AP Euro 1st Semester Timeline

Erin Garst; McAvoy; Period 3



1265 - 1321

"Italian Shakespeare"
Wrote Divine Comedy; social commentary
Classified ppl. into levels of hell


1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism
Writer of Humanist ideas

Avignon Papacy/"Babylonian Captivity"

1309 - 1377

French dominate church/College of Cardinals
War in Italy; Pope moves to Avignon, Fr.
Sell indulgences


1313 - 1375

Harsh social critic; human behavior
Wrote Decameron
Assembled encyclopedia of Greek/Roman mythology

The Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453
  1. Strengthened monarchy and weakened nobles (Long Bow).
  2. Population of France was decimated.
  3. Prolonged crisis in the church (2 popes).
  4. Destabilized bank system.
  5. "Nations" are emerging.

Black Death


Fragile subsistence level; uneducated populous; war is common; weak nations; no way to improve social standing (land=power;got through inheritance); feudalism; rats/dirty cities
Ppl. died/got sick; went to monastery; priests died
One third of population died
Affected economy
-Shrunk labor supply; could charge more for goods; wages increased; demanded more money
-Artisans could raise prices
-Large scale switch to trade from farming
-Beginning to form middle class; those who earn money; earn power from money/working hard, not inheritance (Bourgeoisie)
Hurt feudal nobility
-took power/money from lord
-massive revolts (jacqueries); Wat Tyler (questioned social structure); bread prices increase/cause revolt
-more power of kings;helped centralize state power
Cities grew
Ppl. move to cities; demand for finished goods increased; ppl. wanted the best; contributed to rise of middle class
Church; ppl. doubted when clergy died from plague

Golden Bull


Holy Roman Emperor will be elected; makes position weak
Est. Electoral college (7 members)

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

Rebirth of ancient ideas; had money/cultural diffusion
City-states; not single body; want to spend money/appear rich
Medicis (Florence); used money and power to rule
Humanism; challenges Scholastics; educational program
Art=realistic; new techniques=chiaroscuro, perspective; more secular; elements of humanism

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Pope moved to Avignon
Clergy are taxed; Avignon/Babylonian Captivity; money going to Avignon; Italians are upset
Pope dies; College of Cardinals elect new Roman pope; Fr. are upset
Secede; elect new pope; 2 popes
-excommunicate each other
-ppl. follow the one that gives them advantage
Council of Pisa
-3 popes
Conciliar theory of church govt.
-Who has power-Pope or council that elected him?
Council of Constance
Two contradicting authorities; weakens both
King gaining power over papacy



Massive peasant revolt led by Wat Tyler (questioned social structure); due to direct tax on peasantry and increased bread prices
Hurt feudal nobility

John Wycliffe and the Lollards


Lay religious movement
Judgement by merit, not status
Wycliffe died 1384

Northern Renaissance


Religious/educational reform
Printing Press; spread ideas
Erasmus; simple ethical piety
Humanist reform; Germany wanted freedom; valued education; discussion (Luther/Lutheranism)
Thomas Moore (Eng.); Utopia; used satire to mock society
Spain; used same primary sources of humanism to help Catholicism

Early Exploration: Portugal and Sp.

1400 - 1600

Portuguese quested for gold/spices; sailed to Africa and Asia; took slaves; swapped for goods
Columbus finds America while in search of India
-Columbian Exchange
-Enslave Native Americans
-Conquer Aztecs and Incans
-Spread Catholicism/kill native culture
-Exploit resources for econ; mining for gold/silver to increase nation's wealth, black slavery began on plantations to meet demands in Europe; Native pop. enslaved to do labor -Europeans didn't want to do; paid and treated poorly

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Thousands died
Possible explanations include, but not limited to
-Actual witchcraft
-Leftover Paganism
-Economic; don't want to share food, etc. in hard times w/ fringe society; scapegoat
-Political; eliminated competition
-Reformation; no longer had tools to deal w/ evil; let witches multiply

John Huss and the Hussites


Built on Lollard tradition
Threatens clergy's uniqueness; say that everyone has equal connection to God
Huss burned at stake in Rome in 1415

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Ends schism
-old popes resign/are deposed
-elect new in Rome

Printing Press-Johannes Guttenberg


Movable type
Mainz (northwestern Germany; near Reformation)
Guilds want to make money/ sell books
Can spread ideas-changes everything***


1466 - 1536

Live in imitation of Christ; Simple Ethical Piety
Is banned by church because he called them on their corruption; felt differently
Wrote addages

Ferdinand and Isabella's Marriage


Gained land
Limited nobility's power
Were more productive than when apart; gained power

Ferdinand and Isabella's Rule

1474 - 1516

New monarchy; end of feudalism; have money from taxes; don't need nobles; Limit noble's power
Marriage=joined lands/gained land; more power
Strict religion (Catholicism)
Both kingdoms retained own govt.s (Castile and Aragon)
Subdued realms; secured borders; venture abroad; Christianize Sp.

Columbus: Start of the Sp. Empire


Columbus discovered America
Sp. Empire began/grew on South American continent
Met, conquered, enslaved, killed, gave diseases to, ruined the culture of Native Americans, Incans, Aztecs; dramatic/brutal
Sp. gained money from trade; more power/land; got raw materials/resources
Spread Catholicism
Columbian Exchange

Columbian Exchange


During exploration period Columbus sailed to America
Exploration=more moneyresources/trade; spread religion; gain power
Exchange culture, ideas disease between Old World and New
-Europeans exposed to animals, etc.; didn't get sick
Native Americans severely affected; died from European diseases; forced to assimilate into culture, etc.

