By: Domenica DeYoung Period-1
Neanderthal flourished in Europe and Southeast Asia. They were the first humans to bury their dead, fashioned clothing from animal skins, lived in caves, and created cave drawing.
Cro-Magnon had a similar bone structure to the modern human and are also known as Homo sapiens Sapiens. They were skillful toolmakers and used spoken language.
The Agricultural Revolution also known as the Neolithic Revolution occurred when people figured out how to cultivate plants. The cultivation of crops created a constant supply of food and allowed people to stay in one place.
Pastoralism developed in the grasslands of Africa and Eurasia as agricultural communities arose. Pastoralists or herders contributed meat and other animals to the overall food supply, Further enlarging Neolithic human populations. At times their overgrazing of livestock led to soil erosion.
Çatal Hüyük, located in south central Anatolia, became a prominent village due to its close proximity to obsidian deposits. Çatal Hüyük had a rapid development of specialization and artifacts such as baskets, textiles, leather, tools, beads, jewelry, etc have circulated through this town
Mesopotamians discovered that when you mixed copper with tin they could create a much harder and stronger implements which led to the creation of bronze. Bronze had an immediate effect on military affairs and later had an effect on Agriculture.
Sargon of Akkad was a talented administrator and brilliant warrior who created the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia. At the high point of his reign his empire embraced all of Mesopotamia and he transformed his capital city of Akkad into the most powerful city in the world.
The Epic of Gilgamesh was the work of compilers living during the Babylonian Empire. The experiences of Gilgamesh and Enkidu explored the themes of friendship, relations between humans and gods and especially the meaning of life and death. It was the principle vehicles for Mesopotamian reflections in moral issues.
Abraham was the Hebrew Patriarch that was from Sumerian city of Ur, but later led Hebrews to Northern Mesopotamia (Canaan) due to the disorder in Sumer.
Hammurabi was the most prominent Babylonian conquer who was know as the "King of the four corners of the world." Hammurabi created the Hammurabi's Laws which established high standards of behavior and stern punishment for violators.
By 1000 BCE Mesopotamians craftsmen began to manufacture effective tools and weapons with iron. Although the Hittites had developed techniques of foraging exceptionally strong iron tools and weapons around 1300 BCE. Iron quickly became the metal of choice for weapons and tools.
Menes was a conquer who established the city of Memphis and started to build a society in which Pharaohs much like himself would rule Egypt. The entire river valley was united under King Menes and as result the civilization became wealthy and powerful.
The Bantu Migration began in 3000 BCE when they slowly spread into southern Africa. The Bantu Migrations were not mass movements of people's instead there were intermittent and incremental processes that result in the gradual spread of Bantu language. By 1000 BCE Bantu-speaking people's occupied most of Africa south of the equator. The Bantu populations placed pressure on dwellers, but the Bantu learned much from the forest dwellers. The Bantu expanded south as far as the Orange River.
The most enduring symbols of their authority and divine status are the massive pyramids constructed during the Old Kingdom. The enormous pyramids show the Pharaohs ability to marshal Egyptian resources.
The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom presided over a prosperous and productive society. Agricultural surpluses supported a population of perhaps four million people as well as an army and an elaborate bureaucracy that divided responsibilities among different offices. Pharaohs of the New Kingdoms did not build enormous pyramids.
Ancient India and China
Oracle bones were the principal instrument used by fortunetellers in Ancient China. Oracle Bones were used during the Shang Dynasty and Oracle Bones give us an insight into the Shang Dynasty's political and social order.
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were two prominent cities in the Harappa society that were political and economic centers for their own regions in the Indus River valley. The two cities represented a considerable investment of human labor and other resources. They both a high degree of standardization which was possible because the Indus Valley facilitated trade, travel, and communications among the far-flung regions of Harappan society.
Xia Dynasty made one of the first efforts to organize public life in China on a large scale. Yu was the founder of the Xia and helped establish recognized authorities and formal political institutions. The Xia Dynasty was located along the Yellow River.
Shang Dynasty was centered around the Yellow River Valley. The Shang were a warrior people who moved their capital several times. They used its agricultural surplus to build a trade centered civilization. At its height Shang controlled large parts of northern China and was militarily quite powerful.
Vedas are composed of hymns, songs, prayers and rituals honoring the various gods of Aryans. The Vedas represent a priestly perspective on affairs. The word Veda means "wisdom" or "knowledge". In view of their importance as historical sources scholars refer to Indian history during the millennium between 1500 and 500 B.C.E. as the Vedic age.
