AP Euro First Semester Timeline

Brian Le McAvoy Period 3


Decline of Gothic Art

1150 - 1450

-Main type of art in the Middle Ages.
-Impact on Culture


1265 - 1321

-He formed the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature with Petrarch's sonnets.
-Impact on European Thought


1304 - 1374

-He was the father of humanism. In his work, he included Classical and Christian values. He was secular and his critical textual studies, elitism, and contempt for the learning of the Scholastics were features many later humanists also shared.
-Impact on European Thought.

Avignon Papacy(Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1377

-Period where Pope John XXII moved to Avignon and became the most powerful Avignon pope. He tried to restore papal independence and to return to Italy.
-Impact on Religion


1313 - 1375

-Wrote Decameron which is both a stinging social commentary and a sympathetic look at human behavior. He also assembled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.
-Impact on European Thought.

The Lollards

1328 - 1384

-They looked to the writings of John Wycliffe who served the anticlerical policies of the English government.His views on clerical poverty followed original Franciscan ideals and, more by accident than by design, gave justification of church properties within England.
-Impact on Religion

The Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

-A hundred year long war between France and England because they were trying to claim the French throne after Charles IV.
-Impact on Politics

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

-Was a plague that killed 2/5 of the population, caused by rats imported from trade ships in the Black Sea. It also caused farms to decline, peasants to revolt, and industries to prosper.
-Impact on Economics

The Golden Bull


-An agreement made by major German territorial rulers that established a seven-member electoral college consisting of the archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne; the duke of Saxony; the margrave of Brandenburg; the count Palatine; and the king of Bohemia. This group also functioned as an administrative body.
-Impact on Politics

The Hussites

1369 - 1415

-Moderate and extreme Hussites turned to the writings of John Huss. They supported vernacular translations of the Bible and were critical of traditional ceremonies and allegedly superstitious practices.
-Impact on Religion

The Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

-It was a prototype of the modern world. It meant rebirth and it was a transition from medieval times to modern times. It was in Italy. There was a growth in city-states, and four distinct social classes: the old rich, the fat people, the middle class, and the little people.
-Impact on European Thought, Culture, and Economics.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

-Time period when there were three popes elected: Pope Urban VI, Roman Pope Gregory XII, and Pope Clement VII
-Impact on Religion.



-French peasant revolts
-Impact on Economics

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

-When a famous declaration call Sacrosancta elected a new Pope: Martin V after the three popes before have resigned or been deposed.
-Impact on Religion

Printing Press- Gutenberg


-Johann Gutenberg invented the movable type printing machine. This invention of a cheap way to manufacture paper also helped make books economical and broaden their content. It was also a powerful tool for political and religious propaganda.
-Impact on Culture, Economics, Religion, and Politics


1450 - 1527

-Distorted human figures with no depth and had religion it it.
-Impact on Culture

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire

1451 - 1506

-He discovered the Americas. They believed that they could take a short cut to the East Indies, but they ended up crossing the Atlantic Ocean and landing in San Salvador. This expanded the territory of Spain.
-Impact on Economics and Culture.


1466 - 1536

-he was the most famous northern humanists. he summarized his own beliefs with the phrase philosophia Chisti, a simple, ethical piety in imitation of Christ.
-Impact on European Thought.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain) married


-Union of Spain and England which increased their powers.
-Impact on Politics

Northern Renaissance

1480 - 1550

-The scholarly works of northern humanists that created a climate favorable to religious and educational reforms on the eve of the Reformation. They tended to come from more divers social backgrounds and to be more devoted to religious reforms than their Italian counterparts.
-Impact of European Thought, Economics, and Culture

Witch Hunts

1480 - 1570

-Time where men killed most women who were accused of being a "witch". These women included widows, midwives, healers, herbalists, or any women who practices magic outside the church.
-Impact on Economics and European Thought

Henry VII (England)

