AP Timeline

Red: People Turquoise: Government/ Empires Blue: Events

Chapter 1

Pre-History & Ancient Mesopotamia


200,000 BC - 35,000 BC

Earliest known human-like species on Earth


40,000 BC

An evolved form of Neanderthals who lived towards the end of the Paleolithic era in Europe.

Agricultural Revolution

10,000 BC - 5,000 BC

A gradual change to a more agricultural lifestyle in tribes. This allowed people to settle down and built settlements

Catal Huyuk

7,500 BC - 5,700 BC

One of the very first settlements built by an intelligent being that remains today.


2,900 BC

An alloy used for making various tools


2370 BC - 2315 BC

A Kush administrator who led the Akkadians


1850 BC

An important Hebrew patriarch. He is an important character in Judaism


1792 BC - 1750 BC

Hammurabi was called “The king of the four quarters of the world”. He was a Babylonian ruler who is famous for "Hammurabi's code"

Epic of Gilgamesh

1,700 BC

An ancient literature from Mesopotamia. It talks of the amazing tales of Gilgamesh


1,300 BC

A very strong metal used by ancient peoples for tools/weapons

Chapter 2



3,200 BC - 3,100 BC

Menes was one of the very first Egyptian leaders, he did a great job of extending the empire and ruling it, which helped set the base of Egypt

The Old Kingdom

2,700 BC - 2,200 BC

One of the first Egyptian governments set on the capital city of Memphis

The Middle Kingdom

2,100 BC - 1,800 BC

A Thebes based Egyptian government, it was also strongly ruled

The New Kingdom

1,500 BC - 1,000 BC

First Egyptian government to make a new leadership position called the “pharaoh”.

Bantu Migrations

500 BC - 1,000 AD

A huge expansion of Bantu peoples. They rapidly spread to sub-Saharan regions

Chapter 3

Ancient India and China

Harappa Mohenjo- Daro

2,600 BC - 1,800 BC

An ancient city in present day India

Shia Dynasty

2200 BC - 1766 BC

The very first Chinese Dynasty

Oracle Bones

1800 BC

Good example of ancient cultural practices. They were used to predict the future

Shang Dynasty

1766 BC - 1122 BC

The Shang Dynasty was famous for creating many of the great technological advancements of their time


1,500 BC - 500 BC

An ancient Aryian book full of cultural examples

Zhou Dynasty

1122 BC - 256 BC

Known for it's administrative advancements. The Zhou Dynasty was responsible for the Mandate of Heaven


800 BC - 400 BC

The more religious part of the Vedas. It set the base for Hinduism

Era of Warring States

403 BC - 221 BC

A perios of many wars that came as a result of tension among Chinese regions

Chapter 4

Ancient Americas and Oceania

“Land Bridge” Migration to Americas

13,000 BC

A theory that states that early human-like species migrated across a piece of land in the Bering sea into the Americas.

Settlement of Islands Throughout Oceania

1500 BC

Many natives rowed to nearby Polynesian islands in 16th century BC


1200 BC - 100 BC

The earliest significant Mesoamerican people. They lived in present day Mexico


1000 BC - 300 BC

A cultural civilization found in the Andean mountains. Their culture greatly effected nearby civilizations


300 - 1100

The earliest heirs of the Olmecs. They created a society in the southern Mexico area.

Chapter 7



558 BC - 530 BC

A respected Achaemenid military strategist, He is credited for expanding his empire greatly.

Achaemenid Empire

558 BC - 330 BC

A massive Persian empire that was extended by Cyrus and controlled by Darius


521 BC - 486 BC

The greatest of the Achaemenid emporers, he was great at adminisration.

Chapter 8

Classical China


551 BC - 479 BC

Founder of Confucinisim. Confucius taught of healthy lifestyles and good traits to express. He enjoyed talking about the afterlife and heaven


551 BC

Practice of the use of ren , li, and xiao. They are 3 traits that a person should have to help the world


500 BC

Laozi founded Daoism, he was a man of great wisdom


500 BC

The belief in “dao” which means “the way of life”. It helped people want to achieve harmony to benefit both themselves and the world around them


372 BC - 289 BC

A major spokesman for Confucius. He traveled around the land, discussing views with politicians and administrators


300 BC - 200 BC

A strict belief in devotion to the government

Qi Shuhuangdi

259 BC - 210 BC

First emporer of China. He is known for the construction of the Great Wall of China and the Terra-Cotta army.

