Mr. Collins AP European History Timeline- Alexsander Hay


Decline of the Gothic Art

1200 - 1700

-Cathedrals, Abbeys, and Churches
-Main decline was in the 16th century


1261 - 1321

-Italian vernacular literature with Petrarch's sonnets and it impacts the European thoughts


1304 - 1374

-Father of humanism
-Included Christian and Classical Values
-Spreads humanism


1313 - 1375

-Wrote Decameron which looks at the human behavior
- Assembled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

John Wycliffe-->Deeds not titles-->Heresy-->Recant sins
-Lollards followed Wycliffe's teachings

Black Death

1347 - 1352

-Plague came from Asia and into Europe
-Transported by trading ships
-Population decreases, demands decreases, money decreases

Hundred Years War

1347 - 1453

-Edward III and Philip fights for the French Throne
-Joan of Arc
-French gains nationalism


1358 - 1359

-Bloody rebellion of peasants vs. Nobility
-Nobility quickly put down the revolt decreasing the population
-Many peasants were killed

Hussites: John Huss

1363 - 1415
  • The Hussites, Moderates and Extremes, follows John Huss -Accused of heresy and imprisoned, and died at the stake in 1415 -Hussites creates war

The Golden Bull


-An agreement made by major German territorial rulers that established a seven-member electoral college
-Also functioned as an administrative body

Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity

1377 - 1417

-Refers to a time period in history of the Roman Catholic Church

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

-Two Popes fight for power and people are stuck in the middle
-Urban VI and Clement VII

Renaissance of Italy Art

1400 - 1700

-Focuses on humanism
-Better colors, brighter, also shadowing, and linear perspective

Northern Renaissance Art

1400 - 1700

-Focuses on Christian Humanism
-Detail paintings, sees God as king
-Also, Albrecht Durer carves on wood and us it as art

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

-Elected a new pope, Martin V
-Meetings of church councils every ten years

Printing Press- Guttenberg


-Invented the movable type printing machine
-This invention is a cheaper way to create paper to help make better books and helped with spreading knowledge. It was also a powerful tool for political and religious propaganda.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire

1451 - 1506

-Discovered the New World by accident
-Helped begin the Spanish Empire


1466 - 1536

-Was the most famous Northern Humanist
-His own beliefs is Philosophia Chisti

Ferdinand and Isabella-Spain

1479 - 1504

-Gave money to Columbus to set sail and explore
-Converted Spain and Jews to Catholicism

Witch Hunts/End of Witch Hunts

1480 - 1570

-Humans killed men and women (mostly women) for being accused of being a witch
-Mainly widows, midwives, healers, herbalists
-More deaths during wars, reformations, or natural disasters
-Ends in 1570

Colombian Exchage

1492 - 1800

-Exchange of new plants, animal, and diseases
-Began when Columbus sailed to America and continued during the exploration of America where the land of the New World hasn't been exposed to European explores

Early Exploration- Portugal and Spain

1492 - 1600

-Pioneers who explored the New World or the Americas
-Expand territory and look for resources
-Gold and knowledge

Italy's decline by Invasions

1494 - 1527

-Italy declined because of invasions
-Italy decided to ask for the aid of France
-Created even more problems because France was stronger than Italy

English Reformation

1496 - 1688

-New religion (Luterism, Calvinist, etc.)
-New kings and queens (King Henry VIII, IV, etc)
-An evolution of mankind

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1799

-Beginning of the major Commercial Revolution
-Discovery of New lands
-International Trade

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

-Warrior Pope for raising the Renaissance papacy to it's peak of military prowess and diplomatic intrigue
-Wrote a satire Julius Excluded from Heavens
-Drove Venetians out of Romagna and secured the Papal State

Henry VII

1509 - 1547

-The Act of Supremacy
The Act of Annates
-Act of Appeals
-The church of Angelican

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

-Calvinist was created and replaced Lutheranism Created by John Calvin
-Predestination was Calvinists' belief

