AP European History Timeline

General/Political History

The Hundred Years War

May 1337

The Hundred Years War devastated France but helped awaken French nationalism and pushed the transition from its feudal structure to a centralized state.
It fell most heavily on peasantry and encouraged England to build their own clothing industry and foreign markets.

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

The disease that spread from fleas on rats starting in Constantinpole.

The Golden Bull


The assembly that elected the Holy Roman Empire



A peasant revolt in response to taxes on the peasants.

Lollards- John Wycliff


Lollards- Followers of John Wycliff who preached in vernacular,distributed translations of the Bible, were popular within the nobility, and gained from a weakened Church.
John Wycliff- He was against secularism of the papacy and advocated apostolic piety.

Stuarts, Cromwell, Puritan Rep.


Stuarts-A Scottish family that wanted to gain power
Cromwell- He led the reorganization of Parliamentary army.
Puritan Rep.-A republic dominated by Cromwell

Agricultural Revolution


The advancement in farm production in Western Europe by landlords.

Early Exploration- Portugal & Spain


Prince Henry gives Columbus a path to sail and he ends up in North America and finds San Salvador.

Council of Constance


The council that asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope.



A Northern humanist who united classical ideas of civic virtue and humanity with Christianity.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)


Both of the rulers united their kingdoms and strengthened Spain. Together, they tried to bring the nation under one faithful religion and they reduced debt by a lot as well as reorganized the government's system.

Commercial Revolution


The period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.

Columbian Exchange


The flow of ships that carried Europeans and Africans to the New World, that also transported animals plants, and germs.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire


Christopher Columbus sailed to San Salvador and after discovering more land, he started the Spanish Empire.

Italy’s decline

1494 - 1527

The Black Death eliminates much of Italy's population and causes many problems.

Consumer Revolution


Increase in resources makes more goods available for consumption.

Henry VIII


Henry VIII was the king of England during the Reformation. He accomplishments consisted of religion, military and politics.

Mary I (England)


Mary I (England) married Philip II (Spain) and helped England revert back to Catholic ways.



The Reformation held criticism of Church and helped to spread Protestantism.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Inspired by Martin Luther's teachings, the peasants revolted against their landlords only to result in defeat of the peasants.

Elizabeth I


Elizabeth I returned England back to the Protestant ways and made the Anglican Church inflexible.

William of Orange (The Silent)


William of Orange placed the political autonomy and well-being of Netherlands above religious creeds.

Jesuits- Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola


Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation and founded the Society of Jesus.

Witch Hunts


The period of fear and suspicion of people, mainly women, practicing harmful magic and diabolical witchcraft.

Henry IV (France)


Henry IV led the Huguenots during the Religious wars and created the Edict of Nantes, that proclaimed a formal religious settlement.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

A war mainly consisted of the conflict between Huguenots and Protestants.

Thirty Nine Articles


The revision of Thomas Cranmers’s original forty-two and modern Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.

James I


James I caused many religious dissenters to leave England and James’ court became center for scandal and corruption, and increased religious suspicion against Catholics

Dutch Revolt (Against Spain)


Philip of Spain attempted to impose his reign in the Netherlands.

Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age


The Netherlands are rose to the top economicaly with their growth of tulip, Dutch india trading company, and their banking system.

Pacification of Ghent


When Belgium became 7 large Protestant provinces against Spain.

Union of Utrecht


The Union of Utrecht united the Netherlands as a independent nation.

Mary Stuart executed


Mary Stuart was executed by Elizabeth for suspicion of plotting against her.

Spanish Armada


The Spanish Armada made Phillip II the highest person in the second half of the 16th century.

Charles I (Eng)


Charles I had problems with the parliament because he was levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and was later executed.

Louis XIII


Louis XIII was the king of France and Richelieu was the prime minister. Appointing Richelieu as the chief prime ministers was known to be one of Louis's greatest accomplishments.

Academies of Science


A series of academies that discussed new science and carried out experiments.

Henry VI Assassinated


The death of Henry VI that was caused by a Catholic fanatic.

Revolt in the Spanish, Netherlands


The successful revolt of the Protestant Seventeen Provinces against the policies of the Roman Catholic Church.

James II (Eng)


James II of England converted to Catholicism and was later replaced by William of Orange and Mary.

The Fronde


Parisian mobs smashed the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin.

Frederick Wilhelm/ Prussian Militarism


Frederick Wilhelm was the king of Prussia and had a strong standing military.

Long Parliament/Short Parl.


In short parliamentary, Charles disbanded it immediately and
the long parliamentary was after long call to figure out taxation and funds

Louis XIV- Reign


Louis was the absolute ruler of France and said L'état, c'est moi. (I am the state)

Royal Society of London (founded)


Allowed men and sometimes women to discuss the thoughts of the Scientific Revolution.

