In 490 B.C, the people of Athens were at war with the Persians. The Athenians defeated the Persians at the Battle of the Marathon which was an inspired event that happened 2,500 years ago.
Athens' Golden Age
479 B.C - 431 B.C
From about 479 to 431 B.C, democracy (a kind of government in which citizens governed themselves) reached its highest point. This time period was also known as Athens’ “Golden Age” where arts, literature, and philosophy flourished.
Alexander the Great
In 334 B.C, Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia in northern Greece, set out to conquer the world. Within only ten years, he had conquered an empire almost the same size as the United States today.
Linking the Mediterranean World
In 323 B.C, at the same time as Alexander the Greats’ death, Greek culture linked the entire Mediterranean world.
Start of the Roman Empire
In 27 B.C, soon after Alexander the Great, the Romans built their empire and Augustus became the first emperor of Rome.
In about 30 A.D, a spiritual leader named Jesus of Nazareth traveled and preached through the region. Today he is known as Jesus Christ where Christ means a savior sent by God. After the Romans put Jesus to death for trouble making, his followers began spreading his teachings.
Invaders in the Roman Empire
In 450 A.D, Germanic invaders grew strong and attacked Rome. To fight back, the Romans needed more soldiers which led to the raise of taxes.
Collapse of the Roman Empire
Finally, in 476 A.D, the Germanic invaders overthrew the Roman emperor, terrorized, and looted Rome until the Western Roman Empire collapsed.
Changes in Europe
In the 1300s, changes started happening in Europe which started from Italy. Traders brought sold goods across the region, there was enough money to support artist and scholars, and the rich grew even richer.
In about 1324 A.D and elderly explorer named Marco Polo said that he travelled to China, Japan, and India, and other places too. His stories were later published in a book known as “The Travels of Marco Polo,” and 200 years later, Christopher Columbus sailed west from Europe to find a new route to the rich islands Marco Polo had described.
The Prince of Moscow
The Prince of Moscow grew rich and powerful by making deals with the Mongolians and slowly became the strongest ruler in the region.
Development of Europe
By 1400 A.D. a new way of life centered around cities had begun to develop around Europe. Trade increased, towns grew into cities, Christianity rose, and there were more opportunities.
Trip to Africa
In the 1400s, Portuguese travelled along the western coast of Africa. During their journey they started to trade gold, ivory, and slaves which became very profitable.
The Printing Press
Around 1450, an important invention known as the printing press was invented in Germany. Before printed books, books were copied by hand which took a very long time. The printing press allowed more quantities of books and increased the ability of people to read and write
In 1492 a big and profitable discovery was made, while searching for a shortcut to the Indian Ocean spice trade, Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas.
In 1500s, a period known as the Renaissance, or the rebirth of interest in learning and art reached its peak. The people during this time relooked at the ideas and culture of the Greeks and the Romans.
Age of Monarchs & Age of Revouloution
1600 - 1700
The period in European history from the 1600s to the 1700s can be called as the Age of Monarch . During this time, many European monarchs exerted great power over their subjects. This time period can also be called the Age of Revolution which was the beginning of modern age science and democracy.
By 1600, many European Nations began following the policy of imperialism which is to take over other countries and turn them into colonies.
Share of Riches
By the 1600s, France, England, and the Netherlands, took a growing share of riches to be gained from overseas trade and settlement.
King Louis XIV
1643 - 1751
From 1643 to 1751, one of Europe's most powerful kings was the king of France, king Louis XIV.
The Industrial Reveloution
Until the late 1700s, nearly all goods were made by hand. People made what they needed,or bought if from a crafts-person. The Industrial Revolution changed it all as it changed the way goods were made and the way people live.
Creation of Steam Engine
Creation of Flying Shuttle
Creation of Spinning Jenny
Rebellion Against the British King
In1776, 13 of the colonies ( a territory ruled by another nation) rebelled against the British king because they felt that the laws applied to them was unfair. The colonists defeated the British and formed an independent nation of United States
Creation of Steamboat
The French Reveloution
In 1789, 13 years after the American declared their independence, the French people used extreme violence to overthrow their government, in the name of freedom and brotherhood. The French Revolution gave new ideas about political and economical change.
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great ruled the Russian court and died in 1796
Creation of Electric Battery
Age of Imperialism
The late 1800s were called the Age of Imperialism. During that time, the nations of Belgium, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, and Germany colonized most of Africa, most of Southeast Asia, and many South Pacific Islands.
Creation of Steam Locomotive
Creation of Sewing Machine
Creation of Grain Elevator
1900 - 1950
Destructive nationalism played a part in causing two world wars and the death of millions of people during 1900-1950.
Great Britians Factories
Since Great Britain's factories were so successful, business people began to build factories. By 1900, factories produced many of the goods made in the United States and Western Europe. Governments also began passing laws to protect workers.
Russia V.S Japan
1904 - 1905
World War I
World War II
During 1990, people of Europe were filled with Nationalism which is pride of their countries.
Twelve countries had adopted the euro. Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom chose not to.