Early humans who were prevelant during the Paleolithic period. Were the first humans to bury their dead, they made clothing from animal skins, and they lived in cities and tents.
An early form of modern humans who inhabited Europe in the late Paleolithic period, who were characterized by a broad face and tall stature
People who raised livestock for food and other supplies required for living
A major neolithic settlement in Anatolia that was known for the rapid development of specialized labor. Had about ten thousand inhabitants.
A time period where there was a rapid growth and spread of agricultural techniques and ideas
Created by Mesopotamian metalworkers when they discovered that combining copper and tin made a much harder and stronger metal. This experimentation led to the invention of bronze
A talented administrator and brilliant warrior who led a huge army and conquered several city-states in Sumer
The best known reflective literature from Mesopotamia. Explored themes of friendship, relations between humans and gods, and the meaning of life and death. They were the principal vehicles for Mesopotamian reflections on moral issues
Hebrew Patriarch that migrated to northern Mesopotamia in about 1850 along with other Hebrews who contributed to Mesopotamian life and society
The most prominent of the later conquerors who ruled the Babylonian empire and dominated Mesopotamia until 1600.
Forged by Hittite society in Anatolia when it was discovered to by exceptionally strong and good for tools and weapons. Spread quickly throughout Mesopotamia
An ambitious minor official from Egypt who rose to power and extended his authority north and into the delta. Built a centralized state and founded the city of Memphis near Cairo
A time period in which the Bantu peoples migrated all throughout Southern Africa and spread their culture. Moved constantly when resources ran out or population became too large
Kingdoms in Egypt that developed a strong, prosperous, and productive society. Had populations of about 4 million people along with a strong army and an elaborate bureaucracy.
Prominent cities that had large walls, a fortified citadel, and a large granary. Established the patterns that shaped the larger society.
The principal instruments used by fortune-tellers in ancient China. The bones were heated and they developed networks of splits and cracks. This is how fortune tellers determined the answer to the question.
The first of many Chinese Empires who established strong governments, societies, and economies.
The earliest of the orally transmitted works from the Aryans. There are four of them, and they are collections of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring the various gods of the Aryans.
The word means "a sitting in front of" and it refers to the practice of disciples gathering before a sage for discussion of religious issues. Most disciples were men
A period during the last centuries of the Zhou dynasty where growing states fought ferociously with one another with hopes of establishing themselves as political leaders
Settling of Austronesian mariners in Polynesia. They arrived at Vanuatu and New Caledonia and later in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island
A society that came up about 1200 B.C.E in central Mexico. Got their name meaning 'Rubber People" from a game they created using a rubber ball. Were the earliest home of ceremonial centers in Mesoamerica
A new religion that appeared in the central Andes in about 1000 B.C.E and spread enormously between 900 to 800 B.C.E No information is present about the significance of the cult or even its proper name.
Migration that occurred where the Bering Strait now exists, when it used to be land that connected present day Canada and Russia
The earliest heirs of the Olmecs who created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador.
A Maya creation myth, taught that the gods had created human beings out of maize and water, the ingredients that became human flesh and blood.
An empire ruled by many great emperors including Cyrus and Darius. Established a huge empire with a massive amount of conquered land and political centralization in Persepolis
Achaemenid who launched Persians imperial venture. Was a tough, wily leader and an outstanding military strategist
The greatest of the Achaemenid emperors. Extended the empire east and west, captured kingdoms all the way into India and held the largest realm of his time
A sage who, according to Chinese tradition, is the founder of Daoism. Definitely contributed to the creation with the help of many others
Religion that was completely against the thoughts and beliefs of the Confucians founded in the 6th century B.C.E. Daoists considered it pointless to waste time and energy on problems that didn't have a simple solution. Became very popular in ancient China
The first Chinese thinker who adressed the problem of political and social order in a straightforward and self-conscious way. Left an enduring mark on Chinese society and developed a complete new way of thinking
Religion / Way of thinking developed by Kong Fuzi or Confucius, which spread all throughout China. Became extremely popular and influential in China.
