World History Timeline Midterm Review

Chapter 1

Neanderthal

200,000 B.C.E - 30,000 B.C.E

Early humans who were prevelant during the Paleolithic period. Were the first humans to bury their dead, they made clothing from animal skins, and they lived in cities and tents.

Cro-Magnon

38,000 B.C.E - 8,000 B.C.E

An early form of modern humans who inhabited Europe in the late Paleolithic period, who were characterized by a broad face and tall stature

Pastoralists

8500 B.C.E

People who raised livestock for food and other supplies required for living

Catal Huyuk

7250 B.C.E - 6150 B.C.E

A major neolithic settlement in Anatolia that was known for the rapid development of specialized labor. Had about ten thousand inhabitants.

Agricultural Revolution

6000 B.C.E - 100 B.C.E

A time period where there was a rapid growth and spread of agricultural techniques and ideas

Bronze Metallurgy

4000 B.C.E

Created by Mesopotamian metalworkers when they discovered that combining copper and tin made a much harder and stronger metal. This experimentation led to the invention of bronze

Sargon

2370 B.C.E - 2315 B.C.E

A talented administrator and brilliant warrior who led a huge army and conquered several city-states in Sumer

Epic of Gilgamesh

2000 B.C.E

The best known reflective literature from Mesopotamia. Explored themes of friendship, relations between humans and gods, and the meaning of life and death. They were the principal vehicles for Mesopotamian reflections on moral issues

Abraham

1875 B.C.E - 1850 B.C.E

Hebrew Patriarch that migrated to northern Mesopotamia in about 1850 along with other Hebrews who contributed to Mesopotamian life and society

Hammurabi

1792 B.C.E - 1750 B.C.E

The most prominent of the later conquerors who ruled the Babylonian empire and dominated Mesopotamia until 1600.

Iron Metallurgy

1300 B.C.E

Forged by Hittite society in Anatolia when it was discovered to by exceptionally strong and good for tools and weapons. Spread quickly throughout Mesopotamia

Chapter 2

Menes

3100 B.C.E - 3000 B.C.E

An ambitious minor official from Egypt who rose to power and extended his authority north and into the delta. Built a centralized state and founded the city of Memphis near Cairo

Bantu Migrations

3000 B.C.E - 1000 B.C.E

A time period in which the Bantu peoples migrated all throughout Southern Africa and spread their culture. Moved constantly when resources ran out or population became too large

Old, Middle, New Kingdom

2660 B.C.E - 1070 B.C.E

Kingdoms in Egypt that developed a strong, prosperous, and productive society. Had populations of about 4 million people along with a strong army and an elaborate bureaucracy.

Chapter 3

Harappa Mohenjo-Daro

2500 B.C.E

Prominent cities that had large walls, a fortified citadel, and a large granary. Established the patterns that shaped the larger society.

Oracle Bones

2200 B.C.E - 256 B.C.E

The principal instruments used by fortune-tellers in ancient China. The bones were heated and they developed networks of splits and cracks. This is how fortune tellers determined the answer to the question.

Shia (Xia), Shang, & Zhou Dynasties

2200 B.C.E - 256 B.C.E

The first of many Chinese Empires who established strong governments, societies, and economies.

Vedas

1500 B.C.E - 500 B.C.E

The earliest of the orally transmitted works from the Aryans. There are four of them, and they are collections of hymns, songs, prayers, and rituals honoring the various gods of the Aryans.

Upanishads

800 B.C.E - 400 B.C.E

The word means "a sitting in front of" and it refers to the practice of disciples gathering before a sage for discussion of religious issues. Most disciples were men

Era of Warring States

403 B.C.E - 221 B.C.E

A period during the last centuries of the Zhou dynasty where growing states fought ferociously with one another with hopes of establishing themselves as political leaders

Chapter 4

Settlement of Islands throughout Oceania

1500 B.C.E - 700

Settling of Austronesian mariners in Polynesia. They arrived at Vanuatu and New Caledonia and later in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island

Olmecs

1200 B.C.E - 100 B.C.E

A society that came up about 1200 B.C.E in central Mexico. Got their name meaning 'Rubber People" from a game they created using a rubber ball. Were the earliest home of ceremonial centers in Mesoamerica

Chavin

1000 B.C.E - 300 B.C.E

A new religion that appeared in the central Andes in about 1000 B.C.E and spread enormously between 900 to 800 B.C.E No information is present about the significance of the cult or even its proper name.