1491 - 1547

-He was the king of England and he married many wives because he couldn't get a male heir.
-Impact on Politics

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1648

-A shipment or transportation of goods, people, and diseased from the Americas to Europe.
-Impact on Economics and Culture

Early Exploration- Portugal & Spain

1492 - 1600

-Pioneers who explored the New World or the Americas
-Impact on Economics

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

-Italy declined because of invasions so Italy decided to ask for the aid of France, which caused even more problems because France was stronger than Italy.
-Impact on Economics

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

-He suppressed the Borgias and placed their newly conquered lands in Romagna under papal jurisdiction. He was called the warrior pope. He also drove the Venetians out of Ramagna and fully secured the Papal States.
-Impact on Religion and Politics.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

-He had a religion called Calvinism which believes in predestination.
-Impact on Religion

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

-He had many wives because he needed a male heir, so he had the church and the Pope divorce him many times, but that led to him breaking away from the church.
-Impact on Religion and Politics

The Prince: Machiavelli


-A book written by Niccolo Machiavelli in 1513 as a cynical satire on the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule.
-Impact on European Thought and Politics.

Martin Luther's 95 Thesis


-Luther posted his 95 theses against indulgences on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg. He protested especially the impression Tetzel created that indulgences remitted sins and released unrepented sinners from punishment in purgatory. He believed these claims made salvation something that could be bought or sold.
-Impact on Religion and European Thought.


1517 - 1563

-Many Catholics and citizens broke away from the church because they didn't believe in what the church was saying, so new religions were found.
-Impact on Religion and European Thought

The Diet of Worms


-The German nobility presented the emperor with a list of 102 oppressive burdens and abuses corrupting the German souls. Also, heretical religious piety.
-Impact on Politics and Religion.

Luther- The Diet of Worms

  • Luther presented his views to the Diet of Worms in April when the newly elected Emperor Charles V Presided. In May, Luther was placed under the imperial ban which made him an outlaw to secular as well as religious authority. -Impact on Religion

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

-Peasant of Germany were challenging the authority.
-Impact on Economics

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

The reformation of the catholic church under the state.
-Impact on Religion

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

-He was a politique, and he united the Netherlands
-Impact on Politics

Act of Supremacy


-It declared Henry VIII "The only supreme head of the Church of England".
-Impact on Religion

Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola

1534 - 1600

-Ignatius was a devout Catholic that tried to convert people back to Counter reformist.
-Impact on Religion

John Calvin- Geneva


-Geneva elected officials both favorable to Calvin and determined to establish full Genevan political and religious independence from Bern.The Genevan Church was organized into four offices: Pastors, Instructors, Elders, and Deacons. The controversial doctrine of predestination was at the center of Calvin's theology.
-Impact on Religion

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

  • He lived from 1473- 1543 and on the year of his death, he published this book. It was described as a revolution making rather than a revolutionary text and it contained his views of a heliocentric model of the universe that challenged the current thought on a geocentric one. -Impact on European Thought

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

-There were three sessions spread of 18 years. It strengthened the authority of local bishops so they could effectively discipline popular religious practices. It also reaffirmed the traditional Scholastic education of the clergy. It resolved medieval Scholastic quarrels in favor of the theology of Saint Thomas Aquinas, further enhancing his authority within the church.
-Impact on Religion and Politics

The Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

-It was made by the Catholic Church in response to the Reformation. They were to bring back those who have converted, and many Protestants reconverted back to Catholicism.
-Impact on Religion

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

-He was a Danish astronomer that rejected the heliocentric model, but he was a big step that proved it though he advocated his life to the earth-centered system.
-Impact on European Thought.