Group of people with specific political views and laws who thought agriculture and armed forces were foundations of strength. For the few rulers who adopted the Legalist principles, it produced great results and put an end to the Period of Warring States
The most learned man of his age and principle spokesman for the Confucius school. Traveled throughout China and offered advice on political issues to rulers during the Period of Warring States
Was the first emperor of China. Divided China into provinces and districts as well as built roads and walls throughout the empire. Also built the Terra-Cotta army and began construction of the Great Wall
Chinese dynasty founded by Qin Shihuangdi and was marked by the first unification of China and the early most construction of defensive walls. Greatly influenced future dynasties to come to power later in China
Chinese dynasty founded by Liu Bang which was seperated into 2 different eras, the former Han and later Han. Was the longest and most influential dynasties to ever take power throughout all of Chinese history. Helped shape and change China at the time and influenced the people and later Chinese dynasties to come
A particularly serious revolt that raged throughout China and tested the resilience of the Han state during the late second century C.E. Got its name from the distinctive headgear worn by the rebels
The founder of Buddhism who came from a rich family but gave up his position and inheritance in order to seek salvation. When he founded Buddhism, he became Buddha and was enlightened. He understood the problem of suffering and the means by which humans could eliminate it from the world.
Religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, who became Buddha. Buddhism is based off of the Four Noble Truths and Noble Eight Fold Path which tell you how to be successful and how to enjoy life. Nirvana is a Buddhist concept of perfect spiritual independence and is the ultimate result of living the Buddhist lifestyle
Emperor of the Gupta Empire. He laid the foundations for the empire and forged alliances with families in the Ganges Region
A large and significant Empire in Northern India. Was the first state to have a centralized and unified government.
Conqueror / Emperor of the Maurya Empire. He was known better as a governor rather than a conqueror, who did a job in ruling and governing the Maurya Empire.
An empire in the Indian region of Magadha near where the Mauryan Empire was also located. Was a little smaller in size and differed in organization from the Mauryans, but lasted longer. Founded by Chandra Gupta and was later ruled by his successors
A Greek philosopher that questioned morality and ethics in society. He taught students to question literally everything, even if it is true, just to analyze and understand it all
Greek philosopher that was a student of Socrates and adopted his beliefs. He created an academy and wrote a book based on the teachings of Socrates
A Greek philosopher who learned from Plato. He, unlike Socrates and Plato, took a more scientific approach to life.
He was the son of Philip of Macedon. His greatest conquest was that of Persia, although he conquered many other places such as Egypt and Sicily with an extremely large and powerful army.
Founded in 509 B.C.E when Roman nobility replaced the king with an aristocratic republic. They built the Roman Forum at the heart of the city, where leading citizens tended to government business.
Julius favored liberal policies and social reform, and he was the first dictator of Rome, adding land to the empire after establishing it. Augustas ruled by centralizing the government. He organized and brought peace to Rome
Huge empire founded by Julius Caesar, and first ruled by him. Had many large cities and a strong society with Greek influences. Lasted for over 500 years and was an extremely influential empire in Europe.
Means "Roman Peace" that facilitated trade and communication. It brought a huge increase in those things as well as growth
Religion started by Jesus in Europe in the early first century. Jesus had many early followers, who formed Christian communities and from there, Christianity spread all around the world to become one of the biggest religions in the world, still today
Was the savior of the Jews. He performed "miracles" and was a charismatic teacher. He started Christianity and was executed by Roman administrators and fixed upon a cross in the early 30's C.E
He was an Emperor of the Roman empire and he strategically built the capital of Constantinople which he named after himself.
The Roman Empire was split into East and West halves in attempt to make it easier to control
The silk roads included a network of sea lanes that sustained maritime commerce throughout much of the eastern hemisphere. Sea trade routes linked east Asia with India and Africa as well as the middle east
Long distance trade routes across Asia, Africa, and Europe as well as over sea trade routes. They allowed for a much wider spread of culture, goods, and ideas.