"Land Bridge" Migration to Americas

1000 B.C.E

Migration that occurred where the Bering Strait now exists, when it used to be land that connected present day Canada and Russia

Mayans

100 B.C.E - 800

The earliest heirs of the Olmecs who created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador.

Popol Vuh

100 B.C.E - 800

A Maya creation myth, taught that the gods had created human beings out of maize and water, the ingredients that became human flesh and blood.

Chapter 7

Achaemenid Empire

558 B.C.E - 330 B.C.E

An empire ruled by many great emperors including Cyrus and Darius. Established a huge empire with a massive amount of conquered land and political centralization in Persepolis

Cyrus

558 B.C.E - 530 B.C.E

Achaemenid who launched Persians imperial venture. Was a tough, wily leader and an outstanding military strategist

Darius

521 B.C.E - 486 B.C.E

The greatest of the Achaemenid emperors. Extended the empire east and west, captured kingdoms all the way into India and held the largest realm of his time

Chapter 8

Laozi

600 B.C.E - 500 B.C.E

A sage who, according to Chinese tradition, is the founder of Daoism. Definitely contributed to the creation with the help of many others

Daoism

600 B.C.E - 550 B.C.E

Religion that was completely against the thoughts and beliefs of the Confucians founded in the 6th century B.C.E. Daoists considered it pointless to waste time and energy on problems that didn't have a simple solution. Became very popular in ancient China

Confucius

551 B.C.E - 479 B.C.E

The first Chinese thinker who adressed the problem of political and social order in a straightforward and self-conscious way. Left an enduring mark on Chinese society and developed a complete new way of thinking

Confucianism

551 B.C.E - 479 B.C.E

Religion / Way of thinking developed by Kong Fuzi or Confucius, which spread all throughout China. Became extremely popular and influential in China.

Legalism

400 B.C.E

Group of people with specific political views and laws who thought agriculture and armed forces were foundations of strength. For the few rulers who adopted the Legalist principles, it produced great results and put an end to the Period of Warring States

Mencius

372 B.C.E - 289 B.C.E

The most learned man of his age and principle spokesman for the Confucius school. Traveled throughout China and offered advice on political issues to rulers during the Period of Warring States

Qi Shihuangdi

221 B.C.E - 210 B.C.E

Was the first emperor of China. Divided China into provinces and districts as well as built roads and walls throughout the empire. Also built the Terra-Cotta army and began construction of the Great Wall

Qin dynasty

221 B.C.E - 207 B.C.E

Chinese dynasty founded by Qin Shihuangdi and was marked by the first unification of China and the early most construction of defensive walls. Greatly influenced future dynasties to come to power later in China

Han dynasty

206 B.C.E - 220

Chinese dynasty founded by Liu Bang which was seperated into 2 different eras, the former Han and later Han. Was the longest and most influential dynasties to ever take power throughout all of Chinese history. Helped shape and change China at the time and influenced the people and later Chinese dynasties to come

Yellow Turban Rebellions

184

A particularly serious revolt that raged throughout China and tested the resilience of the Han state during the late second century C.E. Got its name from the distinctive headgear worn by the rebels

Chapter 9

Siddhartha Gautama

563 B.C.E - 483 B.C.E

The founder of Buddhism who came from a rich family but gave up his position and inheritance in order to seek salvation. When he founded Buddhism, he became Buddha and was enlightened. He understood the problem of suffering and the means by which humans could eliminate it from the world.

Buddhism

534 B.C.E

Religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, who became Buddha. Buddhism is based off of the Four Noble Truths and Noble Eight Fold Path which tell you how to be successful and how to enjoy life. Nirvana is a Buddhist concept of perfect spiritual independence and is the ultimate result of living the Buddhist lifestyle

Chandra Gupta

321 B.C.E - 291 B.C.E

Emperor of the Gupta Empire. He laid the foundations for the empire and forged alliances with families in the Ganges Region

Mauryan Dynasty

320 B.C.E - 232 B.C.E

A large and significant Empire in Northern India. Was the first state to have a centralized and unified government.

Ashoka Maurya

286 B.C.E - 237 B.C.E

Conqueror / Emperor of the Maurya Empire. He was known better as a governor rather than a conqueror, who did a job in ruling and governing the Maurya Empire.