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Allied w/ Fr.; Fr. was stronger than them; turned on them
Many allied w/ someone stronger than them to get rid of enemies, but if allies become enemies, there's a problem
-Machiavelli says not to do this
Were invaded by Charles VIII
Other countries feared invasion; Ferdinand of Aragon crated League of Venice
Made peace w/ Fr.; Were invaded again; Naples was divided

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Corruption in Ren. papacy (simony, "Princely lives", Indulgences, unpious, etc.)
Raised papacy to peak of military prowess/diplomatic intrigue; secular papacy
Secured Papal states
Helped form second Holy League; made Fr. retreat from Italy

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Marries 6 times; is trying to produce male heirs
-Mary I = Daughter
-Elizabeth I = Daughter
-Edward IV = Son; takes over
Breaks away from Church in 1536
Act of Supremacy
English Reformation

The Prince-Machiavelli


Machiavelli's views on the characteristics of a good ruler; essentially a dictator
Writer during Renaissance


1517 - 1648

Religious movement; Rise and spread of Protestantism; Major revolt against the Catholic church; Began in Northern Europe (Germany)

Luther: 95 Theses

October 31, 1517
  1. Angered by selling of indulgences; John Tetzel
  2. Posts 95 Theses (grievances) to start discussion/explore changes that could be made within the Church


1520 - 1590

Later Renaissance art (during "High Renaissance")
Artists had more freedom of expression; got away from realism; painted as they wished
Bright colors
Painted in affected or "mannered" way
Ex.:Last Judgment, Madonna of the Long Neck

English Reformation

1520 - 1553

Spread of Protestant ideas to England
Protestant movement against Catholic church within Eng.
Discussed Luther's ideas
Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon/obsession with having a son; continued to remarry; had to annul old marriages decided to make him head of the church
Reformation Parl. put restrictions on clergy; published grievances against church
Henry attacked Protestantism with Six Articles
Edward IV (Henry's son) takes over; repeals Six Articles; establishes Book of Common Prayer; entrenches Protestantism

Luther: Diet of Worms

April 1521
  1. Brought before diet
  2. Denies pope's infallibility
  3. Encourages relying on FAITH ALONE
  4. Ordered to recant and doesn't
  5. Is excommunicated and outlawed--not killed
  6. Hides among local princes

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

-Peasants looked to Lutheranism as a way out of serfdom; revolted
-Luther condemned revolts as "Unchristian"
-Upwards of 100000 peasants died

Jesuits/Society of Jesus; Ignatuis of Loyola


Force of Counter/Catholic Reformation
Ignatius injured in battle; becomes devout/loyal to Pope
Recruiting tools: Missions/missionaries; Education-founded schools

Wm. of Orange

1533 - 1584

Politique; state above religion
Converts religions twice to bring ppl. together
Unites Netherlands against Sp. (Philip and Cardinal Granvelle)

Act of Supremacy


Makes Henry VIII head of church
No pope
Doesn't actually change anything else

John Calvin-Geneva


Predestination; God knows everything/who's going to heaven and hell
The Elect-ppl. going to heaven
-couldn't be sure who these were; always had to act good
Strict theocracy
Somewhat better for women
-educated; could read Bible to kids

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres


"Moved the sun" Supported helocentric model of the universe
Copernican rev.; doesn't change ppl.'s beliefs right away
Planets travel in circles (wrong)
Different than what was believed prior: Ptolemaic Universe
-Geocentric (Earth=center); suported by Aristotle
-planets=retrograde motion

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Action of Catholic/Counter Reformation
Gives NO doctrinal concessions to Protestantism
Wanted to eliminate corruption by reasserting the sources of faith
-Church fathers/Scholastics
-Papal Bulls
Revived parish life
Resulted in better trained clergy


1546 - 1601

Trying to prove geo-centric model of the universe; looks at the stars and collects data
Wealthiest man in Denmark
His assistant Kepler steals all his data; uses to prove heliocentric model


1550 - 1750

Associated with Catholic/Counter Reformation
Art: formal/fancy; nobles; regal
Architecture: Lots of gold, ornate/fancy/showy, busy and over the top
Appeared mostly in Catholic nations (Fr.)

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Daughter of Henry VIII
Takes over after her brother Edward IV dies
Catholic; Protestant Eng. becomes Catholic; is not well liked
-Supposedly killed lots of Protestants
-Long history of anti-Catholicism in Eng.
-Is succeeded by Elizabeth I

Peace of Augsburg


Solidifies division of religions
Cuius regio, eius religio; Ruler picks the religion*
Splits Christendom into Catholicism and Lutheranism (doesn't recognize Calvinism)
Emperor doesn't care about religion as long as ppl. pay taxes
-Ppl. rebel; emperor sends advisors; Defenistration of Prague in 1618; start of 30 Yrs. War

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Politique; state over religion
-Avoids extremists (Catholics and Congregationalists/Puritans)
-Steers middle road; Protestant dogma; Catholic ceremony; Becomes Anglican religion
Eng. thrives under her; rises in power
Executes Mary Queen of Scots in 1587; causes Philip to send Armada
Defeats Philip
Second Act of Supremacy; repeals all anti-Protestant legislation; asserts Elizabeth as head of church and state
Implements 39 Articles; moderate Protestantism=official religion