The Zhou Dynasty replaced the Shang Dynasty as the administrator of Northeastern China, but the Zhou Dynasty keep most of the Shang traditions and customs. The Zhou Dynasty lasted for nearly 900 years. The Zhou Dynasty believed in the Mandate of Heaven, meaning that heaven would grant the Zhou power only as long as its ruler governed justly and wisely.
The word Upanishad means "a sitting in front of," and it refers to the practice of disciples gathering before a stage for discussion of religious issues. The Upanishads developed several specific doctrines to explain their line of thought which was appearances are deceiving, that individual human beings are not separate and autonomous creatures.
The last centuries of the Zhou Dynasty were so violent they are known as the Period of Warring States. Territorial princes ignored the central government and used their resources to build strength and expand their states. They fought ferociously with one another in hopes of establishing themselves as new leaders of a new political order.
Ancient Americas and Oceania
The humans who first migrated to Australia and New Guinea arrived in water-crafts, but because of the low sea levels the migrants did not have to cross large stretches of open ocean. By the first millennium CE they had established human community is all habitable islands of the Pacific ocean. The first human migrants to reach Australia and New Guinea were hunter-gatherers
Homo Sapiens took advantage of land bridges linking Siberia to Alaska and established human societies in North America.
The Olmecs or the "Rubber People" were an urban society supported by surpluses of food. Olmecs were located in modern Mexico. They mastered Irrigation techniques and constructive large-scale building, they were polytheistic and developed a writing system and a calendar. They are known for their trade in jade and obsedian as well as their colossal Olmec heads made from basalt rock.
The Chavín cult spread through most of the territory occupied by the modern Peru. The cult arose when maize became an important crop in South America.
The earliest heirs of the Olmecs was the Maya, who created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador. The Maya built the states of Tikal and Chichén Itzá. The Mayan are known for their elaborate calendar.
Popol Vuh was a mayan myth that the gods created humans with water and maize.
Cyrus was from a mountainous region on southwestern Iran. He was known to be a tough, wily leader and an outstanding military strategist. He laid the foundation for the first Persian empire known as the Achaemenid empire.
The Achaemenid empire relied on a balance between central initiative and local administration. The Achaemenid Empire organized their administration by Satrapies. The Achaemenids' roads and administrative machinery enabled them to govern a vast empire and extend Persian influences throughout their territories.
Darius was the greatest emperor of Achaemenid empire.His armies conquered lands as far as the Indus Valley.He centralized his administration and built the capital Persepolis. He built the biggest empire of his time.
Confucius believed education was part of the preparation for an ideal government. Confucius believed in three main qualities; which are ren, li, and xiao. He served as an educator and a political advisor. He encouraged his students to cultivate high ethical standards and to hone their faculties of analysis and judgment.
The fundamental ideas and values of Confucianism were moral, ethical, and political in character, but thoroughly practical. Confucianism has three main qualities; which are ren, li, and xiao. Ren is an attitude of kindness and benevolence.
Daoists believed it was pointless to waste time and energy on problems that defied a solution. Daoist devoted their energy towards reflection and introspection. Daoist believed that harmony would be reached when people ceased to meddle in affairs that they could not understand or control
Laozi is the supposed founder of Daoism. He was a sage that contributed to the basic exposition of Daoist beliefs, Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue).
4th and 3rd century
Legalism was based on the fundamental principles which promoted a practical and ruthlessly efficient approach to statecraft. Legalist did not concern themselves with morality, ethics, or propriety. Legalists didn't concern themselves with the principles governing the world or the place of human beings in nature. Legalists concerned themselves with their state in which they were devoted to strengthening and expanding at all costs.
Mencius was the most learned man of his age and the principal spokesperson for the Confucian school. He was a big advocate for the virtue of ren. He is considered to be the most authoritative of Confucius's early expositors.
The Qin Dynasty was a period in time when Qin Shihuangdi reigned. He created a dynasty that was highly centralized with a uniform coinage, legal standards, and a standardized script. Qin reigned form his Capitol of Xianyang. Under the Qin Dynasty defensive walls were built and linked together as well as 6,800 km long of roads. The Qin are also famous for their terra-cotta army.
Qin Shihuangdi was the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty and greatly influenced Chinese history. He linked walls that became the precursor to the Great Wall of China. To add he pointed China in the direction of cultural and political unity. Qin Shihuangdi governed from his capital of Xianyang. He was known to have standardized life in China.