Baroque Art

1550 - 1750

-Art that had heavy colors and extreme details. It had a sharp contrast between light and dark.
-Impact on European Thought and Culture

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

-As Queen, she entered a highly unpopular political marriage with Philip of Spain, a symbol of militant Catholicism to English Protestants. She also executed hundreds of protestants.
-Impact on Religion and European Thought

The Peace of Augsburg


-This made the division of Christendom permanent. This agreement recognized in law what had already been well established in practice: Cuius regio, eius religio, meaning the ruler gets to choose the religion.
-Impact on Religion, Politics, and European Thought

Elizabeth I (England)

1558 - 1603

-She built a true kingdom from the ruins of Mary's reign. She was also a politique. She also avoided many extremists. She merged a centralized episcopal system that she firmly controlled with broadly defined Protestant doctrine and traditional Catholic ritual.
-Impact on Religion, European Thought, and Politics.

Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands

1559 - 1608

-Revolt in the Netherlands against Spain.
-Impact on Politics

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

-War between French Catholics and Protestants. It was between the Bourbons and the Guises. The Edict of Nantes gave Huguenots freedoms and rights.
-Impact on Religion

Specific Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

-Battle between Huguenots and the Catholics
-Impact on Religion

Thirty Nine Articles


-Articles that made a moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.
-Impact on Religion and Culture


1564 - 1616
  • He was the greatest English play writer and his plays are not in correct English, but his plays are still famous to this day. -Impact on Culture and European Thought

James I (England)

1566 - 1625

-King of England, he inherited a large royal debt and a fiercely divided church. he developed other sources of income, largely by levying new custom duties known as impositions.
-Impact on Politics and Economics

End of the Witch Hunts


-The time when witch hunts ended because of several factors. There was an emergence of a more scientific point of view, a curse was just mere words, advances in medicine, and people gained more physical security.
-Impact on European Thought

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


-A day where 3,000 Huguenots were butchered in Paris, and 20,000 Huguenots were killed in three days across France.
-Impact on Religion

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1610

-New age coming in the Netherlands, the Netherlands were rising economically.
-Impact in Economics

Pacification of Ghent


-Spanish destroying the town
-Impact on Economics

Dutch Revolt

1576 - 1609

-A revolt of the Dutch against Spain
-Impact on Politics

Union of Utrecht


-William of Orange (The Silent) unifies the Netherlands
-Impact on Politics

Mary Stuart Executed


-She was widely despised because of her extreme religious beliefs, so Elizabeth had her executed
-Impact on Politics

Spanish Armada


-The fleet of Spanish ships with 130 in count and bearing 25,000 sailors and soldiers each under the command of the duke of Medina Sidonia. This armada set sail for England in order to invade it, and take land.
-Impact on Politics and Economics.

Henry IV (France)

1589 - 1610

-He was a politique and he passed the Edict of Nantes.
-Impact on Religion and Politics

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

-Their were more people that demanded more goods and new goods, so the standard of living was raised.
-Impact on Economics

Edict of Nantes


-Made by Henry IV that recognized religious rights within what was to remain an officially Catholic County.
-Impact on Religion

Commercial Revolution

1600 - 1800

-When there were industries flourishing and imports from the new world gave us new resources
-Impact on Economics

Prussian Militarism

1600 - 1800

-The army of Prussia
-Impact on Economics and Politics

Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

-Belief in the idea that the world's resources are limited and scarce, so there should be a cut back.
-Impact on Economics

Louis XIV: Mazarin

1602 - 1661

-Mazarin was a Cardinal under Louis XIII and he attempted to impose direct royal administration on France.
-Impact on Politics

Cervantes: Don Quixote


-He lived from 1547-1616 and published this in 1605. This work seems to have been to satirize the chivalric romances then popular in Spain.
-Impact on European Thought

Kepler: The New Astronomy

  • Kepler lived from 1571-1630 and he published this book in 1609. This book used the sun centered model and empirical data to solve the planetary motion. -Impact on European Thought.