Bacon: Novum Organum

1561 - 1626

Unofficial father of scientific method (collecting data/observations)
Empiricism; evidence that is measurable
Wanted to find truth and use knowledge gained through science to improve humanity
Bacon's Idols; idols=distort understanding/gaining of truth (Tribe, Cave, Marketplace, Theatre); must question these to find truth

Revolt in Netherlands

1562 - 1648

-Philip II devotes all of Spain's strength to eliminate Protestants
-Dutch didn't like Philip and have money and tolerance; are a free people
-Cardinal Granvelle is head of council of state
-Philip tries to tell them what to do; they rebel (attack churches, etc.)
-Philip oppresses Netherlands
-Wm. of Orange unites Netherlands
-Drive out Spanish; Union of Utrecht

French Wars of Religion

April 1562 - April 1598

Nine separate wars
About feudal struggle (nobles trying to gain power from king)
-France=Very diverse; Lots of principalities struggling for power
Catholics v. Huguenots (Guise v. Bourbons)
-Huguenots supported by nobility to oppose Catholic king

Thirty Nine Articles


Revision of original 42 Articles
Made moderate Protestantism the official religion in Eng.


1564 - 1616

Codified Eng. Lang. (Wrote it down)

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

-Guise/Catholics slaughter Huguenots
-Escalates French Wars of Religion to include all of France

Henry IV

1574 - 1589

Politique; state above religion
Bourbon/Huguenot; converts to Catholicism for good of state
-Paris is worth a Mass
Edict of Nantes
-forces religious toleration (Beg. of absolutism)
-ends religious wars
-state gains strength/stability
Huguenots can live freely

Consumer Revolution


Made goods that used to be luxury items only available to upper classes available to lower classes as well; ppl. of diff. social statuses can buy same goods
Ppl. who aren't wealthy can indulge
Transition of how ppl. spent money/what they bought
Mass consumption by numerous ppl.

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

Spanish Fury; November 4th; Sp. mercenaries w/out leader kill ppl. in Netherlands
United provinces in south and north to oppose/defeat Sp.
Declared internal religious sovereignty in matters of religion
Similar to Peace of Augsburg
Removed Sp. troops; gave country to Wm. of Orange; temporarily ended Philip's attempts to use Netherlands against Eng.

Union of Utrecht


Unites future Dutch (northern Netherlands)

Mary Stuart's Execution


Ordered by Elizabeth I
Didn't want to, but Mary threatened her position as king, and was Catholic
Causes Philip to send Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada Invades England


-Philip II sends the Spanish Armada into England to stop English aid to the Dutch and kill Protestants (Elizabeth)
-Devotes all efforts to this
-Takes a long time; England is prepared
-Loses badly; new naval warfare with cannons only (no grappling)

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Under Henry IV (of Navarre); politique
Forces religious toleration; Beginning of royal absolutism
Ends Fr. religious wars; Huguenots and Catholics mus live peacefully among each other
State gains power

James I

1603 - 1625

King v. Parl.
Succeeded Elizabeth
Drove out Puritans with his Bible
Extra Parl. taxes

Stuart kings

1603 - 1649

Wanted to rule absolutely
Raise money without Parl. consent
Not English
Rich/noble landowners try to reassert authority ( don't want to lose power)

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Wrote Don Quixote; first book

Kepler: The New Astronomy


Supports heliocentric model
Is the assistant of Tycho Brahe; Brahe collects astronomical data to prove geocentric model; dies
Kepler steals data; uses to prove heliocentric
Discovers that planets travel in ellipses

Louis XIII/Cardinal Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Cardinal Richelieu=Chief minister
Continued Henry IV's policies
Intendants; royal bureaucrats that collect taxes directly; limits nobles' power in parlements
Began limiting Huguenots/free cities
Propaganda: raison d'etat; reason of state*
Angered nobles; Richelieu didn't care; ignored them

Henry IV Assassination


Assassinated by a monk
New king=Louis XIII

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Begins as localized struggle in Prague but morphs into continental war over political power that takes place in Germany
Habsburgs v. France (Both Catholic)
Catholics v. Lutherans
Gustafus Adolfus
-Takes up Lutheran cause to stop Catholicism's spread
-Catholic France funds Sweden (fighting Spain)
About politics
After this, wars are about balance of power
Ends with Treaty of Westphalia; German states devastated; remain fragmented/weak; pro armies hired; Calvinists gain toleration; Austria/Prussia gain power; nation-state emerging

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Scientific Revolution (v. Religion)
Jansenist; Crypto-Calvinist
Study empirical data; in order to understand religion, must choose to believe (data only gets you so far)
-Make a leap of faith*
Believe Just In Case
-Can ignorance be learned?

