had six different wives in his time as king.


1517 - 1685

The Reformation was the 16th century conflict within Western Christianity that started with Martin Luther’s 95 Theses. Reformers protested the rituals of the Roman Catholic Church and created a new Protestant Church. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which ended European religious wars.

Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis


Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation.

Luther- 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

October 31, 1517 - 1546

Martin Luther’s 95 Theses was a document written in Latin that protested the sale of indulgences. He posted the document on the door of the Castle Church of Wittenberg, and ultimately sparked inspiration for the Reformation. The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.

Mannerism: (until the Baroque)

1520 - 1580

A period of art in Europe that emerged late from the Italian Renaissance and dissipated before the Baroque period. (Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo). The art from this period is marked by perspective, elongation, strained poses, and intense color.

Diet of Worms


The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire that addressed Martin Luther and the Reformation. The assembly wanted to arrest Luther, but he escaped and hid at Wartburg Castle.

Specific Religious wars…

1524 - 1697

The Schmalkadic Wars- (1546-1547) Between Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkadic League (group of Lutheran princes with Protestant Churches that banded together to protect each other from Imperial action).
The Thirty Years’ War- (1618-1648) Involved most major European powers and fought mostly on German territory. Began as a religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants in the HRE. Famine and disease took over populations. Germany’s population was reduced by 30%.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasants revolt because of Luther’s ideas. Luther condemns them so he can stay under the protection of the rulers

English Ref.

1529 - 1547

16th-century movement against abuses of the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Protestant Church.

The Prince: Machiavelli


Machiavelli’s book written in Italian dedicated to Lorenzo de’Medici that explained the ideal Machiavellian ruler (absolutist).

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

Main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish. United Netherlands against Spain. Politique

Act of Supremacy


English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as “Supreme Head of the Church of England.”

Copernicus on the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres


Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to calculate a reasonable heliocentric model. (Copernican Revolution).

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was an assembly of the Roman Catholic Church to issue condemnations on Protestant heresies and defined Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, and the Eucharist. Get rid of corruption.

Catholic/Counter Reformation

1545 - 1563

Began with the Council of Trent and ended with the Thirty Years’ War.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Danish nobleman recognized for his accurate map of the planets/stars that Kepler used to refine planetary motion theories.

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

Also known as Bloody Mary. Restored Roman Catholicism and burned over 280 religious heretic at the stake during her reign. Conversion of religion was reversed by Elizabeth I after her death.

Peace of Augsburg


A treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. Ended conflict between the two groups and made the division in Christianity permanent in the HRE. Cuius regio, eius regio allowed state princes to decide if their individual state would be Lutheran or Catholic.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Fought between French Catholics and Huguenots over the aristocratic houses of France after the rise of Calvinism and factions. The wars ended with the edict of Nantes.

Thirty Nine Articles


Statement of the position of the Church of England in relation to the Catholic Church.


1564 - 1616

English poet and playwright. Codified english language

Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands(Dutch Revolt)

1568 - 1648

The successful revolt of the Protestant Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands against the militant religious policies of Roman Catholicism pressed by Philip II of Spain.

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

Dutch economy increases along with trading of tulips and ship building.

Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

August 22, 1572

This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France. This marked the resumption of the civil wars in France

Pacification of Ghent

November 4 1576

After Spanish Fury. Spanish mercenaries killed 7000 people in Antwerp. An alliance of the Hapsburg Netherlands to remove Spanish mercenary troops from the country

Union of Utrecht


William of Orange unites Netherlands

Mary Stuart executed


Executed for planning to kill Elizabeth I

Spanish Armada


The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism. Spanish attack of Protestant England ruled by Elizabeth I. Resulted in an economic disaster for Spain, and made Sir Francis Drake in England a hero. The Spanish wanted to convert England to Catholicism.

Elizabeth (England) I r.

1588 - 1603

Last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. Father was Henry VIII Mother is Anne Boleyn, was imprisoned by half-sister Mary. Established the English Protestant church.

Henry IV (France) (r)

1589 - 1610

First monarch of Bourbon France. He was a Huguenot and led Protestant forces against the French Royal Army. Known as a poitique with great religious tolerance.Later changed from Protestant to a Catholic. Enacted the Edict of Nantes to give Protestants freedoms.

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Raised standard of living. More products for consumption.

Edict of Nantes


Issued by Henry IV of France. Gave Huguenots rights in France

Baroque Art: (Catholic Nations)


Encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church so that the arts would communicate religion (established at Council of Trent). Exaggerated motion and detail to draw attention to drama, tension, and sculptures/paintings/architecture.

Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

Economic system controlled by the government based on the idea that there are limited resources.

James I (England)

1603 - 1625

The son of Mary Queen of Scotts. He created a new bible. Fought with Parliament. Catholic.

Cervantes: Don Quixote


A novel written by Miguel de Cervantes. It is considered one of the most influential pieces from the Spanish Golden Age.

Kepler: The New Astronomy


Took Brahe’s observations and used them to support heliocentric. Discovered elliptical motion of planets.

Louis XIII: (r) (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

He was the French King with his advisor Cardinal Richelieu. Made France a leading Power. Patron of the arts.

Henry IV (Fr.) assassinated

May 14, 1610

Henry IV is assassinated in Paris by an extreme Catholic.

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Conflict between Protestants and Catholic in the Holy Roman Empire.

Bacon: Novum Organum


English philosopher and scientist who established the scientific method, established empirical evidence and reason. Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Bacon written in Latin that stated the Baconion method using reduction and inductive reasoning.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Said “leap of faith.” That it was better to believe in God than not, just in case because there is no consequence for having faith.

Charles I (Eng) r.

1625 - 1649

Struggle for power with Parliament, levied taxes without consent. Was mistrusted because he did not support Protestants during 30 years war and married a Catholic. Executed for high treason.

Galileo Condemned


Galileo’s support of the heliocentric model caused the Catholic Church to condemn him for challenging the Bible.

James II (Eng) r.

1633 - 1701

Roman Catholic. Wanted to become an absolute monarch. Rule was taken away after the Glorious Revoultion.

Descartes: Discourse on Method


A French philosopher who advocated a rational theory. Needed rational deduction to prove anything.

Long Parliament/Short Parliament

1640 - 1648

Long Parliament: passed financial bills, could only be dissolved with agreement of its members. Short Parliament: Charles I needed money because of military struggles.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

A series of conflicts between the Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Loyalists (Cavaliers). The war ended with a Parliamentarian victory. Stuarts; James I of England: believed in the absolute power of the Monarchy, rocky relationship with parliament. Charles I of England: fought with Parliament about levying taxes, dissolved Parliament in 1629. Cromwell: An English military and political leader who led the Glorious Revolution. Sided with the Roundheads. Puritan Revolution: Also known as the English Civil War. Restoration: Charles II restored the English, Scottish, and Irish monarchies. Glorious Revolution: The revolution against James II in Scotland and Ireland. English Bill of Rights: an act of the English Parliament that limited the power of the monarch.

Louis XIV r.

1643 - 1715

Moves palace to Versailles. Diminishes power of nobles. Succeeded by his grandson, Louis XV.

The Thirty Years War: (Treaty of Westphalia)


Ends the Thirty Years War. Calvanism is now legal. Prussia and Austria two powerful German states.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

A civil war in France as a rebellious movement against Cardinal Mazarin.

Academies of Science: (London First)

1650 - 1800

Societies functioned to create knowledge, discuss ideas, and to collaberate on scientific thoughts. Then went on to Paris, Berlin, and St. Petersburg,

Hobbes: Leviathan


Hobbes was an English philosopher and believed that men in the state of nature would turn to war and chaos. He believed the social contract required citizens giving up all rights to the government. Wanted a social contract, absolute rule, and a strong central government.

Charles II (Eng) r.

1660 - 1665

He made the first monarch after the Puritan Republic.

Peter the Great (Russia)

1682 - 1725

Westernizes Russia. Gains land. Moves government to St. Petersburg.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Withdrawn by Louis XIV. It takes away the rights of the Huguenots. Protestants fled France, leaving them without many skilled workers.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


A book in which Newton defined his three laws of motion. Nature is like a clock. God wound it up and then left it be.

Locke: Treatises on Gov’t (1st & 2nd)


The First Treatise on Government states that the divine right of kings will be the downfall of all countries. The Second Treatise discusses the state of nature as men are naturally equal to one another.

End of the Witch Hunts


End of witch hunts because of scientific revolution and empirical evidence, enlightenment and reason, and the brutality of witch trials.


1700 - 1800

Art that drew inspiration from classical art and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

Russia wins and gains territory on the black sea.

Act of Settlement (GB)


An act of the British Parliament to settle the succession to English crown to Sophia of Hanover (Protestant) since William and Mary were failing.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Charles II (Spanish) had no male heir when he was dying. Caused by the Bourbon family’s succession to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons and grants of commercial rights to English and French.

