Turquoise: Government/ Empires
Pre-History & Ancient Mesopotamia
Earliest known human-like species on Earth
An evolved form of Neanderthals who lived towards the end of the Paleolithic era in Europe.
A gradual change to a more agricultural lifestyle in tribes. This allowed people to settle down and built settlements
One of the very first settlements built by an intelligent being that remains today.
An alloy used for making various tools
A Kush administrator who led the Akkadians
An important Hebrew patriarch. He is an important character in Judaism
Hammurabi was called “The king of the four quarters of the world”. He was a Babylonian ruler who is famous for "Hammurabi's code"
An ancient literature from Mesopotamia. It talks of the amazing tales of Gilgamesh
A very strong metal used by ancient peoples for tools/weapons
Menes was one of the very first Egyptian leaders, he did a great job of extending the empire and ruling it, which helped set the base of Egypt
One of the first Egyptian governments set on the capital city of Memphis
A Thebes based Egyptian government, it was also strongly ruled
First Egyptian government to make a new leadership position called the “pharaoh”.
A huge expansion of Bantu peoples. They rapidly spread to sub-Saharan regions
Ancient India and China
An ancient city in present day India
The very first Chinese Dynasty
Good example of ancient cultural practices. They were used to predict the future
The Shang Dynasty was famous for creating many of the great technological advancements of their time
An ancient Aryian book full of cultural examples
Known for it's administrative advancements. The Zhou Dynasty was responsible for the Mandate of Heaven
The more religious part of the Vedas. It set the base for Hinduism
A perios of many wars that came as a result of tension among Chinese regions
Ancient Americas and Oceania
A theory that states that early human-like species migrated across a piece of land in the Bering sea into the Americas.
Many natives rowed to nearby Polynesian islands in 16th century BC
The earliest significant Mesoamerican people. They lived in present day Mexico
A cultural civilization found in the Andean mountains. Their culture greatly effected nearby civilizations
The earliest heirs of the Olmecs. They created a society in the southern Mexico area.
A massive Persian empire that was extended by Cyrus and controlled by Darius
A respected Achaemenid military strategist, He is credited for expanding his empire greatly.
The greatest of the Achaemenid emporers, he was great at adminisration.
Practice of the use of ren , li, and xiao. They are 3 traits that a person should have to help the world
Founder of Confucinisim. Confucius taught of healthy lifestyles and good traits to express. He enjoyed talking about the afterlife and heaven
The belief in “dao” which means “the way of life”. It helped people want to achieve harmony to benefit both themselves and the world around them
Laozi founded Daoism, he was a man of great wisdom
A major spokesman for Confucius. He traveled around the land, discussing views with politicians and administrators
A strict belief in devotion to the government
First emporer of China. He is known for the construction of the Great Wall of China and the Terra-Cotta army.
Created a more centralized rule in China
One of the longest lasting Chinese Dynasties. Known for advancements in Warfare, agriculture, and Industry
A very serious rebellion that raged throughout china during the Han Dynasty. It was caused by the mistreatment of peasants and farmers.
Founder of Buddhism, he achieved perfect harmony and became the Buddha
Prince Siddhartha left his royalty in order to seek knowledge . After years of praying and traveling, he prayed under a Bodhi Tree and became the Buddha
First dynasty of classical India founded by Chandragupta Maurya. It conquered the trans-Indus region.
Son of Chandragupta Maurya and amazing leader of the empire.
Second dynasty in classic India. It followed close after the fall of the Mauryan Empire
Created and led the Gupta Dynasty in India.
Socrates is one of the most famous philosophers. He believed in human reflection on life
Plato wrote down may of his master , Socrates' , teachings. He closely agreed with Socrates' beleifs
Aristotle thought that you should use your senses to develop an observation.
A Macedonian emperor who attacked the Persian empire with his army, he led his army to victory, which led to the fall of the Achaemenid empire.
A more aristocratic centered empire. It took up most of Europe and lasted more than 400 years
A very prominent Roman leader and general
Jesus Christ preached his teaching in many cities, slowly spreading his ideas. He was later crucified for defying the government
“Roman peace” It was a very peaceful period for Rome for more than 100 years.
A massive empire founded by Julius Caesar. It lasted over 500 years and was one of the most significant European empires.
Was the son of God and taught the ways of life to people.
A very significant emperor who built the city of Constantinople and was known for his military strategies.
The Roman empire was split into East and West half's in order for easier control
A very prominent administrator in the Roman Empire
The Roman empire moved their capitol city to Constantinople due to it's increased security.