The Prince: Machiavelli


-The Prince was written by Niccolo Machiavelli
-Wrote The Prince as a cynical satire on the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule

Luther-95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

1517 - 1520

-95 Thesis was to tell the church the wrong doings such as selling indulgences
-Luther was to recant but he declined

Martin Luther's 95 Thesis

1517 - 1520

-Tells the church what their doing wrong
-Attacks indulgences and priests


1520 - 1700

-Made room for the strange and the abnormal, giving freer reign to the individual perceptions and feelings of the artist who feels free to paint

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

-Peasants demanded for greater local self-government and religious freedom
-Many peasants died during the uprising.


1525 - 1648

-Began from Martin Luther's 95 Thesis
-Ends by the Peace of Westphalia
-New religions were formed

William Of Orange "The Silent"

1533 - 1584

-Catholic, became a Calvinist after Saint Bartholomew's Day
-Removed Granvelle from office
-Orange was Exile in Germany

Jeauits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola

1534 - 1600

-A devout Catholic
-Tried to convert people back to Counter reformist.

Act of Supremacy

1534 - 1558

-Made Henry VIII Head of the church
-Parliaments dissolved England's monasteries and nunneries

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres


-The year of his death, he published On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres
-Described as a revolution
-Contained his views of a Heliocentric Model of the universe that challenged the Geocentric Model

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

-Institutes reforms and responds to the Reformation
-Council of the church meets
-Under Pope Control
-Church discipline
-Heart of the Catholic Reformation and Counter Reformation

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

-Was a Danish astronomer that rejected the heliocentric model
-Advocated his life to the earth-centered system

Henry IV of France

1547 - 1559

-Henry IV of Navarre
-Established new measures against Protestants in the Edict of Chateaubriand
-Edict of Nantes

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

-Reverted back to the Catholic religion
-Created Marian exiles who escapes the martyrdom during Mary's reign

Peace of Augsburg


-Cuius regio, eius religio Ruler of a land would determine it's religion
-Lutheranism was recognized but Calvinist and Anabaptist were not

Elizabeth I of England

1558 - 1603

-Prevented religious differfenes from tearing England apart
-Thirty-Nine Articles

Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands

1559 - 1608

-A revolt in the Netherlands
-People revolted against Spain
-Parma, Alba, Pacification of Ghent

The French Wars Of Religion

1562 - 1598

-The Saint Bartholomew'sDayMassacre
-Henery Of Navarre(Henery II)
-The Edict of Nantes

Thirty-Nine Articles

1563 - 1571

-A revision of Thomas Cranmer's original forty-two
-Made a moderate Protestantism the official religion withing the Church of England


1564 - 1616

-Was the greatest English play writer
-His plays are still famous now in the 21st century

James I (England)

1566 - 1625

-King of England, inherited a large royal debt
-He developed other sources of income, largely by levying new custom duties known as impositions

Dutch Revolt (Against Spain)

1568 - 1648

-Pacification of Ghent
-Union of Utrecht
-Union of Arras
-Independence for the Dutch

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1610

-The Netherlands were rising economically
-Dutch Golden Age, a new age

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24 1572 - August 27 1572

-Massacres Huguenots, estimated of 20,000 Huguenots were killed
-Protestants were the killers

Pacification of Ghent

1576 - 1609

-Declared internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion
-Netherlands version of territorial settlement of religious differences

Union of Utrecht

1579 - 1609

-Counters the Union of Arras
-Arras=Southern Utrecht=Northern

Mary Stuart Executed


-She was hated because of her extreme beliefs
-Plotted to kill Elizabeth
-Elizabeth Executes Mary

Spanish Armada

1587 - 1588

-New World Riches
-Increase in Spanish Population
-Efficient Bureaucracy
-Supremacy in the Mediterranean
-Defeated by English

Henry IV assainated

1589 - 1610

-"Paris is worth a mass"
-Killed but laid down a foundation

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

-More people that demanded more goods and new goods
-Standard of living raised

Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1685

-Assured the Huguenots of at least qualified religious freedom
-Created religious peace
-Created by Henry IV