206 - 9 CE (Former Han Dynasty) 25-220 CE (Later Han Dynasty)
The Han Dynasty was the longest empire in China's history. Han Dynasty was unified under a centralized imperial rule by emperor Liu Bang. Technological advancements and inventions of the Han included Paper, collar harness, plow, wheelbarrow, and waterwheel. The social classes under the Han included the emperor. Governors and kings, nobles, scholars and state officials, peasants, artisans, merchants, soldiers, and slaves. Agriculture was vital to the Han Dynasty. Han Wudi set up a Confucianism based imperial university. The taxes collected by the Han dynasty supported the government and the military.
Late 2nd century CE
The Yellow Turban uprisings- so named because of the distinctive headgear worn by rebels- was a particularly serious revolt that raged throughout China and tested the resilience of Han state.
Siddhartha Gautama is the founder of Buddhism. He believed that people needed to be more aware of the suffering around them. He received enlightenment and understood the problem of suffering. Buddha doctrine is known as the Four Noble Truths that explains suffering and desire. The Eightfold path discusses the elimination if desire.
Buddhism is a religion based on the four Noble truths and is associated with Buddha. It's adherents desired to eliminate all distracting passion and reach nirvana. Buddhism focuses on human suffering and how to eliminate it.
The Mauryan Dynasty was an Indian dynasty that was founded by Chandragupta Maurya and reached its peak with Ashoka. The Mauryan Dynasty unified the Indian subcontinent and left a lasting impression on India.
Ashoka Maurya is the grandson of Chandragupta. Under Ashoka's rule the Mauryan empire reached its peak. He began his rule as a conquerer and conquered Kalinga. He also known as a governor that ruled a tightly organized bureaucracy.
The Gupta Dynasty based their state in Magadha, a crucial region because of its wealth and its dominance of the Ganges valley. The Gupta Dynasty was somewhat smaller in size to the Mauryan. The Gupta dynasty brought stability and prosperity to the subcontinent. Gupta's prosperity sustained the work of scholars and enabled them to lay the foundations for sophisticated studies and natural sciences and mathematics.
Chandra Gupta forged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region and established a dynamic kingdom about the year 320 BCE. He is not related to Chandragupta Maurya. Chandra Gupta was the emperor of the Gupta Dynasty.
470 -399 BCE
Socrates did not commit his thought to writing and he also didn't assertively expound his views. He believed that humans could be honest and honesty should be more value then wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes. Socrates subjected traditional ethnically teachings to critical scrutiny. Due to this very reason he was convicted of corrupting the youth and condemned him to death.
Plato composed dialogues of Socrates views. Plato was Socrates disciple and in his earliest dialogues he largely represented his mentors views. Plato was disturbed by that fact that he could not gain satisfactory intellectual control over the world. Plato developed his belief that the world in which we live was not the only world. Plato skewed an ideal state that reflected his philosophical views.
Aristotle was the student of Plato. He elaborated a systematic philosophy that equaled Plato's work in its long term influence. Aristotle believed that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world and then depend on a reasons to sort out the mystery. He wrote on biology, physics, astronomy, psychology, politics, ethics, and literature.
Alexander of Macedon was the son of Phillip of Macedon. Alexander assembled an army of about forty-eight thousand men to invade the Persian empire. He was a brilliant strategist and an inspired leader who inherited a well equipped, well disciplined, highly spirited veteran force. Alexander had conquered Anatolia, Palestine, Egypt, Syria, and part of India. Although he accomplished much he died at the age of thirty-three.
509 BCE-476 CE
The Roman Republic consisted of patriarchs ( land owning noble-men), Plebeians (all free men), and slaves. The Roman government was organized as a representative republic governed by two distinct groups including the Senate and the Assembly. Consuls had veto power over decisions made by the assembly. The Roman Republic's codified laws were the Twelve Tables. The social structure of Roman family centered on the pater familia. The Punic Wars occurred during this time.
Julius Caesar favored liberal policies and social reform. He spent an enormous amount of money to sponsor public spectacles which helped him build his reputation and win the election to posts of the republican government. Caesar conquered Gaul which resulted in his popularity. By 46 BCE Caesar had made himself dictator of Rome. He then centralized the military and political functions and brought them under his control. He confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it to veterans and supporters. He also extended Roman citizenship to people in imperial provinces. Caesar was attacked and stab to death by the senate.
Augustus (Octavian) was the nephew, adopted son, and protégé of Julius Caesar. In 31 BCE Augustus defeated his principal rival Mark Antony, the last of Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt. In 27 BCE the senate bestowed him a title of Augustus, a term with strong religious connotations suggesting the divine or semi divine nature of its holder, Augustus fashioned an imperial government that guided Rome into the next three centuries. He disguised his monarchy as a republic and took control of all government functions.
