This party was originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. It was formed on October 15th, 1966, by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. It initially set forth a doctrine calling primarily for the protection of African-American neighborhoods from police brutality. It soon gained national prominence and became an icon of the counterculture of the 1960s. It reached a peak of membership in 1969, with 10,000 members. It then suffered a series of contradictions due to legal troubles, incarcerations, internal splits, expulsions, and defections. By 1972 most Panther activity centered around the national headquarters and a school in Oakland, where the party continued to influence local politics. By 1980 the Black Panther Party comprised just 27 members.