Dante is best known for his Divine Comedy which shows his journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise.
“Father of Humanism”; Petrarch celebrated ancient Rome in his writings and wrote latin epic poems.
Dramatic re-birth of civilization in western Europe. It brought a secular spirit through out Western Europe. Also, it involved Classicism--the study of ancient greeks and Rome.
Bocaccio was a pioneer of humanist studies. His Decameron wrote about 100 tales of thre men and seven woman in a safe country retreat from the plague.
A heretic group led by John Wycliffe. they believed the bible was the only source of christian doctrine. they rejected the authority of the papacy and hierarchy of the church. the church and english government suppreseed the movement.
A bubonic plague that started in constinople and spread through out europe the plague spread through europe the number of unskilled laborers went down and the demand for artisans went up. the plague killed 35-65% of the people in urban areas and did not effect rural areas as much.
A disastrous conflict between England and France, ended with the English loss of all their territorial holdings in France, except for the port of Calais on the English channel. The war weakened the monarchy in both countries.
Peasant revolts against new taxes, directly resulting from the Black Death.
The Hussite’s were a heretic group in Bohemia who followed John Hus who was greatly effected by Wycliffe. Hus was burned at the stake in 1415
Division of popes with one in Rome and one in Avignon.
The disruption of religious division and warfare and the reformation all lead to the witch hunts. witches were said to attend sabbats were they were believed to fly, have sexual orgies with the devil and cannibalism. the witch hunts ended during the scientific revolution because mind and matter were viewed as two Independence reality’s making it so words were just words.
was the election of pope Martin V which ended the Great Schism.
The Northern renaissance was greatly effected by the Italian Renaissance. The north practiced Christian humanism which was less secular than the Italian. The invention of the printing press and The writings of Erasmus greatly define the Northern Renaissance.
The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg. It allowed knowledge and ideas to be spread rapidly to the educated classes.
He was the most famous northern Humanist, also used the printing press. he was a catholic who believed in great faith that humans had the ability to reform their institution form within. wrote praise of folly.
Columbus sailed to The new world, then Spain took over the south American continent destroying the Aztecs and Incas. Spain got lots of gold and corn , potatoes, pig and cattle.
When Ferdinand I of Aragon married isabel of Castile they had power over Spain. Under them Spains army became one of the greatest in Europe, also during the their reign Columbus discovered the new world. They increased royal power at the expense of the the nobility and believed in religious unity.
Martin Luther was the founder of Lutheranism. Martin Luther was born in Saxony. he planned to become a lawyer but experienced a religious conversion and became an augustian monk in 1505. In 1508 he became a teacher of theology at the university of Wittenberg in saxonny.
Charle VIII attempt to conqueror italian city states. League of venice stopped the French and set up France and Spain conflict.
Took over after Alexander VI he suppressed the Borgias and placed the newly conquered land in Romagna under Papal Jurisdiction. He also drove the Ventatians out of Romagna. he was known as the warrior pope.
Henry the VIII was the king of England after his brother died. he married his brother widow. so made the catholic church divorce him. Henry VIII had 6 wives. He passed the act of supermacy in 1534.
John Calvin was the founder of Calvinism. He was the religious leader of Geneva and lead a theocracy there in which Calvinism was strictly enforced. Calvinist helped supports the idea of Capitalism.
The reformation was a schism in Christianity. It started in 1517 when Martin Luther posted the 95 theses and ended in 1648 with the peace of Westphalia. Reformers tried to break away from the catholic church, which lead to the creation of Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, and Anabaptist.
Martin Luther posted the 95 thesis on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. The thesis were intended to be a challenge to other scholars to debate the issues of indulgences.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered Luther to appear before the diet of the Holy Roman Empire at worms. the diet called Luther to recant and luther refused saying Here I stand , I can not change. The emperor declared Luther an outlaw.
German peasants who lived in poverty and burdened by taxes revolted against their landowners in 1524. the peasants wanted to abolish serfdom and the manorial system . the peasants hoped for luthers supports but luther supported the princes in their suppression of the revolt.
This reformation started when King henry wanted a divorce from Catherine so he passed the act of supremacy. Mary I switched religions back to Catholicism then Elizabeth I passed a new act of supremacy which repealed what mary had done.
The prince was a book written by niccolo Machiavelli which stated the guidelines for how a prince should rule. He wrote it for Lorenzo de Medici. the book advised rulers to find the advantages in being a brutal leader.
William the Orange was the dutch stradholder and led france to revolt against Spain. later he would become William III of England after the Glorious revolution.
The act of Supremacy declared the King the head of the English church rather than the pope. now England rejected papal supremacy. henry did this to divorce his wife’s. Anglicism was very similar to Catholicism.
Copernicus’s treatise that declared that earth moved around sun in circular orbit. was declared un-christian.
Pope Paul III summoned the council of Trent which met in 3 sessions . The council of Trent rejected any compromise with the protestants. They council reaffirmed traditional teaching, eliminated absenteeism and simony. also the priest was instructed to preach in the vernacular.