The end of Roman imperial authority due to Germanic Invasions
A series of massive Germanic attacks on the Roman Empire
The first wife of Muhammad
Muhammad founded the Islamic religion after discovering the "truth" while on his travels
The first Muslim Caliph, he was crowned Caliph after Muhammad's death
Muhammad preached his discovery of the "one true deity" that rules over everything
A annual pilgrimage to Mecca. It is one of the five pillars of Islam
The first empire after the prophet Muhammad's death. They are known for their very strong army and military expansion.
Came after the Umayyad empire. The abbasids are known for their advanced technology and superior administration of their time
A massive man-made canal running north-south in East China
A printing style where an image would be carved into wood, dyed, then pressed onto paper.
The Sui Dynasty is known for uniting North and South China and completing the Grand Canal
A very significant Chinese Dynasty led by Tang Taizong
A Tang influenced Japanese Clan. The clan had a Tang-like court system. Nara a city that served as the capital of Japan from 710-784. The clan is known for their love of Deers
A Japanese clan that controlled affairs from "behind the thrown"
A lifestyle devoted to practicing old Chinese traditions.
Another name for the creation of paper money
Song Taizu was a famous leader of the Song's . They were greatly focused on civil administration
A type of rice that ripens a lot faster than usual rice. This resulted in higher agricultural export rate
Prominent leader of the Turks in Afghanistan.
An Islamic state in Northern India, it was controlled by many of Muhammad's decendants
Feudal Europe & Byzantium
The Byzantine Empire was one of the most influential empires in Europe. It's capitol, Constantinople, proves to be a valuable city
A very significant Byzantine leader who is known for reforming Byzantine law.
The wife of emperor Justinian, she was an amazing administrator capable of keeping the land under control
A set of Roman laws put together by Justinian to help people understand laws.
A magnificent structure built in Constantinople to serve as a church. It role was constantly changed depending on who captured the city.
A battle in which Charles Martel was able convince Muslims to seek no further conquest in Europe
Charlemagne temporarily established centralized rule in the Holy Roman Empire. He was one of the most powerful leaders of his time
A Scandinavian civilization who used their advanced maritime knowledge to conquer Northern Europe
A split of Europe into an East and West section
A powerful Turkish empire that's famous for the capture or Constantinople and the defeat of the Byzantine empire
A huge battle in Manzikert in which Saljuq armies defeated Byzantine forces
The greatest of all Mongol Khans, Temujin expanded his empire into the largest empire ever known.
Hulehu Khan defeated the abbasid empire and captured the abbasid capital of Baghdad.
One of Genghis khan’s grandsons. He was known for his incredibly ruthless attacks
A Chinese Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan in 1279. It followed many Mongol lifestyles and government techniques
A Turkish emperor who helped the Turks conquer many regions in Eurasia
A Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who is known for crushing the Byzantine empire and taking Constantinople
African people who originally lived in Nigeria and then migrated to most of Sub Saharan Africa. They were very influential, especially orally.
A major city in Africa from 400-900. Originally, it was a Christian city, but it later converted to Islam.
A large trade route spread across the Saharan desert. Gold and salt were the 2 biggest resources traded.
A large sub-saharan African city. It served as the financial center of its trade area, it collected taxes and kept track of trade
Known to be the richest man to ever live. He was the ruler of Mali
A very large collection of states ruled mostly by Charlemagne
A Norman, King of England. William became the king after defeating King Harold II during the Norman Invasions
The pope who started the First Crusade.
Invasions on Anglo-Saxon England led by William II of Normandy. This led William the conqueror becoming king
A conquest of the Holy Roman Empire launched in order to gain back Holy Lands
An attack launched in 1202 that resulted in the re-capture of Constantinople
Caused by the Ottoman Turks invasion. Mehmet the Conqueror defeated Byzantine forces and captured Constantinople
"Reconquest". A christian attack on the the Islam lands in order to re-gain control
One of of the most famoust Aztec rulers
An ancient civilization set in current day central Mexico. The Aztecs are known superior technology
A South American civilization located around Peru. The Incas built Macchu Picchu.
A significant European traveler who traveled to many places. Learning of their cultures and sharing their stories
A Muslim merchant that traveled around the world and wrote down many of his stories.
A disease that originated in the Mongol empire, it spread to Europe and caused mass epidemic. Millions of people died
A large war fought between the Kings of England and the Kings of France over unclaimed land
The Yongle Encyclopedia was a collection of general information known at that time period
A very significant occurrence that ended the sailing of 7 of the largest treasure ships of their time.
An Italian explorer who was hired by the Spanish to find a faster route to India.
A famous Renaissance artist