1599 - 1658

-Officer of the Parliamentary Army
-Controlled the Government
-Dissolves the Rump

Baroque Art

1600 - 1750

-Very extreme, over excessive, very bright, everything is gold, and the successor of the the Art of Mannerism
-Versailles is an example of the Baroque Art

Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

-Belief in the idea that the world’s resources are limited and scarce
-Should be a cut back

Prussian Militarism

1600 - 1800

-The Prussian Military that impacted politics, culture, and economics

Louis XIV: Mazarin

1602 - 1661

-Mazarin was a Cardinal under Louis XIII

-Attempted to impose direct royal administration on France


1603 - 1649

-James I
-Charles I
-Petitions of Rights
-Short and Long Parliaments

Cercantes: Don Quizote


-Lived 1547-1616 and published the Don Quizote in 1605
-To satirize the chivalric romances then popular in Spain

Kepler: The New Astronomy

  • Kepler published The New Astronomy in 1609 -This book used the sun centered model and empirical data to solve the planetary motion

The Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

-Holy Roman Empire in Thirty Years War is the most destructive
-Fragmented Germany
-Lutherans vs. Catholics
-Catholic League
-Treaty of Westphalia

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

-Most destructive wars of religion
-Lasted thirty years
-Determination to sacrifice all for their religious beliefs was the most devastating part of the whole war

Bacon: Novum Organum


-Bacon lived from 1561-1626 and published Novum Organum in 1620
-Attacked the belief that most truth had already been discovered and only required explanation.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

-A French mathematician and a physical scientist
- Pursue an austere, self disciplined life
- Made one of the most influential efforts to reconcile faith and the new science.

Charles I England

1625 - 1649

-He resorted to extra-parliamentary measures
-Included levying new tariffs and duties
-Collect discontinued taxes
-Subjecting English property owners to a so-called forced load -Imprisoned those who refused to pay

Galileo Condemned


-Tried by the Pope because of his views and discoveries that supported a heliocentric system
-He was then condemned by the church
-Asked to recant and he does
-Under house arrest for 9 years

Descartes: Discourse on Method


-Published Discourse on Method in 1637
-Book rejected scholastic philosophy and education

Long Parliament/Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

-The parliaments was short and long because because it was immediately disbanded, but it was long because it took a while to figure out the tariffs and funds
-Charles I needed money since he was in war with France

English Civil War

1642 - 1645

-Charles I defeated at Marston Moor, Preston, and Naseby
-Handed over to the Parliament

Louis XIV Personal Reign

1643 - 1715

-He was an absolute ruler of France
- He built Versailles in order to gain control over the nobles
-Revoked the Edict of Nantes.

Treaty of Westphalia


-Ended all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire
-Was the first general peace in Europe

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

-French revolts
-Changed the actions of Louis XIV

Decline on Netherlands

1650 - 1750

-The Netherland’s skills were no longer special
-Other nation’s skills improved so much that the skills of the Netherlands were no longer needed making it decline

Hobbes: Leviathan


-Published the Leciathan in 1651
-It supported the idea of an Absolute Monarchy

Charles II of England

1660 - 1685

-Set a refreshing new tone after eleven years of somber Puritanism
-He had secret catholic sympathies
-Favored religious toleration


1660 - 1688

-Charles II
-Test Act
-Habeas Corpus Act
-Great London Plague
-Great London Fire

Academies of Science: London First

1660 - 1700

-Started in London
-New discoveries and experiments were being conducted

Royal Society of London


-They followed Francis Bacon’s ideals/beliefs and helped impact European thoughts

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

-Ruled with Ivan V
-Convinced to turn Russia into England and the Netherlands, westernize
-Took ideas from England and Netherlands and Westernized Russia