Roman Emperor who attempted to solve all of the empire's problems. He divided the empire into 2 administrative districts and brought Roman armies under control
Was built for protection and watch over the empire. Reached metropolitan dimensions and helped with the rule over the whole entire empire. Built by Constantine to be the new Roman capital
They posed a huge military threat to the Roman Empire and eventually brought an end to Roman authority in the Western part of the empire.
Imperial authority came to an end when Germanic general, Odovacer, deposed Augustulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the western half of the empire. The Eastern half continued alive as the Byzantine empire.
She was the first wife of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad
The founder of the Islamic religion. He underwent a spiritual transformation in which he realized that there was only one true deity, Allah
He was one of Muhammad's closest friends and most devoted disciples. He became the first Muslim caliph following Muhammad's death
The founding of Islam occurred when Muhammad underwent transformation and saw that there was one deity and based Islam off of that. It spread quickly through Asia.
"Migration" The hijra is Muhammad's move to Medina. It is the starting point of the official Islamic calendar
Ranked among the most prominent of the Meccan merchant clans. Their reputation and network of alliances helped them bring stability to the Islamic community. Had a capital at Damascus. Focused more on conquering
A battle in North-Central France that included an army of Umayyad forces. The Franks ended up being victorious in the end
A dynasty more focused on administering the land that they already had. Differed greatly from the Umayyad dynasty
A printing style used in Japan where an image would be carved into a block of wood, inked, then pressed onto a sheet of paper
A massive project used to connect northern and southern China. It was the most elaborate project undertaken during the Sui dynasty. It was one of the world's largest waterworks projects before modern times
Dynasty that ruled over all of China, started by Yang Jian when he was appointed Duke of Sui in northern China. Carried out huge construction projects like the Grand Canal
Imperial examinations that the Tang dynasty relied heavily on. They relied on a bureaucracy based on merit, so they gave these examinations to test that.
Dynasty created by rebel leader Chang'an in 618 that lasted for almost 300 years. Organized China into a powerful, productive, and prosperous society
Enabled merchants to deposit goods or cash at one location and draw the equivalent in cash or goods somewhere else in China. Flying Cash was a part of the Tang Dynasty
Enabled cultivators to harvest two crops per year. In southern China, it resulted in an expanded supply of food during the Tang and Song dynasties
A time period in which Chinese influence was the greatest it had ever been in Japan. Nara Japan adopted many Confucian and Buddhist traditions but didn't become a smaller model of China. It kept a few Japanese traditions.
During this period, local rulers mostly recognized the emperor of as Japan's supreme authority. Japanese emperors rarely ruled but rather served as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority during this time period
Neo-Confucianism is Chinese religion / beliefs that rejected Buddhist teachings and influenced east Asian thought over a long term. Neo-Confucian thoughts began during the Tang dynasty
The Song dynasty never really built a very powerful state. They placed emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts. It was founded by Song Taizu who was a military officer and later the first emperor of the Song Dynasty
Was a complex man, also the leader of the Turks in Afghanistan. He was the patron of the arts and a determined and ruthless warrior
An Islamic state established by Mahmud's successors when they conquered most of the Hindu kingdoms in northern India
Byzantium was an economic powerhouse in the Mediterranean region. They had abundant agricultural surpluses, long distance commercial networks, and large urban populations
A very significant Byzantine leader who created Justinian's code. Was married to Theodora, a former stripper and good administrator
A set of Roman Laws put together by Emperor Justinian in order for clear understanding of laws
A magnificent structure built in Constantinople to serve as a church. It was later turned into a mosque and then a museum. Represents one of the greatest examples of Christian architecture
Battle in which Charles Martel turned back a Muslim army and prevented them from seeking any further conquest in western Europe
Temporarily established centralized imperial rule in the Holy Roman Empire. He was recognized as an imperial overlord and was also Charles Martel's grandson
Invaders from the North. They were the most feared of all invaders. They raided in northern France even when Charlemagne was alive
The split of Eastern and Western Christian churches. The patriarch and pope excommunicated each other which created the schism
A battle fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks where the Byzantine Empire came out defeated
Ruler of the mongols. He had a small army, but was a very strong political leader. He had strong policies that strengthened Mongol people. Conquered the better part of Eurasia despite his relatively small army
One of Ghengis Khan's grandsons, perhaps the most talented of Ghengis Khan's descedants. He unleashed ruthless attacks, but also took interest in culture and worked to improve welfare
Hulehu Khan captured the Abbasid capital at Baghdad and established the Mongol Ilkhanate in Persia
A Chinese dynasty in the southern part of China founded by Khubilai in 1279. Ruled almost all of China until it's collapse almost one hundred years later
The empire that captured Constantinople in 1453 and took down the Byzantine Empire.
