AP Euro 1st semester Timeline



1265 - 1321

Writer during the Renaissance- "Dante's Inferno"

Rennaisance in Italy

1304 - 1550

Humanistic ideas within art
began with the Medici family of Florence who were patrons of humanistic art and ideals.


1304 - 1374

Known as the "Father of Humanism"
Wrote poetry

Avignon Paupacy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1337

The paupacy was in Avingon France- Pope is French


1313 - 1375

Writer during the Renaissance

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Philip VI took control of France, but he was an English monarch. There was also the conflics between France and England for control of Flanders.

The Black Death

1346 - 1348

Plague that swept through Europe killing thousands. Little medication to help with the disease.

The Golden Bull


The council that made up the electoral for the election of the Holy Roman Emporer.

Hussites- John Huss

1369 - 1415

Radical church reformer based in Prague

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Total of three popes all telling people which one to follow, one in Avignon France, one in Italy, and another elected to try and fix the problem.



French peasant revolts

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Solved the Great Schism- Created only one pope

Northern Renaissance

1443 - 1509

Focus on Religious and Educational reforms- Printing Press

Guttenberg- Printing Press


The printing press (moveable type) was invented in the Holy Roman Empire, it allowed information to spread faster and to more people.


1466 - 1536

Northern Humanist writer who wrote about greed and selfishness.

Ferdinand and Isabella married


Made Spain able to defend its borders by making Spain stronger.

Early exploration in Portugal and Spain

1492 - 1600

Pioneers finding the New World

Columbus- Start of the Spanish Empire


Finds the New World

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

France was invited into Italy, and Italy then declined due to invasions

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

Catholic church trying to gain control
blame everything that has gone wrong on witches- many people (Mostly women) exicuted

Colombian Exchange

1500 - 1600

Exchange of goods from Europe to the Colonies

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

The warrior Pope, fought many wars, Active forign policy

Henry VIII- Rule

1509 - 1547

Not well liked, had 6 wives killed 2 of them. Pompous didn't care about his country. Wasn't supposed to be king but his brother died so he had to be king.

Machiavelli- The Prince


A rule book for leaders on how to run a country because he believed that he knew how to run Italy better than anyone else.


1517 - 1648

Reform of Catholic Views into what is known as Protestant views.

Martin Luther's 95 Theses


Pinned 95 theses to the doors of a catholic monestary and stated why he believed that the Catholic church needed to be reformed.

Diet of Worms


Luther is excommunicated from the church for posting the 95 Theses


1520 - 1580

An art form after the Renaissance that was more colorful and abstract

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

The peasants of Germany rose up to defy the government, condemned by Luther

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

Reform of the Catholic church under the state

William of Orange- The Silent

1533 - 1584

Brought the Netherlands together

Jesuits Society of Jesus Ignatus of Loyola

1534 - 1600

Counter Reformists
Igantius- Devout catholic who began to pull people back to Catholisism

Act of Supremacy


Gave the state power over the church

Calvin- Geneva


2 sacraments
John Calvin is the controller
Strict theocracy

Copernicus- Heavenly Spheres


Heliocentric model- sun is the center

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Called by Pope Paul III to call a general reassertion of the church doctrine.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

internal church reforms gave more power to the pope.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

believed in the Geocentric model

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Bloody Mary
English, Catholic

England and Spain

1553 - 1603

Both England and Spain had Catholics and Protestants, this caused major conflict between religions within these countries

Peace of Augsburg


Gave the ruler of the nation the power to choose the religion of the state

Elizabeth of England

1558 - 1603

Steered middle route

The French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Protestants wanted religious tolerance throughout France.

Thirty nine articles


made the protestant religion official


1564 - 1616


Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1610

Tulip bubble, banking, Dutch-India trading company, agriculturally, Netherlands rise to the top economically

St. Bartholomew's day Massacre


Catholics went after the Hugunauts and killed them

Pacification of Ghent


Spanish Fury
Spanish people level a town

Union of Utrecht


William of Orange bringing the Netherlands together

Mary Stuart exicuted


Exicuted for plotting a coup on Elizabeths life.