31 BCE-2nd century CE
Pax Romana is a term used to describe Roman Peace. It relates to the time when a there was political stability, cultural brilliance, and economic prosperity. Roman Peace began with the unification under Augustus and lasting through the first two centuries CE.
The Roman Republic eventually collapses and the first triumvirate took control. Caesar was on of the three and he pushed his other two partners out of the way, so he could become emperor for life. Caesar marks the beginning of the Roman Empire and after his death the second triumvirate takes control. Power shifted again to one person, Octavious who becomes emperor. Under Augustus Rome became the capital of the western world. he established the rule of law, a coomon coinage, civil service, and secure travel for merchants. The Roman Empire expanded across Southern Europe and Northern Africa. Rome fluorished and they reached new heights in arts, science, and astronomy.
4 BCE- 30 CE
Jesus of Nazareth was a charismatic Jewish teacher who, Christians recognize as their savior. Jesus was born around 4BCE and grew up at a time of high tension between Roman overlords and their Jewish subjects. Jesus was a peaceful man who taught devotion to God and live for fellow human beings. Romans were alarmed by Jesus and in efforts to forestall a new round of rebellion, executed Jesus. Jesus is considered the savior of the Christian faith and his life is compiled in a body of writings known as the New Testament.
Christianity's founder was Jesus Christ and the religion grew out of Judaism. Christianity became widely accepted in the Roman Empire after the reign of Augustus. The apostles of Jesus and missionaries extended the influence of Christianity throughout the empire. In 391 CE Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and since then it continues to be one of the most influential religions in the world.
Constantine was son of Constantius, the co-ruler of Diocletian. In 306 CE Constantine built the city of Constantinople and by 330 CE it became the capital of the united Roman empire. Constantine was an able emperor who had faced the same sort of administrative difficulties as his successors had. Constantine experienced a vision that impressed upon him the power of the Christian God and for that very reason he let Christians practice their faith openly in the Roman Empire .
Western Rome fell in 476 CE because...
-Tax revoluts by uppper class and church exempt from taxes
-decrease in trade
-25 out of 26 emperors died violently
-divison of empire
Saliors used the seasonal monsoon winds to chart their course and carry out voyages that linked sections from east Africa to Southern China. Chinese pottery, INdian spices, and Ivory from India and Africa were some of the goods trade in the Indian ocean trade routes.
The silk roads were of great significance to history because they connected the entire Eurasian land mass. To add it created a highly efficient system for communication and facilitated the trading of goods and ideas. Merchants and travelers created an extensive network of trade that linked much of Eurasia and north Africa. Silk from China was one of the principal commodities exchange over the roads. Overland roads took caravan trade from China to the Roman empire. The silk roads also included a network of sea lanes that sustained maritime commerce throughout much of the eastern hemisphere. There was a wide variety of manufactured products and agricultural commodities. In Central Asia high quality jade and strong horses were produced and traded along the silk roads.
Germanic invasions placed immediate and serious military threat to the Roman Empire. Indeed during the fifth century CE, Germanic invasions brought an end to Roman authority in the western half of the empire, although imperial rule survived for an additional millennium in the eastern Mediterranean.
Diocletian attempted to deal with the Roman empires problem by dividing it into two administrative districts. Diocletian hoped by creating the four officials known as the Tetrarchs would be able to minister the vast empire more efficiently than a individual. His efforts on strengthening his crumbling economy were less successful than his administrative reforms but they help stabilize the economy.
Constantine decides to move his capital to Constantinople which is located in modern day Istanbul. It is a strategic location with many beneifts making it a great choice for a capital.
Rome splits into western rome and the Byzantine empire (eastern europe).
Muhammad or the prophet came into this world of Bedouin herders and worldly merchants. Mohammed underwent a profound spiritual experience that transformed his life. His experience left him with the convictions that in all the world there was only one deity, Allah and that he will be universe that idolatry and the recognition of other gods amounted to wickedness and he was to bring judgment on the world awarding the righteous and punishing the wicked. Mohammed began to expound his beliefs on his family and close friends and gradually others showed interest in his message. After conflict in Mecca, Mohammed migrated to Medina.
Khadija was Muhammad first wife that was a widow. Through this marriage he gained a position of some prominence in the Meccan society. She was a successful businesswomen that as a young man, Muhammad had worked for.