Was a charismatic leader and courageous warrior. Focused mainly on conquering, as he conquered large portions of Eurasia and led a great military
A huge plague that started in southwestern China and spread as far as Europe, killing about 1/3 of it's population. Seriously disrupted economies and societies in Eurasia
He was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He conquered Constantinople and eventually brought an end to the Byzantine Empire and taking it for the Ottoman Empire
African people who originally lived in Nigeria, but then migrated all over sub-saharan Africa. The Bantus would usually continuously move around when a population grew too large or resources became scarce
A major city in Africa located in modern day Ethiopia that was originally a Christian city but was later converted to Islam
Trade route that stretched across the Saharan Desert in Africa. The camel quickened trade and made it more efficient. Trade in gold and salt was popular on these trade routes
Was built near modern day Zimbabwe. A huge stone city built by several chiefs in Africa
Ruler of Mali at its very highest point. He is known as the richest man to ever live and he even decreased the value of gold at his time because of how much he had
Empire started by Otto when he made himself king of Germany. He became the first emperor. It was a large, central European kingdom that had many political disputes.
Was a Norman who became King of England when he took the position from King Harold II in the Battle of Hastings
The Pope who is recognized or known for starting the first crusades
The reconquest of Spain by Christian forces in Muslim land throughout Europe. It was an explanation for the political, economic, and demographic strength of Christian Europe at the time
An attack on England by Normans led by William II. Norman victory came due to the death of King Harold in the battle
Four Crusades in total.
1st Crusades: A conquest of the Holy Roman Empire in attempt to gain back Holy Lands
2nd Crusades: Attack in attempt to regain Muslim captured lands
3rd Crusades: Attack launched with a goal to re-capture Jerusalem from the Muslims
4th Crusades: An attack where crusaders ravaged the City of Constantinople and re-captured it
The city fell to a siege by the Ottoman Empire that lasted for almost 2 months until the city was conquered
One of the most significant Aztec rulers due to the fact that he brought such great expansion to the Empire
Originally a group of migrants drawn into central Mexico. Established a society and became one of the most well known empires ever in Mexico with major advancements in technology
Built an Empire in the highlands around Lake Titicaca. Empire stretched more than 4000 kilometers. Had a population of about 11.5 million.
The best known long distance traveler of Mongol times, who was among the first Europeans to visit China. He helped increase European participation in the larger economy of the Eastern Hemisphere
A Muslim Moroccan explorer known for his extensive travels. He also indirectly spread Islam on a large scale
A war between kings of both England and France over land that they had both claimed.
A massive disease that developed many symptoms and often killed a large percentage that it infected. Killed about 1/3 of Europes population and sometimes wiped out entire small civilizations
AN anthology that signaled the Ming ruler's interest in supporting native Chinese cultural traditions. Compiled works of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature
The ending of Zheng He's massive fleet of ships that took him almost his whole life to build. These ships were the biggest and most prestigious of there time
Was a Portuguese explorer who sailed around the southern tip of Africa, the first European known to have done so
Was looking for a sea route from Europe to India so he attempted to go West and ended up discovering the Caribbean Islands and the Americas or the "New World"
Was a Portuguese explorer and was the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India
He was an Italian Renaissance artist with a broad range of works, who was a huge influence on the development of Western art