Spanish Armada


Destroyed by England

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Politique, Bourbon, Edict of Nantes

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Raised standard of living, more consumers of new goods, materialistic values

Descartes Discourse on Method

1594 - 1650

Defines what is real, Describes deductive reasoning


1594 - 1658

Takes control when the monarchy and parlaiment go to war

Edict of Nantes


Forced religious toleration
State within a state

Age of Mercantleism

1600 - 1800

The idea that resources are scarce

Prussian Militarism

1600 - 1800

Prussia's Military

Baroque art

1600 - 1700

elaborate but restricted to catholic nations

Decline of Gothic art

1600 - 1800

Replaced with Neoclassic art

James I

1603 - 1625

King James Bible- Catholic

Cervantes- Don Quixote


Cervantes wrote a book about Don Quixote

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Made France the leading power

Henry IV assasinated


Killed by a Friar

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Last war of relihion, everyone wanted religious tolerance. This caused every religion to fight eachother (mainly catholics and protestants) so that their country could follow their religion.

Bacon - Ovum Organum


Inductive Reasoning explained

Kepler- New Astronomy


Heliocentric Model
Describes the discoveries of Bacon.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Believe in God just in case there is a hell

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Caused the civil war to begin sooner

Galileo Condemned


Disagreed with the church and was condemned

Long- Short parlaiment

1640 - 1660

Short- Met for a few years
Long- Met for 20 years

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

England was working on a parlaimentary monarchy


1642 - 1661

Assistant to Louis XIV

Louis XIV

1643 - 1675

The Sun king
Nobles power drained
Absolute monarchy

Treaty of Wesphalia


This ended the thirty years war
France main power
lutheran and Catholic only accepted religions

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

the french revolts that left a impression on Louis XIV and mad him change what he did

The Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

This was not truly a republic more of a dictatorship

Decline of the Netherlands

1650 - 1750

Competition in naval merchants from england and england’s improvement in ship building contributed to the decline of the netherlands

Academies of science

1650 - 1800

Focused on Practical uses of science
Royal society of London



Absolute monarchy
Man is inherently evil
Chaos in the state of nature

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Restored the monarchy after Cromwell and was followed by James the I

Restoration of the Crown

1660 - 1685

This was when James the First came back and was king again

Royal Society of London Founded


Opening of a Royal Society

Peter the Great

1672 - 1725

took land on the baltic sea
St petersburg
westernizes russia

Agricultural Revolution

1674 - 1695

This was when there was more food
Less Plague
Less war
New crops
New Inventions

End of the Witch hunts


The witch hunts are coming to a close and order is returning

James the II

1685 - 1688

Replaced by william of Orange III and Mary

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


The Edict of nantes is revoked

Glorious Revolution

1685 - 1689

William of Orange III and Mary come in to power through a bloodless coup

Frederik Weilhiem

1688 - 1740

The soldier King
started to form the military to what it was

Treasties on Government


Natural rights
Social Contract

English Bill of Rights


This gave freedoms to parliament not to everybody, just the priveleged


1700 - 1900

Very real life and emphasise respect and responsibility

Act of Settlement


Gave Sophia of Hanover the throne of England

War of Spanish Succesion

1701 - 1714

This was the war where it was everyone else against France and spain because spain was giving the throne to the bourbon family which was France

Death of William III


King of England dies

Napoleon Coup Bromeire

1704 - 1799

When Napoleon weakened the directory so he could establish himself as the consolate


1710 - 1750

Rococo is an art form that is very elaborate and symetrical

Treaty of Utrecht


France makes a treaty with everyone else ending the War of Spanish Sucession
Swears not to join with spain

Pragmatic Sanction


This was when charles garenteed that the throne would pass on to his daughter Maria Theresa

Death of Louis XIV


King dies

Mississippi Bubble


A scandal by the french government after Louis XIV died to earn more money

Dominance of Warpole

1722 - 1742

first prime minister of England and consolidated power in the paliament

Catherine the Great

1729 - 1796

Enlightened Despot
Pugachevs rebellion stopped her from going anywhere with it
not very enlighteded
serfdom got worse
Crushed by a horse