Mohammed underwent a profound spiritual experience that transformed his life. His experience left him with the convictions that in all the world there was only one deity, Allah. Muhammad received messages in his visions that instructed him to explain his views to others. Mohammed began to expound his beliefs on his family and close friends and gradually others showed interest in his message. He did not set out to create a new religion, but he became the founder of Islam.
The Hijra was caused after pressure became so great. Muhammad fled Mecca with some of his followers to the city of Medina. The Hijra or the migration of Muhammad to Medina serves as the starting point of the official Islamic calendar.
Abu Bakr, a genial man who was one of the prophets closest friends and most devoted disciples. Abu was selected to serve as caliph. He became head of state for the Islam community as well as chief judge, religious leader, and military commander.
The Umayyad family came to power in the Islamic world after the assassination of Ali in 661. They Established their capital of Damascus in Syria. The Umayyad were noted for being an empire that emphasized Arabic ethnicity over adherence to Islam. They granted an inferior status to those that converted to Islam. They made adherents of other religions pay a certain tax. Riots among the general population led to the overthrow of the Umayyad family.
Charles Martel lead the revolt against advancing Muslim armies and defeated them at the Battle of Tours, not far from Paris. In 711 Berbers from North Africa conquered the Iberian peninsula, penetrating the European continent until their advance was stopped about 200 miles south of Paris at the Battle of Tours in 732.
The Abbasid Caliphate was originally supported by Shia, but became increasingly receptive to the Sunni as well. Their capital was located in Baghdad. Converts experienced new opportunities for advanced education and career advancement and trade with heightened from the Western Mediterranean world to China. In the fields mathematics, the Abbasid refined them and they began to study astronomy of the stars. Optic surgery were their speciality. The Muslim cartographers of the Abbasid produced some of the most detailed maps of the world. Although responsible for much of the advancement of Islamic culture, the Abbasids found their vast empire increasingly difficult to govern.
The earliest printers employed block printing techniques: They carved a reverse
image of an entire page into a wooden block, inked the block, and then pressed a sheet of paper on top.
The Sui Dynasty ruled all of China by 589. The emperors of the Sui Dynasty placed enormous demands on their subjects in the course of building a strong, centralized government. They ordered the construction of palaces, carried out extensive repairs on defensive walls, dispatched military forces, levied high taxes, and demanded compulsory labor services. The Grand Canal was constructed during the Sui Dynasty. The second emperor Sui Yangdi completed it. The Grand Canal stretched from Hangzhou to Chang'an to Beijing (1,240 miles long). The Sui later fell because of rebellions in Northern China and a disgruntled minister assassinated the emperor.
The Sui Dynasty constructed the Grand Canal which facilitated trade between northern and southern China. The Grand Canal stretched from Hangzhou to Chang'an to Beijing (1,240 miles long).
Tang Rulers applied their policies more systematically and effectively than their predecessors had. They had three main policies including maintenance of a well articulated transportation and communication network, distribution of land according the the principles of equal field system, and reliance on bureaucracy based on merit. The Tang's rulers organized china into a powerful, productive, and prosperous society. The Tang Dynasty success was due to the energy and policies of Tang Taizong. Tang rulers also maintained an extensive communication networks based on roads, horses, and sometimes human runners. The Tang Dynasty relied heavily on bureaucracy based on merit reflected by performance on imperial service examinations.
The Tang relied heavily on bureaucracy based on merit as reflected by performance on imperial civil service examinations. Civil service examinations were so refined, that the test's basic form was used in the 20th century.
"Flying cash" were letters of credit that came into common use during early Tang Dynasty. They allowed merchants to deposit cash or goods at one location and draw the equivalent in cash and goods elsewhere in China.
In Vietnam the Sui and Tang encountered strains of fast ripening right that enabled cultivators to harvest two crops per year. When introduced to fertile land of southern China, the fast ripening rice quickly resulted in expanded supply food. The Tang and Song benefited enormously from the introduction of fast- ripening rice.
During the Nara period China became very prominent and influential in Japan. Although Japan did not lose its distinctive characteristics or become simply a smaller model of Chinese society. They adopted Confucianism and Buddhist traditions, but continued to practice Shinto traditions.
During the Heian period local rulers on the island of Honshu mostly recognized the emperor as Japan's supreme and political authority. The cultural development of Heian Japan reflected both the influence of Chinese developments and the elaboration of Japan's peculiar ways. Heian Japan learned Chinese and even Japanese writing reflected the influence on Chinese characters.