Gupta Dynasty

320 - 500

An empire in the Indian region of Magadha near where the Mauryan Empire was also located. Was a little smaller in size and differed in organization from the Mauryans, but lasted longer. Founded by Chandra Gupta and was later ruled by his successors

Chapter 10

Socrates

469 B.C.E - 399 B.C.E

A Greek philosopher that questioned morality and ethics in society. He taught students to question literally everything, even if it is true, just to analyze and understand it all

Plato

430 B.C.E - 347 B.C.E

Greek philosopher that was a student of Socrates and adopted his beliefs. He created an academy and wrote a book based on the teachings of Socrates

Aristotle

384 B.C.E - 322 B.C.E

A Greek philosopher who learned from Plato. He, unlike Socrates and Plato, took a more scientific approach to life.

Alexander the Great

353 B.C.E - 323 B.C.E

He was the son of Philip of Macedon. His greatest conquest was that of Persia, although he conquered many other places such as Egypt and Sicily with an extremely large and powerful army.

Chapter 11

Roman Republic

509 B.C.E - 46 B.C.E

Founded in 509 B.C.E when Roman nobility replaced the king with an aristocratic republic. They built the Roman Forum at the heart of the city, where leading citizens tended to government business.

Julius and Augustas Caesar

60 B.C.E - 30 B.C.E

Julius favored liberal policies and social reform, and he was the first dictator of Rome, adding land to the empire after establishing it. Augustas ruled by centralizing the government. He organized and brought peace to Rome

Roman Empire

46 B.C.E - 476

Huge empire founded by Julius Caesar, and first ruled by him. Had many large cities and a strong society with Greek influences. Lasted for over 500 years and was an extremely influential empire in Europe.

Pax Romana

27 B.C.E - 180

Means "Roman Peace" that facilitated trade and communication. It brought a huge increase in those things as well as growth

Christianity

4 C.E - 30 C.E

Religion started by Jesus in Europe in the early first century. Jesus had many early followers, who formed Christian communities and from there, Christianity spread all around the world to become one of the biggest religions in the world, still today

Jesus of Nazareth

4 C.E - 30 C.E

Was the savior of the Jews. He performed "miracles" and was a charismatic teacher. He started Christianity and was executed by Roman administrators and fixed upon a cross in the early 30's C.E

Constantine

272 - 337

He was an Emperor of the Roman empire and he strategically built the capital of Constantinople which he named after himself.

"Split" of the Roman Empire

285

The Roman Empire was split into East and West halves in attempt to make it easier to control

Chapter 12

Indian Ocean Trade Routes

200 B.C.E - 300

The silk roads included a network of sea lanes that sustained maritime commerce throughout much of the eastern hemisphere. Sea trade routes linked east Asia with India and Africa as well as the middle east

Silk Trade Routes

200 B.C.E - 300

Long distance trade routes across Asia, Africa, and Europe as well as over sea trade routes. They allowed for a much wider spread of culture, goods, and ideas.

Diocletian

284 - 305

Roman Emperor who attempted to solve all of the empire's problems. He divided the empire into 2 administrative districts and brought Roman armies under control

Roman Capital Moved to Constantinople

330

Was built for protection and watch over the empire. Reached metropolitan dimensions and helped with the rule over the whole entire empire. Built by Constantine to be the new Roman capital

Germanic Invasions

476

They posed a huge military threat to the Roman Empire and eventually brought an end to Roman authority in the Western part of the empire.

Fall of Rome

476

Imperial authority came to an end when Germanic general, Odovacer, deposed Augustulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the western half of the empire. The Eastern half continued alive as the Byzantine empire.

Chapter 13

Khadija

555 - 619

She was the first wife of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad

Muhammad

570 - 632

The founder of the Islamic religion. He underwent a spiritual transformation in which he realized that there was only one true deity, Allah

Abu Bakr

573 - 634

He was one of Muhammad's closest friends and most devoted disciples. He became the first Muslim caliph following Muhammad's death

Founding of Islam

622

The founding of Islam occurred when Muhammad underwent transformation and saw that there was one deity and based Islam off of that. It spread quickly through Asia.