Death of William III of England


Emergence of Rococo

1710 - 1750

A style of art that originated in France. Very elaborate art style that uses lots of pastel colors. More elaborate than Baroque

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction


Done by Charles IV to garuntee that the Spanish throne would go to Maria Theresa

Treaty of Utrecht


ends War of Spanish Succession

Frederick Wilhelm / Prussian Militarism

1713 - 1740

Increases Prussia’s military power.

Death of Louis XIV


Since none of the nobles had to do any ruling, no one knew how to handle the country and France was weakened

Mississippi Bubble


Economic scheme planned by John Law to create a bank with authority to issue notes. France could not raise the money to pay back their debt so their economy collapsed.

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

First Prime Minister of Britian. He had influence in the Parliamentary.

War of Jenkins’s Ear

1739 - 1742

War fought against Spain because they cut off Robet Jenkis ear. War based on the public opinion that the government can not stop.

Frederick II The Great (Prussia) r.

1740 - 1786

King of Prussia. Declared himself ‘The First Servant of the State’. He made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms, and expanded his territory.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia and France took advantage Austria being ruled by a female monarch. Great Britian chooses sides with Austria.

Maria Theresa (Aus) r.

1745 - 1765

Leader of Austria because of Pragmatic Sanction. She was Catholic and not religious tolerant.

Agricultural Revolution

1750 - 1850

A period of major reforms in European agricultural practices before the Industrial Revolution that began large-scale farming and improvement of methods. Low countries: area of Europe including the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Enclosure: a method used in the agricultural revolution that fenced off areas for private farming and took away public peasant lands. Innovations: plow, seed drill, harvesting machines

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The rapid development of industry in Britain brought on by the introduction of machinery. This incluced the Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, and Steam Engine

Seven Years’ war

1754 - 1763

Ended France’s major power in the Americas.

Diplomatic Revolution


Countries change sides in wars based on strategy not hostilities Britain and Austria vs. France and Prussia turned into France and Austria vs. Britain and Prussia.

Voltaire- Candide


Satire on Society and Religion

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:


Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher who believed that man was good by nature, but corrupted by society.
Emile: Of the nature of man. Men and woman live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General Will means citizens give up their rights for the greater good of the state.

Catherine the Great (Russia) r.

1762 - 1796

Englightened absolutist. Governed whil Russia was expanding rapidly. Reformed cities and towns, modernized Russia, increased reliance on serfs (led to Pugachev’s Rebellion).

Treaty of Paris


Ends the Seven Years war. Makes Britain the global power.

Joseph II (Austria)

1764 - 1790

He was an Enlightened Despot. Was the religious tolerant, tied church to state,better taxation, stripped powers from nobles, and freed the serfs.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

France was in a massive financial crisis because of their involvement in the American revolution.

Smith- Wealth of Nations


Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations. Invented the idea of capitalism.

Decline of Netherlands

1780 - 1810

England became ship building leaders causing the Netherlands to lose economic upper hand

Malthus- Principle of Population


Suggested that growing population rates would lead to a rising supply of labor that would in turn lower wages. Malthus feared that continued population growth would lead to poverty.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


Created ideas of minimum wages and rent.

French Revolution


Estates General called/Meets-


The 1st estate is the clergy, 2nd estate is nobles, and the 3rd estate is the bourgeoisie. Used to solve financial problems by Louis XVI

Nobles renounce feudal priv.


2nd Estate renounces their feudal privliages making everybody equal.

- March of the Fishwives:


With the lack of bread peasant woman march to Versaille to demand a change.

Rights of Man and Citizen


Legislative Assembly Meets-

June 17,1789

The middle class meets.

Storming of the Bastille: - Great Fear

July 14, 1789

Peasants stromed to Bastille to free the prisioners. They started a revolution when the people told the government what to do.

- Civil Const of Clergy-


Convention meets- Monarch Abolished - Cult of Reason-

1792 - 1795

The national convention meets to abolish the monarchy.

Tuileries Stormed- King captive- - Levee en Masse-


citizens storm Tuileries palace.They take the king as a prisioner in Paris.

Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rts of Women- - Reign of Terror-


critizied Rousseau thought of seperate spheres. Within this sphere their education was limited.

- War w/ Austria-


Louis XVI executed- - Danton Executed-

January 17,1793

Executed for treason. This started the Reign of Terror.

Cult of the Supreme Being- - Fall of Robespierre-


Deism was the religion of France when Robespierre was in charge.

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory established

1795 - 1799

Established by the Constitution of the Year III. This was over turned by Napoleon.

Tennis Court Oath

August 20, 1795