The Song Dynasty re-imposed centralized imperial rule in the late tenth century. They never built a very powerful state because Song rulers mistrusted military leaders and they place more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts than on military affairs. The first problem with empire was financial: the enormous bureaucracy devoured Chinas surplus production. The imperial treasury was put under great pressures. Efforts to raise taxes aggravated to peasants and they rebelled. The second problem was military. Song Taizu was the Song Dynasty's first emperor.
Neo-Confucianism illustrates the deep influence of Buddhism in Chinese society. Neo-Confucianism rejected Buddhist religious teachings, but adapted the Buddhist themes and reasoning to Confucian interests and values. Neo-Confucianism shaped philosophical, political, and moral thought for half a millennium and more.
Mahmud of Ghanzi was leader of the Turks in Afghanistan. He soon turned his attention to the rich land in the south. He was a patron of the art who bult Ghanzi into a refined capital where he supported historians, mathematicians, and figures at his court. At the same time he was a determined warrior that spent much of his time in the field with his army. His forces demolished hundred sites associated with Hindu or Buddhist and sometimes built mosques. Although he did not encourage Indians to convert to Islam.
The Sultanate of Delhi Commanded Army of 300,000 and ranked among the most prominent in the Islamic world during the 14th century. They built mosques shrines and fortresses throughout their realm and were generous patrons of art and literature. For the most part the authority of the sultans did not extend far beyond Delhi. They had no permanent bureaucracy or administrative apparatus. The sultans prominently sponsored Islam and played a large role in the establishment of Islam in the Bengal region.
Feudal Europe and Byzantium
The Byzantine was a long lasting empire centered around Constantinople . It grew out of the end of the Roman Empire and was the only classical society to survive into the early modern age. The Byzantine Empire preserved Roman and Greek culture and spread these ideals to other parts of the world.
During Justinian's rule, the Byzantine empire peaked. He was known as the sleepless emperor. He was born into a Macedonian peasant family, but received an education and eventually took his place as emperor. He established the Body of the Civil Law and built Hagia Sophia. Theodora was Justinian's wife and advisor. She was smart, strong willed, and disciplined.
Justinian's code was a systematic review of Roman law which immediately won recognition as the definitive codification of Roman law. Update by later emperors Justinian code has influenced most of Europe, Japan and the state of Louisiana in the United States.
Hagia Sophia was a massiveChristian church constructed by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later converted into a mosque.
The Vikings turned their maritime skills more toward raiding and plundering than trading or raising crops. The term Viking originally referred to a group that raided the British isles from their home at Vik in Norway.
The Frankish realm reached its peak under Charlemagne who temporarily reestablished a centralized rule. He was much like King Harsha in which he possessed enormous power and the Carolingian empire was in large measure his own personal accomplishment. He was barely literate, but was quite intelligent. The lands he expanded into such as Eastern Europe and southern Italy paid tribute to him as imperial overload. He built a Capitol on Aachen. He instituted missi dominici.
In the mid eleventh century, The church's differences had become so great that church leaders formally denounced one another and established to rival communities: the Eastern Orthodox Church in Byzantium and the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe which is labeled as the Great Schism. Alongside ritual and doctrinal differences, the Byzantine patriarchs and the Roman popes disputed their respective rights and powers.
This Battle was fought between Byzantine armies and the Seljuq Turks.It is one of the turning points of the Byzantine empire and helps lead to its decline.
The unifier of the Mongols was Temüjin who's father was a prominent warrior who forged alliances between the several Mongol clans. Chinggis Khan was labeled a universal ruler. He made an alliance with a prominent Mongol clan leader, mastered the art of steppe diplomacy, and gradually strengthened his position. He eventually brought all the Mongol tribes into a single Confederation. His policies greatly strengthened the Mongol people. Earlier nomadic state builders had ruled largely through the leaders of allied tribes. He spent most of his time on horseback and never built a proper Capitol. His army was his most important accomplishment which magnified the power of the small population.
Khubilai Khan's brohter captured Baghdad and created the Ilkhanate of Persia.
Khubilai Khan was the grandson of Chinngis Khan. He actively promoted Buddhism and also provided support for Daoism, Muslims, and Christians. He extended Yuan rule into all of china. He established the Yuan Dynasty and had little success as a conqueror. He was the most talented of the great conquerors descendants and unleashed ruthless attacks against his enemies. He took interest in cultural matters and worked to improve the welfare of his subjects.
The Yuan Dynasty lasted less then a century. It was established in 1279 and collapsed in 1368. The Mongols took over the Jurchen and established Mongol rule in their territory creating the Yuan Dynasty.The Yuan Dynasty was established by Khubilai Khan.