Henry IV (France) Assassinated


-Henry IV was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.
-Impact on Politics

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

-Father of Louis XIV and made France the leading power at the time.
-Impact on Politics

The Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

-It was the most destructive of the wars of religion. It lasted thirty years and the entrenched hatred of the various sides and their seeming determination to sacrifice all for their religious beliefs was the most devastating part of the whole war.
-impact on Religion, Economics, Politics, and European Thought

Bacon: Novum Organum


-He lived from 1561-1626 and he published this book in 1620 that attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered and only required explanation.
-Impact on European Thought

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

-A French mathematician and a physical scientist who surrendered his wealth to pursue an austere, self disciplined life, made one of the most influential efforts to reconcile faith and the new science.
-Impact on European Thought

Charles I (England)

1625 - 1649

-he resorted to extra-parliamentary measures. These included levying new tariffs and duties, attempting to collect discontinued taxes, and subjecting English property owners to a so-called forced load, then imprisoning those who refused to pay.
-Impact on Politics and Economics.

Galileo Condemned


-He was tried by the Pope because of his views and discoveries that supported a heliocentric system. He was then condemned by the church.
-Impact on European Thought and Religion

Descartes: Discourse on Method


-He lived from 1596-1650 and on 1637, he published this book. This book rejected scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on a mathematical model.
-Impact on European Thought

Long Parliament/ Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

It was short because it was immediately disbanded, but it was long because it took a while to figure out the tariffs and funds.
-Impact on Politics and Economics

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

-When England was working with their parliamentary monarchy and William of Orange becomes king.
-Impact on Politics

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

-He was a French monarch that exerted far reaching, direct control of the nation at all levels.
-Impact on Politics

Louis XIV: Personal Reign

1643 - 1715

-He was an absolute ruler of France. He built Versailles in order to gain control over the nobles, and he revoked the Edict of Nantes.
-Impact on Politics and Religion

Treaty of Westphalia


-It ended all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire. It was the first general peace in Europe after a war unprecedented for its number of warring parties.
-Impact on Religion and Politics

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

-French revolts that changed the actions of Louis XIV
-Impact on Politics

Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

-Republic of Puritans
-Impact on Politics

Decline of Netherlands

1650 - 1750

-The Netherland's skills were no longer special such as ship building. Other nation's skills improved so much that the skills of the Netherlands were no longer needed, making it decline.
-Impact on Economics

Hobbes: Leviathon


-He lived from 1588-1679 and published this piece of work in 1651. It was an aim to provide rigorous philosophical justification for a strong central political authority
-Impact on Politics and European Thought

Charles II (England)

1660 - 1685

-He set a refreshing new tone after eleven years of somber Puritanism. He had secret catholic sympathies and favored religious toleration.
-Impact on Politics, Religion, and European Thought


1660 - 1685

-When James I returned as King
-Impact on Politics

Academics of Science

1660 - 1700

-Started in London, a place where there were new discoveries and experiments being conducted.
-Impact on Economics and European Thought

Royal Society of London


-They followed Francis Bacon's ideals.
-Impact on European Thought

Agricultural Revolution

1674 - 1795

-Time where there was a surplus of food, and there were new crops and inventions.
-Impact on Economics

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

-He ruled with ivan V. Peter went abroad and when he returned, he was convinced to turn Russia into England and the Netherlands. He copied them, and westernized Russia.
-Impact on Culture, Politics, and Economics.

James II (England)

1685 - 1688

-he immediately demanded the repeal of the test Act. He issued another Declaration of Indulgence suspending all religious test and permitting free worship. His actions represented a direct royal attack on the local authority of nobles, landowners, the church, and other corporate bodies whose members believed they possessed particular legal privileges.
-Impact on Politics, Religion, and European Thought

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


-Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, and extensive religious repression followed. This hit the Protestants hard.
-Impact on Religion

Newton: Principia Mathematica

  • He lived from 1642-1727 and published this book in 1687. This book was on how the planets and other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction called gravity. -Impact on European Thought

Frederick Wilhelm

1688 - 1740

He was the king and he formed a strong military
-Impact on Economics and Politics