Charles II (Eng)


Charles II restored the monarchy after Cromwell.

Louis XIV- Mazarin


Cardinal Mazarin succeeded Cardinal Richelieu and he was Italian and French.

Peter the Great


Peter the Great modernized Russia and led many successful wars.

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole:


Robert Walpole was the first minister of Britain and influenced Cabinet

Restoration, Glorious Revolution


The Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of James II by William of Orange.

English Bill of Rights


The English Bill of Rights gave rights to the English under the king.

Steam Engine


The steam engine was a form of advancement in the industrial revolution

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

The Northern war was between Russian and Sweden and Sweden blocked Russia from the Baltic Sea.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

The War of Spanish Succession left inheritance to the French king and Spain suffered a decline during this war.

Act of Settlement


The English crown is allowed to go to to the Protestant House of Hanover if Queen Anne died without a heir.

Frederick II (the Great)


An enlightened ruler that spread religious tolerance throughout his country.

Treaty of Utrecht


The treaty that ends the War of Spanish Succession.

Charles VI (Austria) -Pragmatic Sanction


Pragmatic Sanction was when the daughter of Hapsburgs could take over throne to ensure heredity.

Death of Louis XIV


Louis XIV died in the Palace of Versailles.

Mississippi Bubble


A financial scheme in France that triggered a frenzy and ended in financial collapse.

Maria Theresa


The Hapsburg ruler by the Pragmatic Sanction and was considered to be an Enlightened Despot.

End of the Witch Hunts


The Enlightenment contributed to the end of the Witch Hunts and suspicions settled.

War of Jenkins’s Ear

1739 - 1748

Opened opportunity for the French and the English to fight wars with each other until 1815

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

The War of Austrian Succession rose because of question to Maria Teresa's succession to the throne as a female Hapsburg.

Joseph II (Austria)


Joseph II was an Enlightened Despot who was religiously tolerant and abolished serfdom.

Industrial Revolution


The introduction of factories and new technology helped the advancement of common uses throughout the nation as well as helped produce more food/clothes for the people.

Seven Years’ war

1754 - 1763

A religious conflict where Frederick the great invades Saxony.

Diplomatic Revolution


A war between Austria/ Britain and France/Prussia.

Catherine the Great (Rus)


Catherine the Great was an Enlightened Despot who colonized regions of the Black Sea.

Age of Mercantilism

1763 - 1828

Mercantilism was the favorable balance of trade to ensure military security.

Spinning Jenny


A new method of producing more clothes in the 18th century during the Industrial Revolution.

Water Frame


An invention made by Richard Arkwright that enhanced the uses of water as a valuable resource.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

A war where Americans did not want to pay the unfair taxing of the British and it led to other nations demanding independence from their mother countries

Tennis Court Oath


The Tennis Court becomes the new place of meeting for the National Assembly after being locked out of their original meeting place and there, they pledged to not separate until new constitution is established.

Nobles renounce feudal priv.


A time during French revolution where nobles reclaimed their power in government.

Estates General called/Meets


Because of France's conflict with excessive debt, the Estates General is called in 1789 to solve the financial problems. During the meeting, conflicts rise between the different estates and their representation.

Storming of the Bastille


The Bastille was built to instill fear into the people of France but instead People of Paris storm the Bastille and free some prisoners but others are killed

Great Fear

July 17 1789

The Great Fear was when rumors created fear and panic throughout France within the people and they refused to pay feudal dues as well as objected documents.

Constitution of Rights of Man and Citizen

August 26 1789

A constitution that state the equal right of all men.

March of the Fishwives

October 5 1789

The March of the Fishwives consisted of French women who marched to Versaille to demand for lower bread/food prices.

Legislative Assembly Meets


The Legislative Assembly meets under the constitution of 1791 and are the National Constituent Assembly.

War with Austria

April 20 1792

Austria and other European countries promised to intervene in France’s politics if the stability was needed

Tuileries Stormed- King captive

August 10, 1792

Many French citizens stormed Tuileries Palace to capure the king

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Many people were executed after Robespierre stated that everyone is suspect of the King's execution.

Levee en Masse

August 23, 1793

Levee en Masse was the rise of military tactics in France.

Fall of Robespierre

March 30, 1794

Robespierre was beheaded so that the others of the National Assembly could be in power just as he was

Convention meets- Monarch Abolished


The Constitution of Year III

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory established


The directory rids of the monarchy and the Directory is offically announced/established.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

It replaced the monarchy according to the Constitution of Year III

Napoleon- coup Brumaire


Overthrows the Directory for power

Decline of Netherlands


The Netherlands slowly began to become second in place as a major world power


Avignon Papacy/ Babylonian Captivity


The Avignon Papacy was the papacy under strong French influence and had many national oppositions towards it.