Qin Dynasty

221 BC - 207 BC

Created a more centralized rule in China

Han Dynasty

206 BC - 9 AD

One of the longest lasting Chinese Dynasties. Known for advancements in Warfare, agriculture, and Industry

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 - 205

A very serious rebellion that raged throughout china during the Han Dynasty. It was caused by the mistreatment of peasants and farmers.

Chapter 9

Classical India

Siddhartha Gautama

563 BC - 483 BC

Founder of Buddhism, he achieved perfect harmony and became the Buddha

Start of Buddhism

528 BC

Prince Siddhartha left his royalty in order to seek knowledge . After years of praying and traveling, he prayed under a Bodhi Tree and became the Buddha

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BC - 185 BC

First dynasty of classical India founded by Chandragupta Maurya. It conquered the trans-Indus region.

Ashoka Maurya

268 BC - 232 BC

Son of Chandragupta Maurya and amazing leader of the empire.

Gupta Dynasty

320 - 550

Second dynasty in classic India. It followed close after the fall of the Mauryan Empire

Chandra Gupta

375 - 415

Created and led the Gupta Dynasty in India.

Chapter 10



470 BC - 399 BC

Socrates is one of the most famous philosophers. He believed in human reflection on life


430 BC - 347 BC

Plato wrote down may of his master , Socrates' , teachings. He closely agreed with Socrates' beleifs


384 BC - 322 BC

Aristotle thought that you should use your senses to develop an observation.

Alexander the Great

356 BC - 323 BC

A Macedonian emperor who attacked the Persian empire with his army, he led his army to victory, which led to the fall of the Achaemenid empire.

Chapter 11


Roman Republic

509 BC - 27 BC

A more aristocratic centered empire. It took up most of Europe and lasted more than 400 years

Julius Caesar

100 BC - 44 BC

A very prominent Roman leader and general

Beginning of Christianity

32 BC

Jesus Christ preached his teaching in many cities, slowly spreading his ideas. He was later crucified for defying the government

Roman Empire

27 BC - 476 AD

A massive empire founded by Julius Caesar. It lasted over 500 years and was one of the most significant European empires.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 AD

“Roman peace” It was a very peaceful period for Rome for more than 100 years.

Jesus of Nazareth

7 BC - 36 AD

Was the son of God and taught the ways of life to people.


272 - 337

A very significant emperor who built the city of Constantinople and was known for his military strategies.

“Split” of Roman Empire


The Roman empire was split into East and West half's in order for easier control

Chapter 12

Silk Roads


284 - 305

A very prominent administrator in the Roman Empire

Roman Capital Moved to Constantinople


The Roman empire moved their capitol city to Constantinople due to it's increased security.

Germanic Invasions

450 - 476

A series of massive Germanic attacks on the Roman Empire

“Fall” of Rome

450 - 476

The end of Roman imperial authority due to Germanic Invasions

Chapter 13



555 - 619

The first wife of Muhammad


570 - 632

Muhammad founded the Islamic religion after discovering the "truth" while on his travels

Abu Bakr

573 - 634

The first Muslim Caliph, he was crowned Caliph after Muhammad's death



A annual pilgrimage to Mecca. It is one of the five pillars of Islam

Founding of Islam


Muhammad preached his discovery of the "one true deity" that rules over everything

Umayyad Caliphate

661 - 750

The first empire after the prophet Muhammad's death. They are known for their very strong army and military expansion.

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

Came after the Umayyad empire. The abbasids are known for their advanced technology and superior administration of their time

Chapter 14

Tang/Song China

Grand Canal

486 BC

A massive man-made canal running north-south in East China

Woodblock Printing


A printing style where an image would be carved into wood, dyed, then pressed onto paper.

Sui Dynasty

589 - 618

The Sui Dynasty is known for uniting North and South China and completing the Grand Canal

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

A very significant Chinese Dynasty led by Tang Taizong

Nara Japan

710 - 784

A Tang influenced Japanese Clan. The clan had a Tang-like court system. Nara a city that served as the capital of Japan from 710-784. The clan is known for their love of Deers

Heian Japan

794 - 1185

A Japanese clan that controlled affairs from "behind the thrown"

"Flying Cash"


Another name for the creation of paper money



A lifestyle devoted to practicing old Chinese traditions.

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

Song Taizu was a famous leader of the Song's . They were greatly focused on civil administration

Fast Ripening Rice


A type of rice that ripens a lot faster than usual rice. This resulted in higher agricultural export rate

Chapter 15

Post-Classical India


1001 - 1027

Prominent leader of the Turks in Afghanistan.