English Bill of Rights


-Gave freedoms to parliament and limited the powers of the monarchy.
-Impact on Politics

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st & 2nd)


-He lived from 1632-1704 and he published these two in 1690. The first proved enormously important by clearing the philosophical decks of a long standing traditional argument that could not stand up to rigorous analysis. The second presented an extended argument for a government that must necessarily be both responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed.
-Impact on Politics and European Thought

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

-A war between Russia and Sweden in which Russia was trying to gain some land. It ended with Russia winning and gaining some land.
-Impact on Economics


1700 - 1810

-Main style of art in the Enlightenment. It portrays the concept of separate spheres of men and women.
-Impact on Culture

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

-Philip V had received the throne to Spain, and England, Holland, and the Holy Roman Empire formed the Grand Alliance to preserve the balance of power by once and for all securing Flanders as a neutral barrier between Holland and France and by gaining for the emperor his fair share of the Spanish inheritance.
-Impact on Politics and Economics

Act of Settlement


-Gave Sophia of Hanover the throne of England

Death of William III of England


-He died
-Impact on Politics

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction


-Issued by Charles VI in order to prevent a disaster from falling on Austria after his death since he had no heirs, so he wanted to give his daughter the throne instead.
-Impact on Politics

Treaty of Utrecht


-Ended the War of the Spanish Succession with Philip V staying as king of Spain, but removing his throne from France.
-Impact on Politics

The Death of Louis XIV


-The power of France weakened, the nobility sought to regain their power, and many of France's resources were drained.
-Impact on Politics and Economics.

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

-A financial crises in France in which John law increased the amount of paper money in order to recover France's economy.
-Impact on Economics.

Emergence of Rococo


-Emerged after the death of Louis XIV. Used to attack the nobles.
-Impact on Culture

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole

1722 - 1742

-He was the first prime minister of England.
-Impact on Politics

War of Jenkins's Ear

1739 - 1748

-The Spanish attacked English ships and cut off Jenkins ear, so everyone in England got riled up and started a war.
-Impact on Politics and Economics

Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia)

1740 - 1786

-Enlightened Despot of Prussia. He was known as the first servant of the state.
-Impact on Politics, Economics, Religion, and European Thought

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

-There was a war when Frederick II seized the Austrian throne. Frederick II then disrupted the balance of power.
-Impact on Politics

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

-She took the throne to Austria after her father, Charles VI, died. She was left without a strong army or a full treasury, but all of the Habsburgs recognized her as the rightful heir.
-Impact on Politics

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

-Time where there was an emergence of factories, so there were higher production, more good, more jobs, and migration meaning a higher population.
-Impact on Economics

Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

-England gave Prussia financial aid in order to fight with France and distract them while England destroys France in the New World.
-Impact on Economics and Politics

Diplomatic Revolution


-Revolution with France and Austria, The Bourbons and the Habsburgs, and England and Prussia.
-Impact on Politics

Voltaire- Candide

  • He lived from 1694-1778 and published this book in 1759. It is a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism about the human condition. -Impact on European Thought

Enclosure Method

1761 - 1792

-The fencing of land that produced more food and animal food, they also rotated these crops so that they were evenly grown and have time to re-fertilize.
-Impact on Economics

Rousseau- Social Contract


-He lived from 1712-1778 and published this book in 1762 that outlines the kind of political structure that Rousseau believed would overcome the evils of contemporary politics and society.
-Impact on European Thought

Catherine the Great (Russia)

1762 - 1796

-She was an Enlightened Despot of Russia. She was not even Russian and she was not very enlightened because she coudn't make reforms do to Pugachev's rebellion and the nobles.
-Impact on Religion, European Thought, Politics, and Economics

Treaty of Paris


-Ended the Seven Years' War with England gaining territory from France in Canada and France gaining back lost land.
-Impact on Economics and Politics

Joseph II (Austria)

1764 - 1790

-He was the Enlightened Despot of Austria. He was the most enlightened, made equal laws, taxes, and punishment.
-Impact on Economics, Religion, European Thought, and Politics

Spinning Jenny


-Invention that allowed the spinning of thread to increase.
-Impact on Economics

Water Frame


-This allowed water to be used as a source of power.
-Impact on Economics

Steam Engine


-Invention that used steam to power pumps and other devices.
-Impact on Economics

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

-The colonies in America revolt due to the taxes from the king of England.
-Impact on Economics

Smith- Wealth of Nations

  • It was a book on Capitalism and free trade.