Charles I

1625 - 1649

-Extra Parl. taxes (fund wars)
-Threat to people with money and power (Parl.)
-Parl. power = to raise money
Petition of Right; Parl. tries to restrict king's power
-No taxes without Parl.'s consent
-No imprisonment without due cause
Charles agrees; dissolves Parl. in 1629; doesn't call again until 1640 (needs money for war with Scotland)
-made peace with France/marries Catholic queen
-people feared becoming Catholic
-tries to impose strict Anglicanism in Scotland

Galileo Condemned


Modern Science v. Religion
Galileo said Bible was written in metaphors; shouldn't necessarily be interpreted literally like Church had been doing; is open to ind. interpretation
Interpreted the Bible w/ basis of Copernicus' ideas
Church condemned Copernican ideas (disagreement w/ literal interp.)
Galileo's support of Copernicus breaks law
Galileo is condemned

Descartes: Discourse on Method


Wants to get to truth
Deductive Reasoning/Syllogisms
Sat around and thought
Doubt everything; can't doubt that you're doubting
-I think, therefore I am.
Cartesian Dualism; separates everything into two worlds
-Mind; ideas; metaphysical (can't be measured)
-Body;physical;can be measured
-never interfere w/ each other

Frederick Willhelm (Pr.)

1640 - 1688

Ruler of Prussia: Great Elector
Everything centered around military (like Spartans)
Not much "stuff"; disproportionately large
Strong army; service to state increased nobility; officers=highest class
Hohenzollern=ruling family; Junkers=landowners
Soldier king; King in Prussia

Long Parl.

1640 - 1660

Beg. of Eng. Civil War
Parl. acting against king; had widespread support from nobles/landowners/mercants and Puritans
Executed agents of king; abolished royal courts; prohibited levying taxes; going to meet every three yrs.; king can't dissolve w/out consent
Divided by religion
Charles invades; raises army; Parl. raises army; war ensues

Short Parl.

April 1640 - May 1640

Charles provkoes war w/ Scotland
Tried to impose religious conformity
Scots rebelled; Charles called Parl. to ask for help after ignoring them for yrs.
Parl. refused to help until king gave into their demands
Charles dissolved Parl.

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

English v. English
King (Absolutism) or Parliament (Constitutionalism)?
Religion: Puritans or Anglicans?
-King; Cavaliers, Anglican church
-Parl.: Roundheads, Puritan church
Parl. wins; allied with Scotland, Oliver Cromwell

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Cardinal Mazarin=Chief minister; attempts to impose direct admin. on Fr.; centralizing policies; provoked rebellions
The Fronde; Civil War; Rebellion of Nobles (attempt to regain power)
Personal Reign:
The Sun KIng; everything revolved around him
Divine Right Monarchy; Bishop Bousset; King gets power from God
"I am the state"; everything depended on him; Louis' word essentially = law
Gained control of the army
-Nationalized it; no more nobles w/ troops; org. by govt., paid by govt.
Nat'l taxes; ignored parlements
Moved govt. to Versailles; weakened nobles
Revoked Edict of Nantes
Geared for war; Territorial expansion, For the glory of Fr. and Louis, Radically shifted BOP, Fr. = THE world power, At war during his entire reign (last=Sp. Sucession)
Mercantilism; Jean Baptiste-Colbert; Govt. monopoly on trade; Export more than import; Limited resources*; War=instrument of econ.; Joint stock companies
Versailles; moved away from Paris to avoid nobles' influences/gain control over them; "Trapped" nobles at Versailles (they had to live there to ask favors, etc.); nobles=no power

Treaty of Westphalia


German states devastated (starvation, disease, etc.); remains fragmented and weak
Calvinists gain toleration
Austria and Prussia gain power
Notion of nation-state emerging
Pro armies hired (like modern armies)

Oliver Cromwell

1649 - 1658

Lead Parl. in English Civil War against king
Leads Puritan Republic
Good military leader; bad governor
"Lord Protector"
Had Charles executed
Ignored Parl.; Spent more than Charles; was sort of worse
Conquered Scotland/Ireland; United GB

The Fronde

1650 - 1653

During Louis XIV's reign; he's seven
Civil War in Fr.
Nobles rebelling; attempting to gain power
Left impression on Louis; caused him to gain power over nobles as adult
Provoked by centralizing policies of Richelieu and Mazarin

End of Witch Hunts

1650 - 1700

Ended because of...
-Spread of scientific knowledge from scientific rev. and ppl. w/ power
-Not beneficial to state to have mobs; state gains power and stop mobs
Stability returning to Europe; stopped blaming witches

Commercial Revolution

1650 - 1780

Shift from Agrerian society to colonies, atlantic trade, modern banking
Rev. in buying and selling goods and services
Coincides with early Industrial Revolution

Hobbes: Leviathon


Man in the State of Nature=Self-centered/agressive; driven by search for pleasure/avoidance of pain
Gov't=protects ppl. from themselves by taking away freedom; social contract
Men are in chains; is good; freedom not always in man's best interest

Puritan Republic

1653 - 1660

Not Puritan or Republic; Lead by Cromwell (bad governor)
Ignored Parl.; spent more money than Charles
Conquered Scotland/Ireland; united GB
When Cromwell died = Restoration ("All will be as it was")

Academies of Science


Natural philosophers meet, respond to stuff, discussion; similar to Luther
Universities, NOT institutions
Florence=Academy of Experiments (1657)
London=Royal Society of London (1660)
French Academy of Science (1666)

Royal Society of London


Founded in 1660
One of the Academies of Science/Universities of the Scientific Rev.