Mongols spread the bubonic plague also known as Black Death through trade and communication in Eurasia. It erupted in southwestern China and spread throughout China and Central Asia. By 1940's it reached southwest Asia and Europe where it became known as the Black Death. The Mongols rulers of China faced an onslaught of this epidemic disease. It killed of half or more of exposed population and seriously disrupted economies and societies in much of Eurasia.
Timur the Lame was born about 1336 near Samarkand. He had expanded his authority throughout the khanate of Changhatai and begin to build a magnify ante capital in Samarkand. He took Chinngis Khan as his model. He was a charismatic leader and courageous warrior and attracted a band of followers.
The Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul and the Turks began to dominate Turkey.
He put the palns in motion to conqueror Constantinople for the Turks and will his army he accomplished just that.
5000 BCE - 700 CE
Trans-Saharan trade routes was one of the most significant trade routes. One of the most significant developments in the trade across the Sahara was the use of camel and the development of the camel saddle. Early Saharan trade patterns included the exchange of salt and palm oil. During the days Of the Roman empire, north Africa also supply Italy with al supply of wheat and with wild animals. Islam profoundly influence of political social economic development of Trans-Saharan trade routes.
The expansion of Bantu population and the establishment of new Bantu community contributed to changes in the relationship between Bantu and foraging peoples such as the forest dwellers of central Africa. In earlier times, The Bantu had often regarded the forest peoples as useful guides to environments that they're unfamiliar to. As Bantu populations surged, it became increasingly difficult for foragers to flourish. Some forest peoples joined the cultivators and effectively integrated into Bantu society while others retreated into the forests, where they sustained small scale societies by becoming forest specialist and providing Forest products such as animal skins in exchange for iron tools produced by neighboring Bantu community.
Christianity established a foothold in Axum. In hopes of improving relations with their powerful neighbors in north Christian Egypt many converted to Christianity. The kings of Axum were among the first to royal converts to Christianity. Missionaries later established monasteries translated the Bible into Ethiopian language, and worked to popularize Christianity throughout the Kingdom
Great Zimbabwe may have had up to eighteen thousand people at its greatest extent. Kings residing here controlled and taxed the trade between the interior and coastal regions. They organized the flow of gold, ivory, slaves, and local products. They were then able to forge alliances with local leaders to profit handsomely from commercial transactions.
Mansa Musa ruled during the high point of the empire of Mali. He observed Islamic traditions by making his pilgrimage to Mecca. His party formed a gargantuan caravan that included thousands of soldiers, attendants, subjects, and slaves as well as a hundred camels carrying satchels of gold. Mansa Musa bestowed gifts on those who hosted him along the way and during his three month trip to Cairo he distributed so much gold that the metals value declined 25% on local markets. Mansa Musa drew great inspiration from his pilgrimage to Mecca and pain his return he took his religious duty even more serious then before.
962 CE- 1529 CE
The Holy Roman Empire was started when Pope John the XII proclaimed Otto I emperor in 962 CE. The imperial title had considerable cachet and ok several occasions energetic emperors almost transformed the Holy Roman Empire into a hegemonic state that might have reintroduced imperial unity to Western Europe. The Holy Roman Empire defines an empire that was not holy, not Roman, and not really Empire . In reality it was a regional state ruling Germany, though it wielded influence intermittently in Eastern Europe and Italy. However, the Holy Roman Empire did not restore imperial unity to Western Europe.
The Reconquista of Spain took a long much longer time than did the recapture of Sicily. Córdoba was the Muslim caliphate in the early eighth century which was located in Spain. Catalonia was a small Christian state in Spain that had survived the Muslim invasion. By 1085 Christian forces had pushed as far south as Toledo and by 1150 they recaptured Lisbon and established their authority over half the peninsula. In the first half of the thirteenth century a new round of campaigns brought most of the Iberian Peninsula as well as the Balearic Islands into Christian hands. Grenada survived as an outpost of Islam until 1492, when Christian forces mounted a campaign that conquered Grenada and completed the Reconquista.
Duke William of Normandy invaded England then ruled by descendants of the Angles, the Saxons, and other Germanic people's who had migrated there during the fifth and sixth centuries. Following a speedy military victory, the duke, now known as William the Conquerer introduced Norman principles of government and land tenure to England.
The Normans were the founders of the English monarchy. Within Normandy the dukes built a tightly centralized state in which all authority stemmed from the dukes themselves. By the late tenth century, Norman lords had built a series of castles from which disciplined armies dominated their territories, and in the eleventh century they emerged as prominent political and military leaders throughout Europe.
