Writer during the Renaissance- "Dante's Inferno"
Humanistic ideas within art
began with the Medici family of Florence who were patrons of humanistic art and ideals.
Known as the "Father of Humanism"
The paupacy was in Avingon France- Pope is French
Writer during the Renaissance
Philip VI took control of France, but he was an English monarch. There was also the conflics between France and England for control of Flanders.
Plague that swept through Europe killing thousands. Little medication to help with the disease.
The council that made up the electoral for the election of the Holy Roman Emporer.
Radical church reformer based in Prague
Total of three popes all telling people which one to follow, one in Avignon France, one in Italy, and another elected to try and fix the problem.
French peasant revolts
Solved the Great Schism- Created only one pope
Focus on Religious and Educational reforms- Printing Press
The printing press (moveable type) was invented in the Holy Roman Empire, it allowed information to spread faster and to more people.
Northern Humanist writer who wrote about greed and selfishness.
Made Spain able to defend its borders by making Spain stronger.
Pioneers finding the New World
Finds the New World
France was invited into Italy, and Italy then declined due to invasions
Catholic church trying to gain control
blame everything that has gone wrong on witches- many people (Mostly women) exicuted
Exchange of goods from Europe to the Colonies
The warrior Pope, fought many wars, Active forign policy
Not well liked, had 6 wives killed 2 of them. Pompous didn't care about his country. Wasn't supposed to be king but his brother died so he had to be king.
A rule book for leaders on how to run a country because he believed that he knew how to run Italy better than anyone else.
Reform of Catholic Views into what is known as Protestant views.
Pinned 95 theses to the doors of a catholic monestary and stated why he believed that the Catholic church needed to be reformed.
Luther is excommunicated from the church for posting the 95 Theses
An art form after the Renaissance that was more colorful and abstract
The peasants of Germany rose up to defy the government, condemned by Luther
Reform of the Catholic church under the state
Brought the Netherlands together
Igantius- Devout catholic who began to pull people back to Catholisism
Gave the state power over the church
John Calvin is the controller
Heliocentric model- sun is the center
Called by Pope Paul III to call a general reassertion of the church doctrine.
internal church reforms gave more power to the pope.
believed in the Geocentric model
Both England and Spain had Catholics and Protestants, this caused major conflict between religions within these countries
Gave the ruler of the nation the power to choose the religion of the state
Steered middle route
Protestants wanted religious tolerance throughout France.
made the protestant religion official
Tulip bubble, banking, Dutch-India trading company, agriculturally, Netherlands rise to the top economically
Catholics went after the Hugunauts and killed them
Spanish people level a town
William of Orange bringing the Netherlands together
Exicuted for plotting a coup on Elizabeths life.
Destroyed by England
Politique, Bourbon, Edict of Nantes
Raised standard of living, more consumers of new goods, materialistic values
Defines what is real, Describes deductive reasoning
Takes control when the monarchy and parlaiment go to war
Forced religious toleration
State within a state
The idea that resources are scarce
elaborate but restricted to catholic nations
Replaced with Neoclassic art
King James Bible- Catholic
Cervantes wrote a book about Don Quixote
Made France the leading power
Killed by a Friar
Last war of relihion, everyone wanted religious tolerance. This caused every religion to fight eachother (mainly catholics and protestants) so that their country could follow their religion.
Inductive Reasoning explained
Describes the discoveries of Bacon.