Restoration/Charles II

1660 - 1685

-During reign of Charles II (Charles I's son)
-Parl. asserted power; taxed selves, controlled the govt.
-Charles leaned toward Catholicism; never converted; advocated religious toleration; paid by Fr. (Catholic) to not fight
-Test Act (Parl.); all govt. officials must take communion in Anglican church
Political Parties
-Whigs; exclusionists (no James II); suspected Catholics; Nobles (Wanted to weaken king)
-Tories; king's supporters; lesser aristocrats/wealthy merchants; loyal to church and king

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Russia=in turmoil; unstable gov't; unclear succession
Streltsy=royal guards
Peter comes to power
Wants to gain control of nobles
Goes west to study
Comes back; tries to tie nobles to military/trap them at royal palace (St. Petersburg)
Tries to westernize/modernize Russia
-forces them into modern age
Great Northern War; gains land; expands Russia; tries to centralize and gain control of church

James II

1685 - 1688

Converted to Catholicism
-Ignored Test Act
Angered both parties
Advocated toleration of Catholics
Has son=Legitimate heir to throne that is Catholic

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

October 1685

Louis XIV
After Edict, Catholics and Huguenots were still hostile
Louis launched anti-Huguenot campaign to try and unite Fr. religiously
Harassed/bullied Huguenots; revoked Edict to repress them
Discrimination increased
Protestants decided to resist Louis

Newton; Principia Mathematica


Laws of Motion
"Invented" math to prove his theories
No divine source needed to prove things; use empirical data; Empiricism

Glorious Revolution


Parl. offers throne to Wm. of Orange III and Mary (James' daughter)
-Lead resistance against Fr.
Get rid of Catholic problem/strengthen resolve against Fr.

Dutch Golden Age

1688 - 1702

Dutch=Econ. power
-Agricultural revenue; more efficient farming
-Cheap power sources; Peat, sawmill, etc.
-Leading ship builders
-Religiously tolerant(and economically; money more important than status)
-Migration of Jews/Protestants to Dutch ports; driven out of Habsburg lands; mostly bankers/merchants
-Overseas trade
-Banking/Tulips; stock market; ppl. invest; inflation; sell for profit; bubble bursts; lose money

English Bill of Rights


Rights of Parl. (not ind.)
-No laws/taxes/army/arrest w/out Parl.'s consent
-Guarantees Parl.'s rights (landowners)
-Limited monarchy's power
Toleration Act
-Protestant dissenters to practice
-Limited religious toleration
-Outlawed Catholics
-Extended full pol. rights to those outside Church of Eng.

Locke: Treatise on Gov't


Man in State of Nature=good, social creature
Natural rights; Life, liberty, property
Tabula Rasa; man is a blank slate (fuller understanding; ppl. don't HAVE to be bad)
Social Contract; if broken, ppl. should replace the gov't (Pop. sovereignty, gov't's power lies w/ ppl.); gov't is responsible for and to concerns of governed (are supposed to protect
Rejected absolute gov't
Extensive religious toleration
Resembled Thomas Aquinas' view on rebellion when gov't violates laws of nature

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Peter the Great
Invades/fights Sweden; wins; gains land on Baltic Sea; wants land on Black Sea
Expanding Russia; attempting to centralize
Is modernizing/Westernizing
Peace of Nystad; confirmed conquest; Russia has ice free ports

Rococo Art

1700 - 1800

Lavish, lighthearted pastel colors, play of light
Aristocrats in elegant parties in gardens (at play)
Imp. Hall
Increased hostilities to nobles for "princely" lives

Enclosure method


Expanded pastureland to grow more crops; could raise more animals; animals produce more manure to fertilize
Caused growing food supply
Landlords enclosed these areas to achieve greater profits
-Fenced untilled lands
More, cheaper food; contributed to surplus
-Reclamation of previously untilled waste
-Changed strips to blocks

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

Start in low countries (Netherlands)
Series of innovations in farming; make it more efficient
-Fewer ppl. producing more food; food surplus
Animal Husbandry
-Selective breeding
-Enclosure method
New Crops
-Potato; super crop
-Possibilty to make more
-New jobs (different skills)
-Standard living raised
-New problems; Urbanization/Crime, More poverty, Economic slavery, Textiles

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Fr. (and Sp.) v. Grand Alliance (everyone else)
Trying to limit Louis' power; just gained Sp.; don't want him to keep it
Grandson supposed to inherit Sp.
Treaty of Utrecht; Philip V (grandson) remains King of Sp. and Fr.; Eng. becomes Mediterranean power; Louis recognized House of Hanover's right to Eng. throne

Act of Settlement


Eng. crown goes to House of Hanover (Germany) if Queen Anne dies
After Glorious Rev.

Death of Wm. III (Eng.)


Had control over Netherlands; gov't=functioning
Dies; Netherlands declines

Decline of Netherlands


Stock market collapses (Bubble inflates; ppl. sell for profit; bubble bursts) lose money
Absence of strong, centralized authority
-Wm of Orange III dies; no replacement
Lost edge to Eng. in ship building, sea trade

Charles VI (Austria): Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

HRE in decline from 30 Yrs. War
Becomes Austrian Empire (Habsburgs)
Struggle between nobility and monarch; Hungarians (Magyars)
Emperor has no son
Pragmatic Sanction: keeps Habsburgs together/in power so his daughter (Maria Theresa) can rule; later violated by Frederick


1712 - 1778

General Will*****
-ind. sacrifice for whole
-society=more important than ind.
-similar to Utilitarianism (Bentham)
-similar to common good
-has some Romantic elements (Groups)
-voting=counterproductive, as is dictatorship; radical direct democracy**; forcing someone to be free
Social contract
-Men born free, yet in chains; chains are good, freedom isn't always in best interest
Women=separate spheres
Was misinterpreted; bad writer