Hijra

622

"Migration" The hijra is Muhammad's move to Medina. It is the starting point of the official Islamic calendar

Umayyad Caliphate

661 - 750

Ranked among the most prominent of the Meccan merchant clans. Their reputation and network of alliances helped them bring stability to the Islamic community. Had a capital at Damascus. Focused more on conquering

Battle of Tours

732

A battle in North-Central France that included an army of Umayyad forces. The Franks ended up being victorious in the end

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

A dynasty more focused on administering the land that they already had. Differed greatly from the Umayyad dynasty

Chapter 14

Block Printing

220

A printing style used in Japan where an image would be carved into a block of wood, inked, then pressed onto a sheet of paper

Grand Canal

581 - 618

A massive project used to connect northern and southern China. It was the most elaborate project undertaken during the Sui dynasty. It was one of the world's largest waterworks projects before modern times

Sui Dynasty

589 - 618

Dynasty that ruled over all of China, started by Yang Jian when he was appointed Duke of Sui in northern China. Carried out huge construction projects like the Grand Canal

Civil Service Examinations

618 - 907

Imperial examinations that the Tang dynasty relied heavily on. They relied on a bureaucracy based on merit, so they gave these examinations to test that.

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

Dynasty created by rebel leader Chang'an in 618 that lasted for almost 300 years. Organized China into a powerful, productive, and prosperous society

Flying Cash

618 - 907

Enabled merchants to deposit goods or cash at one location and draw the equivalent in cash or goods somewhere else in China. Flying Cash was a part of the Tang Dynasty

Fast Ripening Rice

618 - 1279

Enabled cultivators to harvest two crops per year. In southern China, it resulted in an expanded supply of food during the Tang and Song dynasties

Nara Japan

710 - 794

A time period in which Chinese influence was the greatest it had ever been in Japan. Nara Japan adopted many Confucian and Buddhist traditions but didn't become a smaller model of China. It kept a few Japanese traditions.

Heian Japan

794 - 1185

During this period, local rulers mostly recognized the emperor of as Japan's supreme authority. Japanese emperors rarely ruled but rather served as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority during this time period

Neo-Confucianism

800

Neo-Confucianism is Chinese religion / beliefs that rejected Buddhist teachings and influenced east Asian thought over a long term. Neo-Confucian thoughts began during the Tang dynasty

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

The Song dynasty never really built a very powerful state. They placed emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts. It was founded by Song Taizu who was a military officer and later the first emperor of the Song Dynasty

Chapter 15

Mahmud of Ghazni

971 - 1030

Was a complex man, also the leader of the Turks in Afghanistan. He was the patron of the arts and a determined and ruthless warrior

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 - 1526

An Islamic state established by Mahmud's successors when they conquered most of the Hindu kingdoms in northern India

Chapter 16

Byzantine

330 - 1453

Byzantium was an economic powerhouse in the Mediterranean region. They had abundant agricultural surpluses, long distance commercial networks, and large urban populations

Justinian & Theodora

483 - 565

A very significant Byzantine leader who created Justinian's code. Was married to Theodora, a former stripper and good administrator

Justinian's Code

529 - 534

A set of Roman Laws put together by Emperor Justinian in order for clear understanding of laws

Hagia Sophia

537

A magnificent structure built in Constantinople to serve as a church. It was later turned into a mosque and then a museum. Represents one of the greatest examples of Christian architecture

Battle of Tours

732

Battle in which Charles Martel turned back a Muslim army and prevented them from seeking any further conquest in western Europe

Charlemagne

768 - 814

Temporarily established centralized imperial rule in the Holy Roman Empire. He was recognized as an imperial overlord and was also Charles Martel's grandson

Vikings

789 - 1066

Invaders from the North. They were the most feared of all invaders. They raided in northern France even when Charlemagne was alive

The Great Schism

1054

The split of Eastern and Western Christian churches. The patriarch and pope excommunicated each other which created the schism

Chapter 17

Battle of Manzikert

1071

A battle fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks where the Byzantine Empire came out defeated

Temujin (Chingis Khan)

1162 - 1227

Ruler of the mongols. He had a small army, but was a very strong political leader. He had strong policies that strengthened Mongol people. Conquered the better part of Eurasia despite his relatively small army

Khubilai Khan

1215 - 1294

One of Ghengis Khan's grandsons, perhaps the most talented of Ghengis Khan's descedants. He unleashed ruthless attacks, but also took interest in culture and worked to improve welfare

Mongols Sack Baghdad

1258

Hulehu Khan captured the Abbasid capital at Baghdad and established the Mongol Ilkhanate in Persia

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

A Chinese dynasty in the southern part of China founded by Khubilai in 1279. Ruled almost all of China until it's collapse almost one hundred years later

Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1453

The empire that captured Constantinople in 1453 and took down the Byzantine Empire.