Believe in God just in case there is a hell
Caused the civil war to begin sooner
Disagreed with the church and was condemned
Short- Met for a few years
Long- Met for 20 years
England was working on a parlaimentary monarchy
Assistant to Louis XIV
The Sun king
Nobles power drained
This ended the thirty years war
France main power
lutheran and Catholic only accepted religions
the french revolts that left a impression on Louis XIV and mad him change what he did
This was not truly a republic more of a dictatorship
Competition in naval merchants from england and england’s improvement in ship building contributed to the decline of the netherlands
Focused on Practical uses of science
Royal society of London
Man is inherently evil
Chaos in the state of nature
Restored the monarchy after Cromwell and was followed by James the I
This was when James the First came back and was king again
Opening of a Royal Society
took land on the baltic sea
This was when there was more food
The witch hunts are coming to a close and order is returning
Replaced by william of Orange III and Mary
The Edict of nantes is revoked
William of Orange III and Mary come in to power through a bloodless coup
The soldier King
started to form the military to what it was
This gave freedoms to parliament not to everybody, just the priveleged
Very real life and emphasise respect and responsibility
Gave Sophia of Hanover the throne of England
This was the war where it was everyone else against France and spain because spain was giving the throne to the bourbon family which was France
King of England dies
When Napoleon weakened the directory so he could establish himself as the consolate
Rococo is an art form that is very elaborate and symetrical
France makes a treaty with everyone else ending the War of Spanish Sucession
Swears not to join with spain
This was when charles garenteed that the throne would pass on to his daughter Maria Theresa
A scandal by the french government after Louis XIV died to earn more money
first prime minister of England and consolidated power in the paliament
Pugachevs rebellion stopped her from going anywhere with it
not very enlighteded
serfdom got worse
Crushed by a horse
This was when Spain attacked some of the English smugglers and England rallied behind Jenkins and went to war
the start of public opinion
Was the leader of Austria due to the pragmatic sanction lost land because everyone took land from her
Mother of Joseph the second
Gained land through poland
First servant of the state
Maria gave up some of the power of the monarchy to the nobles in order to preserve Austria
Most notable of the nobles were the Guise
The time when textile manufacturing moved from the Putting out system and into factories
England used prussia as a way to destract France to enable England to attack France in the Americas
France with Austria
Bourbon with Habsburg
England with Prussia
Satire on Society and on france as well as religion
This was when farm land was used more productively and thus more food was produced
Pursue interests in curriculum, not just curriculum
England took some territory from France up in Canada and gave France back some territory
Equal taxation, law,
church arm of state
This allowed the spinners to produce yarn faster
This allowed water to be used as power for the spinning jenny
This allowed for mines to be cleared of water and power machines faster
America Revolts from the new taxation that England places on them and france aids the americans
Man is free
Peasants flip and burn legal papers and take back lost land
Many exicutions leading to the invention of the Gillatine, Louis XVI and Marie Antionnette- exicuted. Little food, large amounts of poverty, great national debt. The people wanted rights and liberties.
Called to try and reduce national debt and strengthen the governmental system of France.
The Bastille was a prison in Paris that was for the most violent offenders in France. It was highly feared, a mob stormed the prison and tore it down brick by brick, freeing some prisoners and killing others
The Mob forces the revolution to go radical
Release all seven prisoners none are political
get weapons for militia
On paper nobles are equal
The Revolution felt threatened when Leopold Antionnetes sister threatened to attack if the royal family was injured
All men created equal and free
The 3rd estate swears to write a constitution for a new government
Estates general meets
Mob again forces the Revolution to Go Radical
Send king to paris
Took catholic lands and rented them back
made Catholics swear loyalty to the state over the pope
Turned many Catholics against the state
New government meets very radical
monarchy is abolished and first republic is voted into place
Gave Louis a shave with the National Razor
guilty of treason
the King is taken captive
now prisoner of the revolution
king put on trial
Feminist views on women rights
Drafting of males into the Army
Robespierre took leadership
Danton is killed because Robespierre feels threatened
The most radical stage
Lots of guillotining of people
Robespierres form of deism in the new republic
Said there are enemies amoung us didn’t say who
the convention then turned against him and he was executed face up
Deism now religion of Republic
Failed in the End
Overthrown by Napolean
back swing of the pendulum
moderates are in the convention and start establishing a new constitution that helps the middle class the most
Human suffering inevitable
Not enough resources to support society
worked with adam smith
low controlled wages
philosopher accused of teaching the efficacy of the church"s sacraments- also known as Donatism tried to limit the church's power