AP Euro First Semester Timeline

Bethany Keupp McAvoy Period 3

Main

Dante

1265 - 1321

Writer during Rennaissance
Author of Dante's Inferno, Vita Nuova and Divine Comedy

Renaissance in Italy

1304 - 1550

Humanism
Secular

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Celebrated Ancient Rome
Held Scholastics in contempt
"Father of Humanism"

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

French Pope, moves papacy to Avignon, France. Precursor to Great Schism

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Wrote about reactions to Black Death
Wrote Decameron, a social commentary

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

England vs. France
Devastated France but awakened nationalism. Burgundy Became major European power. Tax burden fell on peasants.

The Black Death

1346 - 1350

Started in Constantinople in 1346 spreading to Sicily in 1347. Hit Europe with full force in 1348. Huge drop in population.

The Golden Bull

1356

Established electoral college that elected Holy Roman Emperor. Made Emperor weak

Hussites John Huss

1369 - 1415

Early church reformer. Had many peasant followers

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Three Popes. Power struggle-who had power, Pope or Cardinals? Eventually Pope.

Jaquerie

1381

French peasant revolts

Lollards John Wycliffe

1384

Early church reformer.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Solves great schism. Elects a new Pope

Northern Rennaissance

1443 - 1509

Art

Printing Press- Guttenberg

1465

Allowed for reformation to spread much faster

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Northern humanist
Criticized the pope. Political and educational reformer.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1469

Made Spain Stronger

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire

1492

Columbus finds New World.

Early Exploration of Spain and Portugal

1492 - 1600

Exploring the New World

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

France troops had been invited in and then they turned on them

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

People needed scapegoats for all of the problems

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

Exchange of goods from Europe to the colonies

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Warrior Pope. Many wars. Actived foreign policy

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Many wives. Separated from Catholic Church to gain a male heir

Machiavelli: The Prince

1513

A book instructing leaders how to effectively rule a country. New thoughts

Reformation

1517 - 1563

Broke away from church. New religions founded

95 Theses

October 31 1517

Posted to church door by Martin Luther. Created cinversation and debate about church reforms. Spread rapidly due to Printing Press

Mannerism

1520 - 1580

Allowed artist to put his feeling into his art.

Luther Diet of Worms

1521

Luther refuses to repent 95 Theses and is excommunicated

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasants revolt because of Luther's ideas. Luther condemns them so he can stay under the protection of the rulers

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

Church is under the state

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

United Netherlands against Spain. Politique

Act of Supremacy

1534

Made church under state

Jesuits Society of Jesus Ignatious of Loyala

1534 - 1600

Counter Reformers supported church

Calvin/Geneva

1536

Predestination. Excommunicated

Copernicus on the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Heliocentric model beginning

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Reaffirms church doctrine. Removes corruption. Response to Reformation

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Did much research on the geocentric model.

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

Bloody Mary. Hated because she was Catholic.

Peace of Augsberg

1555

Ruler of the state pick the religion

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Steered middle course on religion. Politique

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Thirty Years war was the last

Thirty Nine Articles

1563

Made Protestant religion of England.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Codified english language

Rise in The Netherlands Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1610

Tulip bubble. Rising economically due to ship building

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 22 1572

Catholics brutally attacked Hugenots

Pacification of Ghent

November 4 1576

After Spanish Fury. Spanish mercenaries killed 7000 people in Antwerp.
Declared internal religious uniformity

Union of Utrecht

January 1579

William of Orange unites Netherlands

Mary Stuart is Executed

1587

Executed for planning to kill Elizabeth

Spanish Armada

1588

Tries to invade England. Fails and is destroyed

Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

Politique. Passes Edict of Nantes

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Raised standard of living

Cromwell

1594 - 1658

Executes king. Becomes leader after the revolt of Parliament

Commercial Revolution

1594 - 1658

Edict of Nantes

April 13 1598

Forced religious toleration. Granted freedoms to Hugenots

Baroque

1600 - 1700

Very elaborate and religious

Decline of Gothic Art

1600 - 1800

Replaced with Neoclassicism

Prussian Militariansim

1600 - 1800

Prussia becomes a military power

Age of Mercantalism

1600 - 1800

Economic system controlled by the government based on the idea that there are limited resources. Favorable balance of trade

James I England

1603 - 1625

Catholic. KIng James Bible

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1605

Story about a madman

Henry IV assasinated

1610

Assasinated by a Catholic fanatic

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Made France a leading Power

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Last religious war. Started religious thenh became a power struggle

Bacon: Nvum Organum

1620

Inductive Reasoning

Keplar The New Astonomy

1621

Took Brahe's observations and used them to support heliocentric. Discovered eliptical motion of planets

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Believe just in case

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Raised taxes w/out Parliament

Galileo Condemned

1633

Disagreed with church

Descartes Discourse on Method

1637

Rejected scholastic philosophy and advocated math

Long/Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

Short-Disbanded shortly after called
Long-Called to collect taxes

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

Parliament vs. Monarchy

Mazarin

1642 - 1661

Attempted royal administration on France

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Moves palace to Versailles. Diminishes power of nobles

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

Ended hostilities in Holy Roman Empire. Gave Calvinists legal recognition

Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

French Revolts

Acadamies of Science

1650 - 1800

Run by men but hosted by women

Decline of the Netherlands

1650 - 1750

England became ship building leaders causing the Netherlands to lose economic upper hand

Hobbes Leviathan

1651

Man in SON is inherently evil. Supported absolute monarchy

Restoration

1660 - 1685

James restored as King

Royal Society of London Founded

1660

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Was monarch after Cromwell.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Was monarch after Cromwell.

