1st Semester Timeline

Main

Dante

1265 - 1321

Dante is best known for his Divine Comedy which shows his journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise.

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

“Father of Humanism”; Petrarch celebrated ancient Rome in his writings and wrote latin epic poems.

Italian Renaissance

1304 - 1562

Dramatic re-birth of civilization in western Europe. It brought a secular spirit through out Western Europe. Also, it involved Classicism--the study of ancient greeks and Rome.

Bocaccio

1313 - 1375

Bocaccio was a pioneer of humanist studies. His Decameron wrote about 100 tales of thre men and seven woman in a safe country retreat from the plague.

Lollards (John Wycliffe)

1328 - 1386

A heretic group led by John Wycliffe. they believed the bible was the only source of christian doctrine. they rejected the authority of the papacy and hierarchy of the church. the church and english government suppreseed the movement.

The Black Death

1337 - 1352

A bubonic plague that started in constinople and spread through out europe the plague spread through europe the number of unskilled laborers went down and the demand for artisans went up. the plague killed 35-65% of the people in urban areas and did not effect rural areas as much.

The Hundreds' Year War

1337 - 1453

A disastrous conflict between England and France, ended with the English loss of all their territorial holdings in France, except for the port of Calais on the English channel. The war weakened the monarchy in both countries.

The Jacquerie

1351

Peasant revolts against new taxes, directly resulting from the Black Death.

Hussites

1369 - 1415

The Hussite’s were a heretic group in Bohemia who followed John Hus who was greatly effected by Wycliffe. Hus was burned at the stake in 1415

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Division of popes with one in Rome and one in Avignon.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

The disruption of religious division and warfare and the reformation all lead to the witch hunts. witches were said to attend sabbats were they were believed to fly, have sexual orgies with the devil and cannibalism. the witch hunts ended during the scientific revolution because mind and matter were viewed as two Independence reality’s making it so words were just words.

Council of Constance

1417

was the election of pope Martin V which ended the Great Schism.

Northern Renaissance

1427 - 1623

The Northern renaissance was greatly effected by the Italian Renaissance. The north practiced Christian humanism which was less secular than the Italian. The invention of the printing press and The writings of Erasmus greatly define the Northern Renaissance.

Printing Press

1456

The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg. It allowed knowledge and ideas to be spread rapidly to the educated classes.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

He was the most famous northern Humanist, also used the printing press. he was a catholic who believed in great faith that humans had the ability to reform their institution form within. wrote praise of folly.

Columbus

1472 - 1792

Columbus sailed to The new world, then Spain took over the south American continent destroying the Aztecs and Incas. Spain got lots of gold and corn , potatoes, pig and cattle.

Ferdinand and Isabel

1474 - 1516

When Ferdinand I of Aragon married isabel of Castile they had power over Spain. Under them Spains army became one of the greatest in Europe, also during the their reign Columbus discovered the new world. They increased royal power at the expense of the the nobility and believed in religious unity.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther was the founder of Lutheranism. Martin Luther was born in Saxony. he planned to become a lawyer but experienced a religious conversion and became an augustian monk in 1505. In 1508 he became a teacher of theology at the university of Wittenberg in saxonny.

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Charle VIII attempt to conqueror italian city states. League of venice stopped the French and set up France and Spain conflict.

Pope Julius

1503 - 1513

Took over after Alexander VI he suppressed the Borgias and placed the newly conquered land in Romagna under Papal Jurisdiction. He also drove the Ventatians out of Romagna. he was known as the warrior pope.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Henry the VIII was the king of England after his brother died. he married his brother widow. so made the catholic church divorce him. Henry VIII had 6 wives. He passed the act of supermacy in 1534.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

John Calvin was the founder of Calvinism. He was the religious leader of Geneva and lead a theocracy there in which Calvinism was strictly enforced. Calvinist helped supports the idea of Capitalism.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

The reformation was a schism in Christianity. It started in 1517 when Martin Luther posted the 95 theses and ended in 1648 with the peace of Westphalia. Reformers tried to break away from the catholic church, which lead to the creation of Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, and Anabaptist.

95 Thesis

October 31, 1517

Martin Luther posted the 95 thesis on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. The thesis were intended to be a challenge to other scholars to debate the issues of indulgences.

Diet of Worms

1521

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered Luther to appear before the diet of the Holy Roman Empire at worms. the diet called Luther to recant and luther refused saying Here I stand , I can not change. The emperor declared Luther an outlaw.

German Peasants Revolt

1524 - 1525

German peasants who lived in poverty and burdened by taxes revolted against their landowners in 1524. the peasants wanted to abolish serfdom and the manorial system . the peasants hoped for luthers supports but luther supported the princes in their suppression of the revolt.

English Reformation

1529 - 1559

This reformation started when King henry wanted a divorce from Catherine so he passed the act of supremacy. Mary I switched religions back to Catholicism then Elizabeth I passed a new act of supremacy which repealed what mary had done.

The Prince

1532

The prince was a book written by niccolo Machiavelli which stated the guidelines for how a prince should rule. He wrote it for Lorenzo de Medici. the book advised rulers to find the advantages in being a brutal leader.

William of Orange

1533 - 1584

William the Orange was the dutch stradholder and led france to revolt against Spain. later he would become William III of England after the Glorious revolution.

Act of Supremacy

1534

The act of Supremacy declared the King the head of the English church rather than the pope. now England rejected papal supremacy. henry did this to divorce his wife’s. Anglicism was very similar to Catholicism.

Copernicus Theory

1543

Copernicus’s treatise that declared that earth moved around sun in circular orbit. was declared un-christian.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Pope Paul III summoned the council of Trent which met in 3 sessions . The council of Trent rejected any compromise with the protestants. They council reaffirmed traditional teaching, eliminated absenteeism and simony. also the priest was instructed to preach in the vernacular.