Tamerlane

1336 - 1405

Was a charismatic leader and courageous warrior. Focused mainly on conquering, as he conquered large portions of Eurasia and led a great military

Bubonic Plague

1347

A huge plague that started in southwestern China and spread as far as Europe, killing about 1/3 of it's population. Seriously disrupted economies and societies in Eurasia

Mehmed the Conqueror

1432 - 1481

He was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He conquered Constantinople and eventually brought an end to the Byzantine Empire and taking it for the Ottoman Empire

Chapter 18

Bantus

300 - 600

African people who originally lived in Nigeria, but then migrated all over sub-saharan Africa. The Bantus would usually continuously move around when a population grew too large or resources became scarce

Axum

400 - 900

A major city in Africa located in modern day Ethiopia that was originally a Christian city but was later converted to Islam

Trans-Saharan Trade Route

759 - 1400

Trade route that stretched across the Saharan Desert in Africa. The camel quickened trade and made it more efficient. Trade in gold and salt was popular on these trade routes

Great Zimbabwe

1200 - 1500

Was built near modern day Zimbabwe. A huge stone city built by several chiefs in Africa

Mansa Musa

1312 - 1337

Ruler of Mali at its very highest point. He is known as the richest man to ever live and he even decreased the value of gold at his time because of how much he had

Chapter 19

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

Empire started by Otto when he made himself king of Germany. He became the first emperor. It was a large, central European kingdom that had many political disputes.

William the Conqueror

1027 - 1087

Was a Norman who became King of England when he took the position from King Harold II in the Battle of Hastings

Pope Urban II

1035 - 1099

The Pope who is recognized or known for starting the first crusades

Reconquista

1060 - 1492

The reconquest of Spain by Christian forces in Muslim land throughout Europe. It was an explanation for the political, economic, and demographic strength of Christian Europe at the time

Norman Conquest of England

1066

An attack on England by Normans led by William II. Norman victory came due to the death of King Harold in the battle

Crusades

1095 - 1204

Four Crusades in total.
1st Crusades: A conquest of the Holy Roman Empire in attempt to gain back Holy Lands
2nd Crusades: Attack in attempt to regain Muslim captured lands

3rd Crusades: Attack launched with a goal to re-capture Jerusalem from the Muslims
4th Crusades: An attack where crusaders ravaged the City of Constantinople and re-captured it

Fall of Constantinople

1453

The city fell to a siege by the Ottoman Empire that lasted for almost 2 months until the city was conquered

Chapter 20

Montezuma

1398 - 1469

One of the most significant Aztec rulers due to the fact that he brought such great expansion to the Empire

Aztec Empire

1427 - 1519

Originally a group of migrants drawn into central Mexico. Established a society and became one of the most well known empires ever in Mexico with major advancements in technology

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

Built an Empire in the highlands around Lake Titicaca. Empire stretched more than 4000 kilometers. Had a population of about 11.5 million.

Chapter 21

Marco Polo

1253 - 1314

The best known long distance traveler of Mongol times, who was among the first Europeans to visit China. He helped increase European participation in the larger economy of the Eastern Hemisphere

Ibn Battuta

1304 - 1377

A Muslim Moroccan explorer known for his extensive travels. He also indirectly spread Islam on a large scale

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

A war between kings of both England and France over land that they had both claimed.

Black Plague(s)

1347

A massive disease that developed many symptoms and often killed a large percentage that it infected. Killed about 1/3 of Europes population and sometimes wiped out entire small civilizations

Yongle Encyclopedia

1403 - 1408

AN anthology that signaled the Ming ruler's interest in supporting native Chinese cultural traditions. Compiled works of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature

End of Zheng He's Voyages

1433

The ending of Zheng He's massive fleet of ships that took him almost his whole life to build. These ships were the biggest and most prestigious of there time

Bartelomeo Dias

1451 - 1500

Was a Portuguese explorer who sailed around the southern tip of Africa, the first European known to have done so

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

Was looking for a sea route from Europe to India so he attempted to go West and ended up discovering the Caribbean Islands and the Americas or the "New World"

Vasco De Gama

1469 - 1524

Was a Portuguese explorer and was the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

He was an Italian Renaissance artist with a broad range of works, who was a huge influence on the development of Western art