Agricultrual Revolution

1674 - 1795

Series of improvements in agriculture that created less famine and more food. Potato

End of the Wtich Hunts

1680

order returns

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Westernizes Russia. Gains land. Moves government to St. Petersburg

The Glorious Revolution

1685 - 1689

William and Mary take power through bloodless coup

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

James the II

1685 - 1688

Newton: Principa Mathematica

1687

Natue is like a clock. God wound it up and then left it be.

Frederick Weihelm

1688 - 1740

Father of Frederick The Great. Begins Prussia's Militarianism

Locke: Treatise on Government

1689

Man is inherently good. Tabula Rosa-Blank Slate. Social contract, natural rights

English Bill of Rights

1689

Limited powers of Monarchy and garunteed civil liberties to priviledged classes

The Great Northern War of Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

Fight over port in Baltic Sea. Warm weather port-year round trade

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Involved Western Europe

Act of Settlement

1701

Said that if Queen Anne died, the crown would go to the house of Hanover in in Germany

Death of William III

1702

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Emergence of Rococo

1710 - 1750

More elaborate than Baroque

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Done by Charles IV to garuntee that the Spanish throne would go to Maria Theresa

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Ends War of Spanish Succession

Death of Louis XIV

1715

Since none of the nobles had to do any ruling, no one knew how to handle the country and France was weakened

Mississippi Bubble

1720

France couldn't raise the money to pay back their debt so their economy collapsed.

Emergence/Dominance of Robert Walpole

1722 - 1742

First Prime Minister.

Catherine The Great

1729 - 1796

"Enlightened Despot" however she was reliant on the nobles and didn't get to institute the reforms she wanted to.

War of Jenkins Ear

1739 - 1748

War fought against Spain because they cut off Robet Jenkis ear. Public Opinion

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1765

Prussia took advantage Austria being ruled by a female monarch

Frederick II The Great Prussia

1740 - 1786

Made Prussia military power. gained lots of land. Enlightened despot. First servant of the state

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1765

Leader of Austria because of Pragmatic Sanction

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Many advances. Manufacturing moved from houses to factories

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

Helped England get the Americas

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

Countries change sides in wars based on strategy not hostilities

Voltaire Candide

1759

Satire on Society and Religion

Rousseau: Emile, Social Contract

1762

Men and women in seperate spheres

The Treaty of Paris

1763

England took territory in France

Joseph II

1764 - 1790

Enlightened Despot. Eliminated serfdom.

Spinning Jenny

1765

Spinners could produce yarn twice as fast

Steam Engine

1769

First source of steady and almost unlimited source of power

Water Frame

1769

What moved cotton production out of home and into factories

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

France aids Americans

Adam Smith Wealth of Nations

1776

Capitalism.

Malthus Principle of Population

1798

Mercantalism

Ricardo Iron Law of Wages

1817

Capitalsim

French Revolution

Great Fear

1784

Peasants revolt and burn legal papers that would prove they are peasants

War With Austria

1789

Austria threatens war and so France forces it

Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

Locke's ideas;All men are created equal

Estates General Called

1789

Tennis Court Oath

1789

National Assembly meets in a tennis court and swears to write a constitution

Storming of the Bastile

1789

Nobles Renounce Feudal Privilidges

August 4 1789

On paper nobles are same as everyone else

March of the Fishwives

October 6 1789

Women are hungry and form a mob

Civil Constitution of Clergy

1790

Created clergy loyal to state and clergy loyal to church

Legislative Assembly Meets

1791

Very Radical First Meeting

Tuileries Stormed King Captive

1792

King prisoner.

Convention Meets-Monarch Abolished

1792

No more monarch. First republic voted into place

Wollstonecraft The Vindication of Rights of Women

1792

Women should get political rights

Louis XIV Executed

1792

Found guilty of being the King and is executed

Danton Executed

1793

Feel threatened by the amount of supporters Danton had

Levee en Masse

1793

Draft

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Anyone who was too revolutionary or not revolutionary enough we executed

Cult of Reason

1794

Deism

Cult of Supreme Being

1794

Fails

Fall of Robespierre

1794

Planted seed of suspicion that grew to him

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Easily overthrown by Napolean. He weakens it to take it over

Constitution of the Year III The Directory

1795

Establish new constitution that benefits the middle class

Napoleon coup Brumaire

1799

Napolean takes over. Easy because he provides stability.