James II of England

1685 - 1688

-Immediately demanded the repeal of the test Act
-Issued another Declaration of Indulgence
-Permitting free worship
-Actions represented a direct royal attack on the local authority of nobles, landowners, the church, and other corporate bodies whose members believed they possessed particular legal privileges.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes


-Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes
-Hurts the Protestants badly

Newton: Principia Mathematica


-Newton's life span was 1642-1727
-Published the book in 1687, talks about planetary motion and gravity

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

-Throne to William of Orange and Mary
-Bill of Rights

Frederick Wilhelm

1688 - 1740

-He formed a strong military and was a king, impacting economics and politics

English Bill of Rights

1689 - 2012

-Solved all of the major issues between the King and Parliament
-The King could not suspend the operation of laws
-The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice
-No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent
-Freedom of speech in Parliament
-Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently
-Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment
-The monarch must be a Protestant
-Freedom from arbitrary arrest
-Religious toleration

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st&2nd)


-Published the Treatises in 1690
-The first one was important by clearing the philosophical decks of a long standing traditional argument that could not stand up to rigorous analysis
-The second tells the government that they need to govern by protecting the people and their rights (to sum it up)

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

-Beginning of the major Agricultural Revolution
-New Crops and New Methods
-Jethro Tull
-Enclosure relpaces Open-Field Method
-Expanding of Population

Industrial Revolution

1700 - 1900

-Main Industrial Revolution and still in the process
-Great Britain was the Leading country
-New methods of Textile Production
-Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Steam Engine

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

-A war between Russia and Sweden
-Russia was trying to gain some land
-Resulted with Russia winning and gaining territory

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

-Philip V had received the throne to Spain
- England, Holland, and the Holy Roman Empire formed the Grand Alliance
- Try to preserve the balance of power by once and for all securing Flanders as a neutral barrier between Holland and France and by gaining for the emperor his fair share of the Spanish inheritance.

Act of Settlement: Great Britain


-Gave Sophia of Hanover the throne of England

Death of Wm. III of England


-William died and it impacted politics

Charles VI of Austria- Pragmatic Sanction


-Pragmatic Sanction was issued by Charles VI \
-Prevent a disaster from falling on Austria after his death since he had no heirs
-Wanted to give his daughter the throne

Treaty of Utrecht


-Ended the War of the Spanish Succession
-Philip V staying as king of Spain but removing his throne from France.

Death of Louis XIV


-The power of France weakened
-Nobility sought to regain their power
-Many of France’s resources were drained.

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

-A financial crises in France
-John law increased the amount of paper money to recover France’s economy

Emergence of Rocco Art

1720 - 1760

-Lighthearted decorations
-Emphasis on pastel colors
-Play of light

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole

1722 - 1742

-Was the first prime minister of England and he impacted politics

War of Jenkins's Ear

1739 - 1748

-The Spanish blocked English ships and attacked them
-Spanish cut off Jenkins's ear and Jenkins kept it in a jar
-People of England became riled up and began a war

Frederick II The Great/Prussia

1740 - 1786

-Enlightened Despot of Prussia
- Known as the first servant of the state.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

-Took the throne to Austria after her father Charles VI dies
-She was left without a strong army or a lot of money
-Habsburgs recognized her as the rightful heir

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

-There was a war when Frederick II seized the Austrian throne
-Frederick II disrupted the balance of power

Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

-England gave Prussia financial aid
-Prussia fight with France
- Prussia distracts them while England destroys France in the New World

Diplomatic Revolution


A revolution with:
-France and Austria
-The Bourbons and the Habsburgs
-England and Prussia.

Voltaire- Candide


-Francois-Marie Arouet, know as Voltaire lived from 1694-1778
-He published Candide in 1759
- The book is a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism about the human condition.


1760 - 1850

-Uses classical arts and architectural models like the Romans and Greeks, but this is a combination of the ancients and the moderns
-Returns to the themes, topics, and styles drawn from antiquity itself and from the Renaissance appeal to antiquity

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract


-Published the book in 1762
- Outlines the kind of political structure that Rousseau believed would overcome the corruptions of politics and society.