Treaty of Utrecht

July 1713

Ends War of Sp. Succession
-Philip V. remains king of Sp. and Fr.
-Eng. becomes Mediterranean power
-Louis recognizes Hanover's right to Eng. throne

Death of Louis XIV


Louis dies; Fr. remains great power, but continue to decline; still had admin. structure of Louis XIV, but no institution; idle nobles forced to take over; Mississippi Bubble

Mississippi Bubble

February 1720

Financial crisis/scandal in Fr.
Louis XIV dies; no institution; Fr. declines; nobles thrown back into power
Mississippi Co. builds and bursts
Fr. can't raise money to pay debt; econ. collapses
-bonds turned in; can't give ppl. money
John Law

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

GB has Parl.
First Prime minister=Robert Walpole
Dies; institution lives on; doesn't fall apart like Fr.
Maintained peace abroad; promoted status quo
Strong navy; could collect and pay taxes that they got from nobles; didn't interfere w/ pol. influence of local nobles

Industrial Revolution

1730 - 1810

Women=Work becomes less important; do menial labor; unskilled; paid less; turned to prostitution/servitude
-Putting out system; Domestic system of textile production; work done in home; more demand for clothing
-Spinning Jenny (Flying shuttle, etc.)
-Water Frame
-Steam Engine
New cities emerging/advancing
-Capitals; grow w/ countries/gov'ts as they centralize
-Ports; appear as mercantilism grows
-Industrial; built around raw materials so factories can grow; Manchester
Old cities die out; trade cities (trade overpowered by industrialization); products produced in factories instead
-Upper class; have legal privilege/power
-Middle class; diverse; want money to equal power
-Artisans; largest group; lose money w/ growth of manufacturing; conservative
-Poor; riot often; shortage of food
Ghettos; Jewish ppl. live outside cities; as cities grew, they were in city; became ghettos; lacked rights

War of Jenkin's Ear

1731 - 1739

Precursor to War of Austrian Succession
Sp. gov't had trade monopoly; tried to protect it from Eng.; searched Eng. ships
Fought; Sp. cut off Robert Jenkins' ear (captain)
Preserved ear; showed it to Parl.
Br. merchants were angered by this; wanted to stop Sp. interference in their trade
Went to war;turned into continental War of Austrian Succession

Frederick II (the Great)

1740 - 1786

Enlightened despot; Prussia (military minded; like Sparta)
-Codified laws
-Religious toleration
-Promotion by merit
-"First Servant of the State"

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Pragmatic Sanction broken when Prussia invades Austria (Silesia); see Theresa as weak; want to take advantage; take land
Mercantile War
Also caused by War of Jenkin's Ear
Upset continental BOP
Fr. join Pr.; are at odds w/ Austria (Habsburgs v. Bourbons)
Br. help Austria to make sure Fr. doesn't gain power

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Preserves the Habsburg Empire as maj. pol. power
-Frederick seizes province; shatters Pragmatic Sanction
-granted new privileges to nobility (Magyars)
-cost the central monarchy to preserve the state
Rules during Mid-Eighteenth Century Wars (Mercantile)

Diplomatic Revolution


GB shifts alliances; goes w/ Pr.; think Austria is weak
-want to maintain BOP
-can gain from new alliance
Fr. allies w/ Austria (even though they're enemies)
Diplomacy surfaces; importance of noble birth fades
Shift to decisions influenced by diplomacy
Pitt; Prime minister; wins war against Fr. in America and on Continent

Seven Yrs. War

1756 - 1763

Frederick II invades; wants to gain land w/ army; starts war
-fighting Fr. Austria, Russia
-GB is paying them/giving them supplies so they can afford this
Wm. Pitt=Prime minister
-Won N. America on fields of Germany
-Fr. loses all of N. Amer. to Eng.
-Eng. send money to Prussia to distract Fr. on Continent
Treaty of Paris; ends war

Voltaire: Candide


Enlightenment writer in Fr.
Extremely critical of org. religion; thinks it's fanatical, corrupt, etc.
"Those you can make you believe obsurdities can make you commit atrocities."
Wrote Candide as satire on the time period (religion, optimism, etc.)
Very pessimistic



Antiquity; criticized Rococo
Popularized by nobles going to Rome and buying paintings
Not emotional/playful
Subjects: public life/morals/heroism/self sacrifice/philosophes
Pantheon=example; remains of Fr. heroes buried there (Voltaire, Rousseau, etc.)
Similar to Renaissance art

Catherine the Great (Russia)

1762 - 1796

Enlightened despot
-Attempted to suppress internal trade barriers (took step towards capitalism)
-Maintained ties w/ philosophes
Strengthened nobility
Got land from Ottoman Empire on Black Sea
Pugachev's Rebellion; peasants suffer from famine; rebel in bread riots led by Pugachev
Not enlightened; needed nobles' help; favors them; serfdom increases
-Understood limits of reality on Enlightenment ideas; reforms were good on paper; if practiced, cause problems

Treaty of Paris


Ends Seven Yrs. War
Fr. loses Canada, Ohio R. Valley, Everything east of Mississippi R.
Fr.=no longer a N. Amer. power
Plants seeds of reform for Fr. gov't
GB emerges as superpower*; supreme on seas
Earns Frederick the Great his name
Fr.=declining; GB=rising

American Revolution

1765 - 1783

Br. colonies fight for their independence from Br.
During Fr. and Indian war, they gain Amer. identity; see themselves as diff. from Br.
Colonies untaxed until Br. sends troops to protect them from Fr. wanted to raise taxes/have Amer. help pay for their protection; Amer. refuses; war ensues
Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Boston Massacre, etc.