War of Jenkin's Ear

1739 - 1748

This was when Spain attacked some of the English smugglers and England rallied behind Jenkins and went to war
the start of public opinion

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1765

Was the leader of Austria due to the pragmatic sanction lost land because everyone took land from her
Mother of Joseph the second

Frederik II

1740 - 1786

Gained land through poland
Enlightened Despot
First servant of the state

War of Austrian succesion

1740 - 1765

Maria gave up some of the power of the monarchy to the nobles in order to preserve Austria
Most notable of the nobles were the Guise

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The time when textile manufacturing moved from the Putting out system and into factories

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

England used prussia as a way to destract France to enable England to attack France in the Americas

DIplomatic Revolution


France with Austria
Bourbon with Habsburg
England with Prussia



Satire on Society and on france as well as religion

Enclosure Method

1761 - 1792

This was when farm land was used more productively and thus more food was produced

Rosseau- Social Contract


Pursue interests in curriculum, not just curriculum
Social Contract

Treaty of Paris


England took some territory from France up in Canada and gave France back some territory

Joseph II

1764 - 1790

Enlightened Despot
Equal taxation, law,
abolished serfdom
church arm of state

Spinning Jenny


This allowed the spinners to produce yarn faster

Water Frame


This allowed water to be used as power for the spinning jenny

Steam Engine


This allowed for mines to be cleared of water and power machines faster

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

America Revolts from the new taxation that England places on them and france aids the americans

Smith- Wealth of Nations


Man is free
Everywhere chains

Great Fear


Peasants flip and burn legal papers and take back lost land

French Revolution

1789 - 1793

Many exicutions leading to the invention of the Gillatine, Louis XVI and Marie Antionnette- exicuted. Little food, large amounts of poverty, great national debt. The people wanted rights and liberties.

Estates General Called/ Meets

1789 - 1793

Called to try and reduce national debt and strengthen the governmental system of France.

Storming of Bastille


The Bastille was a prison in Paris that was for the most violent offenders in France. It was highly feared, a mob stormed the prison and tore it down brick by brick, freeing some prisoners and killing others

Storming of Bastille


The Mob forces the revolution to go radical
Release all seven prisoners none are political
get weapons for militia

Nobles renounce Feudal Privleges


On paper nobles are equal

War with Austria


The Revolution felt threatened when Leopold Antionnetes sister threatened to attack if the royal family was injured

Rights of Man of Citizen


Very enlightened
All men created equal and free

Tennis Court Oath


The 3rd estate swears to write a constitution for a new government

Estates General Called


Estates general meets

March of Fishwives


Mob again forces the Revolution to Go Radical
Send king to paris
Raid Versailles

Civil constitution of Clergy


Took catholic lands and rented them back
made Catholics swear loyalty to the state over the pope
Turned many Catholics against the state

Legislative assembly Meets


New government meets very radical
first meeting

Monarch Abolished


monarchy is abolished and first republic is voted into place

Louis XIV exicuted


Gave Louis a shave with the National Razor
guilty of treason

Tuleries stormed king Captive


the King is taken captive
now prisoner of the revolution
king put on trial

Vindication of the Rights of Women


Feminist views on women rights

Levee en Masse


Drafting of males into the Army

Danton is Exicuted


Robespierre took leadership
Danton is killed because Robespierre feels threatened

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

The most radical stage
Lots of guillotining of people

Cult of Reason


Robespierres form of deism in the new republic

Fall of Robespierre


Said there are enemies amoung us didn’t say who
the convention then turned against him and he was executed face up

Cult of supreme being


Deism now religion of Republic
Failed in the End

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Overthrown by Napolean

Directory Esablished


back swing of the pendulum
moderates are in the convention and start establishing a new constitution that helps the middle class the most

Principle of Population


Human suffering inevitable
Not enough resources to support society

Iron law of Wages


Laissez faire
worked with adam smith
low controlled wages

Lollards- John Wycliff


philosopher accused of teaching the efficacy of the church"s sacraments- also known as Donatism tried to limit the church's power