Pope Urban the second launched the Crusades in 1095. Speaking at the Council of Clermont, Urban warned church leaders that Muslim Turks were threatening the eastern borders of Christendom. He urged European princes to stabilize Christendom borders and then go further to recapture Jerusalem and restore Christian rule to the Holy land.
Crusades refers to holy war. The Roman Catholic Christians mounted in an effort to recapture holy land of Christian origins and the holy city of Jerusalem from Muslim authority. Pope urban the second launched the crusades in 1095. In late 1096 the crusading armies began to the long trek to Palestine. In 1097 they captured Edessa and other strategic cities. In 1099 some fell to the Crusaders who then proceeded to extend their territory. The later crusades failed their principal objective, but the crusading inspired European dreams of conquest in the eastern Mediterranean until the late 16th century.
The Byzantine capital of Constantinople was conquered by Sultan Mehmed II. After subjecting it to a sack, he made the city his own capital under the Turkish name of Istanbul.
Marco Polo is the best known long distance traveler of Mongol times. His family was one of the first European merchants to visit China. They traveled and traded throughout Mongol lands and they met Khubilai Khan as he was consolidating his hold on China. When he was 17 the great Khan took a special liking to Marco. Marco was sent out on diplomatic missions by the Khan. His stories were preserved by a fellow prisoner between Venice and Genoa. Marco Polo's stories and his accounts of his travels encouraged European trade with China. It also increased European participation in the larger economy of the eastern hemisphere.
Ibn Battuta was the best known Muslim traveler. Islamic rulers governed most of the lands he visited, but very few Muslims educated in true law were available in these lands. With his legal credentials he had little difficultly finding government positions. As qadi and advisor of the sultan of Delhi, he supervised the affairs of a wealthy mosque and heard cases at law, which he strictly enforced according to Islamic standards of justice. He consulted Muslim rulers and offered advice about government, women's dress and relationships between the sexes. He provided guidance in the ways of Islam in societies that recently converted to the faith.
The Hundred Years Wars was between England and France which eventually resulted in England's redrawl from France. France became more centralized after the war and was unified.
A Chinese Ming emperor who pushed for foreign exploration and promoted cultural achievements such as the Yongle Encyclopedia. He organized the preparation of a vast encyclopedia that compiled all significant works of Chinese history, philosophy and literature. The Yongle Encyclopedia ran to almost twenty three thousand manuscript rolls each equivalent to a medium size book. The government planned to issue a printed edition but abandoned the project due to its size. It was a remarkable anthology and it signaled the Ming rulers interest in supporting native Chinese cultural traditions.
Zheng He expeditions had been canceled by Ming emperors. Therefore his seventh voyage was he last for the Ming Dynasty. On his seven voyages he had established a Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean.
He is known as a famous Renaissance artists who sought to depict his subjects in natural poses that reflected the actual workings of the muscles for his sculptures.
He was the son of Prince Henry the Navigator and he rounded the tip of Africa.
He convinced Spain royals to finance a voyage to reach east by going west. Columbus thought the Earth was smlaler and belived he could reach China or India by going west , but really the location he was headed for were the Americas.
He rounded the Cape of Good Hope and explored the east African kingdoms, and then went to India where he established trade relations.
The Incas settled in the region around Lake Titicaca. The Inca ruler Pachacuti
launched a series of military campaigns that vastly expanded the Incas
authority. By the fifteenth century they had built a huge empire stretching from
modern day Quito to Santiago. The Inca ruled as a military and administrative
elite. They invented the Quipu, a mnemonic aid. Cuzco served as a
Administrative, religious, and ceremonial center of the Inca Empire. A
magnificent and extensive road system enabled the central government Cuzco to
communicate with all parts of the empire.
By the early 15th century, the Mexica were powerful enough to overcome their
immediate neighbors and demand tribute from their new subjects. The Aztec
created the agricultural system of chinampas. The Aztecs showered wealth and
honor on its the militarily elite. At the high point of their empire, in the
early 16th century, tribute from 489 subject territories flowed into
Tenochtitlan. The principal market had separate sections for merchants dealing
in gold, silver, slaves and cotton cloth, shoes, animal skins, turkeys, dogs
,corn, beans, peppers and fruits. Woman played almost no role in the political
affairs of the society. Their dress reflected social status in society. Warriors
were the elite.
Montezuma was an Aztec ruler. He first mistook Cortes, with his pale skin and
horse legs for a god. He sent a gift to Cortes in order appease him, but this
just fueled the appetite of the new conquerors. The Spanish seized Montezuma and