Spinning Jenny


Increased productivity of weavers; allowed 16-120 spindles to be used

Joseph II of Austria

1765 - 1790

Enlightened despot
-abolished serfdom
-equity in taxation
-equal punishment for equal crime
-free press
-"complete" religious toleration
Son of Maria Theresa; continues many of her policies
Centralizes; takes away some of noble' power
Secret police/censorship @ end
Didn't have enlightened system; reforms died too

Water Frame


Took cotton production out of home and into factory
Cotton output increased by 800%

Steam Engine


Unlimited power
James Watt
Fed on itself
Used in mining coaliton

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations


Capitalism; econ. liberty is the foundation of natural econ. system
Against mercantilism
Econ. growth caused by pursuing selfish interests; enrich selves and meet others' needs; econ. expands; competition causes innovation; ind. prospers, nation prospers (Cult of the Ind.)
Endless resources**; ppl. don't have to be poor (in theory)
Laissez-faire; limited
gov't role in econ. (does have a role; not involved in private ventures)
-4 stage theory; later stages=more progressive; Europe in stage 4; felt better than other continents; could take over others
Capitalism replaces mercantilism

Estates General Meets


Part of Phase I of Fr. Rev.
2nd estate wants to limit monarchy
3rd wants to avoid control of nobles; didn't want to continue to have no power
Conflicts: king v. nobles, nobles v. bourgeois; who has power?
Voting; By head or order (ind. or estate)
-1st and 2nd vote together; outnumber 3rd if by order (twice as many members)
-3rd wants to vote by head
Doubled the Third; king increased members of 3rd to be twice as much; made it even if by head (if by order, didn't matter)

French Revolution

1789 - 1804

Financial crisis; Fr. in debt; can't get out; owe ppl. moneey
3 Phases:
-3=Reaction (to 2)
Change gov't lots of times
Implements Enlightenment
Napolean takes power

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Nat'l Assembly locked out of meeting place by king; move to nearby tennis court
Take an oath not to leave until Constitution is written
Have zero authority to do this; do it anyway; TRULY revolutionary
King is weak; doesn't stop them; continually backed down to ppl.; never followed through; when he tried it was too late

Great Fear

July 1789 - August 1789

Royal troops gathered in/around Paris and Versailles
Peasants feared they would invade rural areas
Burned records of feudal dues; reclaimed lands/rights lost to aristocracy; attempting to destroy Old Regime
Eliminate all vestiges of feudalism
Culminates on August 4; nobles renounce feudal rights

Storming of the Bastile

July 14, 1789

Fr. Independence Day
Royal troops gathering around Versailles/Paris; ppl. get suspicious
-Thought king was trying to stop rev.
Bastile=medieval fortress/symbol of king's oppression
Parisians marched on it to find weapons for militia to defend selves from king/free pol. prisoners
Guards fire into crowd; kill 98; further anger crowd
Stormed fortress; killed guards, stle weapons, released prisoners
Actions by the Masses***
-saved Assembly
-preserved and radicalized rev.
Redirects rev.; showed Nat'l Assembly would decide nation's future gov't; king couldn't counter; made him scared
Others (bourgeois) will ally w/ and use the masses to their advantage later

Nobles renounce feudal privileges

August 4, 1789

During Great Fear
Legally, everyone is already same, but nobles make it official
Wanted to protect themselves; feared the peasants would attack them once they had run out of buildings/papers to burn
Were already lost in practice; Official declaration of extinction of nobles
All ppl. become equal in eyes of law
Enlightened idea; major step forward on paper

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26, 1789

-Men born free/equal; endowed w/ equal rights
-Purpose of govt=to protect these
-Major ideas of the philosophes
-Ppl. make law and are equal under it
-Freedom from: arrest, and of: assembly, speech, religion, press guaranteed
-"Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality"

March of the Fishwives

October 5, 1789 - October 6, 1789

Louis XVI hadn't ratified Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen
-ppl. feared he wouldn't
W/ severe food shortage (hunger=anger), PArisian women marched on Versailles where Louis lived in extravagance
Inspired by revolutionaries; encouraged by intellectuals (always push mob)
Pressure from mob/ fear for his family's well being=Louis sanctions declaration
Crowd demands he return to Paris; royal family essentialy=prisoners of rev.
-further radicalizes rev
Popular insurrection employing popular sovereignty against monarch

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July 12, 1790

Issued by National Assembly
Transformed church into a branch of the state after confiscation of church lands
Pope and clergy not consulted by assembly
King approved w/ reluctance
Embittered relations w/ church and w/ liberal Catholics who supported rev.
Ruled that clergy must take oath to support it; only 1/3 did
Those who took the oath=constitutional; those who didn't=refractory; split the clergy
Turned Catholic church against rev.
Ppl. who were devout couldn't support rev.; divided population

Legislative Assembly Meets

October 1, 1791

Constitution of 1791 establishes constitutional monarchy and unicameral Legislative Assembly; makes all laws
Face resistance to Civil Constitution of the Clergy, king's flight, Declaration of Pillnitz; Counterrevolutionary actions