Malthus- Principle of Population


-He lived from 1766-1834 and published this essay in 1798. This contained ideas that have haunted the world ever since. He contended that population must eventually outstrip the food supply.
-Impact on European Thought and Economics

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


-He lived from 1772-1823 and published a book call Principles of Political Economy in 1817 that was call iron law of wages. It said that if wages were raised, parents would have more children. They would enter the labor market, thus expanding the number of workers and lowering wages.
-Impact on Economics

The French Revolution

The Directory

179 - 1799

-A government structure that was taken down by Napoleon
-Impact on Politics

The Great Fear


-Time where peasants do what they want to get what they lost back, the beheading of many people.
-Impact on Politics and Economics

The Rights of Man and Citizen


-Document that established all of the rights and freedoms of men and only men.
-Impact on European Thought

War with Austria


-The war with Austria and England in order to protect the Revolution
-Impact on Politics

Tennis Court Oath


The 3rd Estate made the National Convention and couldn't meet at their usual place, so they met at a nearby tennis court creating an oath that they wouldn't leave unless they established a new Constitution.
-Impact on Politics and European Thought

Estates General Meets


-The Estates General gathers
-Impact on Economics and Politics

Storming of the Bastille


-Parisians storm the Bastille, gaining weapons, freeing 7 prisoners, and killing some people.
-Impact on Economics and Politics

March of the Fishwives


-Want to lower the price of bread, so they march to Versailles and demand the king to go to Paris.
-Impact on Economics and Politics

Nobles Renounce Feudal Privileges


-The nobles renounce their privileges
-Impact on Politics

Civil Constitution of Clergy


-The government confiscated church lands, and sold them back in order to gain money, and made the clergy swear loyalty to the state. That made them split up into two types.
-Impact on Economics and Religion

Legislative Assembly Meets


-New radical government meets.
-Impact on Politics

Wollstonecraft- Vindication of Rights of Women


-Wollstonecraft's views on women that they should have the same exact rights and freedoms of that stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizen.
-Impact on Politics and European Thought

Tuileries Stormed- King Captive


-The king was captured and made a prisoner of the revolution
-Impact on Politics

Convention Meets- Monarch Abolished


-The monarchy is abolished and replaced by the Republic
-Impact on Politics

Louis XVI Executed


-He was executed by the Guillotine
-Impact on Politics

Levee en Masse


-The drafting of males into the army, and all funds go toward the war.
-Impact on Politics, and Economics

Danton Executed


-Robespierre grew tired of Danton and his point of view, so he had Danton guillotined.
-Impact on European Thought and Politics

The Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

-Radical stage where they pronounced many people were enemies of the revolution, so they beheaded them with guillotine, or they drowned them, or had mass shootings.
-Impact on Politics and Economics

Cult of the Supreme Being


-Deism was the religion of the Republic, but then it failed.
-Impact on Religion

Cult of Reason


-Robespierres form of religion.
-Impact on Religion

Fall of Robespierre


-He said there were many enemies in the convention, and everyone didn't know who it was and became frightened, so they killed Robespierre with the guillotine.
-Impact on Politics and European Thought

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory Established


-The Directory is established and it replaced the republic
-Impact on Politics

Napoleon- Coup Brumaire


-Napoleon weakened The Directory in order to establish himself as a person with authority.
-Impact on Politics