Catherine the Great of Russia

1762 - 1796

-She was an Enlightened Despot of Russia
-She was not Russian
-Not very enlightened
-Couldn't make reforms due to Pugachev’s rebellion and the nobles

Treaty of Paris


-Ended the Seven Years’ War
-England gaining territory from France in Canada
-France gaining back lost land from the Prussians

Joseph II of Austria

1764 - 1790

-He was the Enlightened Despot of Austria
-He was the most enlightened
-Made equal laws, taxes, and punishments

Spinning Jenny

1765 - 1810

-Invented by James Hargreaves
-Reduce the time to make the wool, created more jobs, improved life

Steam Engine

1769 - 2008

-Still use the steam engine in vehicles such as the train
-Use the engine to run textile machinery
-Invented by Thomas Newcomen, but improved and perfected by James Watt

Water Frame

1769 - 1779

-Invented by Richard Arkwright
-Increase cotton output by 800%, Improves lives, but decreases labor/jobs

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

-The colonies in America revolted against Britain
-Reason is the taxes from the king of England were outragous

Smith- Wealth of Nations


-It was a book about free trade and capitalism. It impacted economics, culture, European thoughts, and politics

Malthus- Principle of Population


-Published this Principle of Population in 1798
-Contended that population must eventually outstrip the food supply

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


-Published a book call Principles of Political Economy in 1817(Iron Law of Wages)
-It stated that if wages were raised, parents would have more children
-They would enter the labor market, thus expanding the number of workers and lowering wages

French Revolution

Great Fear


-Beheading of many people by the Guillotine
-Afraid of Invasion of Prussia/ Austria

Rights of Man and Citizen


-Document that established all of the rights and freedoms of men and citizens
-No women, and women were not citizens

March of the fish wives


-Want to lower the price of bread
-Marched to Versailles and demand the king and queen to go to Paris

Nobles renounce feudal priv.


-Nobles renounce their privileges and impacts politics

Storming of Bastill


-Parisians/the common people storms the Bastille, gaining weapons, freeing prisoners, and killing some guards
-Began when people protested and the soldiers shot the people

Tennis Court Oath


-The Third Estates stayed at a Tennis Court and made an oath not to leave until they've got their Constitution
-Result, they get their Constitution

War with Austria


-The war with Austria and England
-To protect the Revolution

Civil Const of Clergy


-The government confiscated church lands
-Sold them back in order to gain money
-Made the clergy swear loyalty to the state
-Splits the clergy into the ones that serves the state, and the one that serves the church

Legislative Assembly Meets


-New radical government assembles and it impacts the politics

Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rights of Women


-Wollstonecraft’s views on women
-They should have the same exact rights and freedoms of that stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizen

Convention meets- Monarch Abolished


-Convention assembles
-The monarchy is abolished and replaced by the Republic

Louis XVI executed


-Trialed and found guilty of treason
-He was executed by the Guillotine/National Razor

Tuileries Stormed- King Captive


-King Captured
-Prisoner of the revolution

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

-Radical stage where everyone is a suspect of countering the Revolution
-Many executions and beheading by the National Razor

Danton Executed


-Danton was killed by the National Razor
-Reason: Robespierre was tired of Danton's point of views

Levee en Masse


-The drafting of males into the army
-All funds goes toward the war
-To create a bigger army

Cult of the Supreme Being


-Deism was the religion of the Republic
-It failed

Fall of Robespierre


-Robespierre said that there were many enemies in the convention
-Members were scared and didn't know who the enemies were
-Decides to executes Robespierre

Cult of Reason


-Robespierre version of religion and it impact religion and European thoughts

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory Established


-Directory is established
-Replaces the Republic

The Directory

1795 - 1799

-A government structure
-Taken down by Napoleon

Estates General Called/Meets


-The Three Estates General Assembles and impacts politics and economics

Napoleon- Coup Crumaire


-Napoleon weakened The Directory
-Established himself as a person with authority