Reign of Terror

1792 - 1794

During Repub. of Virtue
Justified by General Will; ind. not as important as Republic
Kill 25000
Most radical phase of the rev.
-new calendar
-rename stuff
Try to control what ppl. think by taking ideas away
Try to Dechristianize Fr.; close churches, etc.; Cult of Reason; Cult of Supreme Being; anger many, including loyal revolutionaries

War w/ Austria

1792 - 1793

Rest of Europe roused to hostility toward Fr. by execution of Louis (have kings;are afraid rev. will spread; censorship increases)
Form 1st Coalition against Fr.
Radicalized rev.; did anything to protect rev.
Turned into Reign of Terror
Fr. wins
-Levee en Masse
-Espree de Core
-Suspend Dec. of Rts. of Man to preserve rev./win war

Wollstonecraft: Vind. of Rts. of Women


Protofeminist during Enlightenment
If women were treated the same, they would be as good as men
Angrily rants at Rousseau over separation of spheres idea
Women=inferior was perpetuated; couldn't be overcome
Philosophes saw it as justifying women's designs; they didn't see it as misogyny
Wollstonecraft writes Dec. of Rts. of Women; same as Dec. for men but includes women
Advocated women's rights

Tuileries Stormed; King Captive

August 10, 1792

Paris Commune in power; protected gains of rev.
Crowd invaded Tuileries where royal family had fled to; forced Louis and Marie Antoinette to take refuge w/ Legislative Assembly
Crowd fights royal guards; Parisian citizens die
Royal family imprisoned comfortably; king's pol. functions taken away; not allowed to perform them
Constitutional monarchy had no monarch

Convention meets: Monarchy Abolished

September 21, 1792

Convention; body elected to write new Constitution
Won a battle day before
Declared Fr. a republic; ended monarchy

Execution of Louis XVI

Jan. 21 1793

Committee of Pub. Safety tried king as Citizen Capet for conspiracy against the ppl.; wanted to get rid of him/make Republic official
Ruled guilty
Louis was executed
Declared war w/ other countries

Levee en Masse

August 23, 1793

Draft of everyone
Done to win war w/ Austria/ preserve rev.
All males put into army draft
Citizen army; everyone involved

Cult of Reason

November 10, 1793

Tried to dechristianize Fr.
Worship reason
Changed calendar, renamed streets, closed/destroyed churches
Angers many, including loyal revolutionaries who are Catholic; much of support for rev. disappears
rev. turns on itself

Execution of Danton

April 6, 1794

Rev. turned on other revolutionaries who were too extreme/not extreme enough
Robespierre had Danton executed
Danton had served on the Committee of Pub. Safety
Accused of being insufficiently militant , profiting from rev., etc.
Robespierre executed leadership of groups that threatened his position
Passes Law of 22 Prairial; suspicious ppl. can be convicted by revolutionary tribunal w/out evidence against them

Cult of the Supreme Being

May 1794 - July 27, 1794

Robespierre changed worship of Reason to Cult of the Supreme Being
Robespierre made ill-tempered speech about conspiracy against him w/in the gov't; Nobody felt safe; led to his execution

Fall of Robespierre

July 26, 1794

Makes speech about conspiracy existing in govt against him; scares many who feel unsafe because he is vague and could be talking about him
Is executed to save ppl. who felt threatened

Constitution of Yr. III: Establishes the Directory

August 22, 1795

Part of Thermorian Reaction
New gov't emerges out of chaos
First actual official Repub. of Fr.
Bicameral Legislature
Rejected democracy and constitutional monarchy

The Directory

August 22, 1795 - November 9, 1799

Established by Constitution of Yr. III
Emerges out of chaos; first actual official Republic of Fr.
Bicameral legislature
5 man executive body
Solely bourgeois are in charge
Sans-culottes=further oppressed
Nobles lost some; still have some power
Women=lost more

Malthus: Principle of Population


Nothing can improve condition of working class
Population will eventually outstrip food supply (Population grows geometrically; food supply grows arithmetically)
Could only MAYBE be diverted w/ late marriage, chastity, or contraception
-Contraception=wrong; not socially accepted at time
Working class=things could only get worse
-raised wages=more children=consume the wages and more food
If working class adopted higher standard of living, increased wages can be spent on consumer goods, not children

Napolean: Coup Brumaire

November 9, 1799

Coup de Brumaire=overthrows Directory
Takes over Coup of Brumaire
All of rev.'s goals have been achieved; preserves goals
Implements male suffrage
Confidence from below; power from above
Considered greatest enlightened despot; grew up w/ Enlightenment ideas; implemented them in gov't
Concordat of 1801; makes peace w/ church; doesn't actually change anything in reality; is an illusion
Code Napolean; Writes standardized laws based on Enlightenment; entrenches them in lands he conquers; spreads them; abolished Old Regime in other countries
Essentially a dictator; is okay because he brings stability; crowns himself emperor, creating legitimate line of inheritance to throne
Downfall=had too much land

Gothic Art


Gothic Art; idealized rural life; Attracted to medieval times; Drawn to nature/away from civilization/rationalism
Subjects=sublime (from nature)

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


Transforms Malthus' ideas
Wages raised=parents have more kids; Kids enter labor force;expand number of workers/lower wages; less wages=working ppl. have less kids; repeats
Supported employers' natural reluctance to raise wages;provides support for opposition to labor unions