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 - 1526

An Islamic state in Northern India, it was controlled by many of Muhammad's decendants

Chapter 16

Feudal Europe & Byzantium


330 - 1453

The Byzantine Empire was one of the most influential empires in Europe. It's capitol, Constantinople, proves to be a valuable city


483 - 565

A very significant Byzantine leader who is known for reforming Byzantine law.


500 - 548

The wife of emperor Justinian, she was an amazing administrator capable of keeping the land under control

Justinian's Code

529 - 534

A set of Roman laws put together by Justinian to help people understand laws.

Hagia Sophia


A magnificent structure built in Constantinople to serve as a church. It role was constantly changed depending on who captured the city.

Battle of Tours


A battle in which Charles Martel was able convince Muslims to seek no further conquest in Europe


768 - 814

Charlemagne temporarily established centralized rule in the Holy Roman Empire. He was one of the most powerful leaders of his time


789 - 1066

A Scandinavian civilization who used their advanced maritime knowledge to conquer Northern Europe

Great Schism


A split of Europe into an East and West section

Chapter 17


Ottoman Empire

1000 - 1500

A powerful Turkish empire that's famous for the capture or Constantinople and the defeat of the Byzantine empire

Battle of Manzikert


A huge battle in Manzikert in which Saljuq armies defeated Byzantine forces


1206 - 1227

The greatest of all Mongol Khans, Temujin expanded his empire into the largest empire ever known.

Mongols Sack Baghdad


Hulehu Khan defeated the abbasid empire and captured the abbasid capital of Baghdad.

Khubilai Khan

1264 - 1294

One of Genghis khan’s grandsons. He was known for his incredibly ruthless attacks

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

A Chinese Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan in 1279. It followed many Mongol lifestyles and government techniques


1336 - 1405

A Turkish emperor who helped the Turks conquer many regions in Eurasia

Mehmet the Conqueror

1429 - 1481

A Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who is known for crushing the Byzantine empire and taking Constantinople

Chapter 18

Pre-1500 Africa


300 - 600

African people who originally lived in Nigeria and then migrated to most of Sub Saharan Africa. They were very influential, especially orally.


400 - 900

A major city in Africa from 400-900. Originally, it was a Christian city, but it later converted to Islam.

Trans-Saharan Trade Route

750 - 1,400

A large trade route spread across the Saharan desert. Gold and salt were the 2 biggest resources traded.

Great Zimbabwe

1,100 - 1,300

A large sub-saharan African city. It served as the financial center of its trade area, it collected taxes and kept track of trade

Mansa Musa

1312 - 1337

Known to be the richest man to ever live. He was the ruler of Mali

Chapter 19

Medieval Europe

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

A very large collection of states ruled mostly by Charlemagne

William the Conqueror

1027 - 1087

A Norman, King of England. William became the king after defeating King Harold II during the Norman Invasions

Pope Urban II

1035 - 1099

The pope who started the First Crusade.

Norman Conquest of England


Invasions on Anglo-Saxon England led by William II of Normandy. This led William the conqueror becoming king

The First Crusade

1095 - 1099

A conquest of the Holy Roman Empire launched in order to gain back Holy Lands

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

An attack launched in 1202 that resulted in the re-capture of Constantinople



"Reconquest". A christian attack on the the Islam lands in order to re-gain control

Fall of Constantinople


Caused by the Ottoman Turks invasion. Mehmet the Conqueror defeated Byzantine forces and captured Constantinople

Chapter 20

Pre-1500 Americas


1398 - 1469

One of of the most famoust Aztec rulers

Aztec Empire

1428 - 1520

An ancient civilization set in current day central Mexico. The Aztecs are known superior technology

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

A South American civilization located around Peru. The Incas built Macchu Picchu.

Chapter 21

Silk Routes

Marco Polo

1253 - 1324

A significant European traveler who traveled to many places. Learning of their cultures and sharing their stories

Ibn Battuta

1304 - 1377

A Muslim merchant that traveled around the world and wrote down many of his stories.

Black Death

1330 - 1352

A disease that originated in the Mongol empire, it spread to Europe and caused mass epidemic. Millions of people died

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

A large war fought between the Kings of England and the Kings of France over unclaimed land

Yongle Encyclopedia

1403 - 1408

The Yongle Encyclopedia was a collection of general information known at that time period

End of Zheng He’s voyages


A very significant occurrence that ended the sailing of 7 of the largest treasure ships of their time.

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

An Italian explorer who was hired by the Spanish to find a faster route to India.


1475 - 1564

A famous Renaissance artist