Hussites-John Huss


Hussites- The followers of John Huss who gained significant religious reforms, and control over the Bohemian Church.
John Huss- He supported vernacular translations of the Bible.
Council of Constance- Declared Huss a heretic and was executed

The Great Schism


The Great Schism held allegiances to two popes, (Urban VI and Clement VII).

Henry VIII- English Reformation


The English reformation was the reformation in which the Church of England separated from the authority of the Papacy.

Pope Julius II


Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel building and helped the increase of Indulgence Sales.

Luther 95 Theses, Diet of Worms


Martin Luther posted 95 Theses to rid of the selling of Indulgences in the Church.
Diet of Worms- Meeting where Luther was ordered to recant

Diet of Worms


The Diet of Worms excommunicated Luther.

Henry VIII- Act of Supremacy


The Act of Supremacy granted Henry VIII supreme head of the Church of England.

John Calvin-Geneva


Calvin organized cooperation between clergy and state in Geneva and issued the Four Offices in Geneva.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was the council of the Roman Catholic Church that was called by Pope Paul III and it strengthened the authority of local bishops.

Catholic/ Counter Reformation

1545 - 1648

The Counter Reformation included spiritual movements and religious orders opposing the Reformation and supporting the Church.
Jesuits= Society of Jesus

Peace of Augsburg


The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty by Charles V that ended religious struggle between Catholics and Protestants and determined Christianity to be the permanent religion of HRE.

Cuius regio, eius religio- Allowed HRE states to choose between Lutheranism or Catholicism for their controlled states.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre was an event of assassinations against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion

Edict of Nantes


The Edict of Nantes granted Calvinists their rights in France.

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years War involved most of the countries in Europe that was fought between Protestants/Catholics and Bourbon/Hapsburg.

Galileo Condemned


The Catholic Church condemned Galileo Galilei for suspicion of heresy.

Treaty of Westphalia


The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


The Edict of Nantes had revoked the Edict of Nantes and organized destruction of Huguenot Churches and after establishing this, many Protestants left France.

Civil Const of Clergy

July 12 1790

It forced all of the clergy to pledge to the Revolution and church lands are confiscated.

Cult of Reason

November 10 1793

Based on reasoning and replaces the worshipping of God

Cult of the Supreme Being


When Robespierre thought that the worship of reason instead of God was too abstract.

Thinkers, authors/books, ideas… Individuals…



Dante wrote "Divine comedy" and was an example/influence of the Italian renaissance.



Petrarch was the father of Humanism.



Giovanni Boccaccio was a Renaissance humanist who wrote Decameron and wrote in the Italian vernacular.

Printing Press Guttenburg


The printing press helped spread the use of literature and books by producing cheap ways to make paper/pamphlets.

The Prince: Machiavelli


Machiavelli's The Prince highlights the important points of how to be a ruler versus how rulers actually rule their nations.

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres:


Copernicus's book introduced the idea of a helio-centric system instead of a geo-centric system

Tycho Brahe


Tycho Brahe studied and compiled notes while observing stars in his tower that explained our position in the solar system



Shakespear's writings were developed to form distinctive forms of tragedy, comedy, or morality

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Don Quixote was written as a Satire of the Spanish Government

Kepler: The New Astronomy


Kepler proved the heliocentric universe using Brahe's oberservations/notes.

Bacon: Novum Organum


Novum Organum critisized the idea that all knowledge was known and only needed to be explained

Blaise Pascal


Blaise Pascal tried to find a relationship/link between reason and Christianity.

Descartes: Discourse on Method


Descartes advocated rational theory, (I think therefore I am)

Hobbes: Leviathan


Hobbes believed that in the state of nature, man would create chaos and therefore all rights should be given to the Government to handle.

Locke: Treaties on Government


Locke believed that man was a blank slate and established the social contract.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Newton defined the three laws of motion in Principia Mathematica and used mathematics to obtain his discoveries.

Voltaire- Candide


Voltaire writes about religious prosecution as a satire against French nobility.

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:


Emile inspired a new system of government

Smith- Wealth of Nations


Wealth of Nations discusses what is necessary for a nation to succeed in wealth.

Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rts of Women


Vind. of Rights of Women argues that women are discredited by men and disagrees with the different spheres of gender.

Louis XVI executed/Danton Executed


Louis was tried for treason and after his execution, the Reign of Terror occurred

Malthus- Principle of Population


Principle of Population talks about how growing population rates would lead to a rising supply of labor that would in turn lower wages

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages



Decline of Gothic Art


The Renaissance replaced and overtook Gothic Art as well as Medieval Art.

Renaissance in Italy


The transition between Medieval Europe and Modern Europe

Northern Renaissance


Consisted of religious emphasis in the art.



Art that was elongated and had intense color.

Baroque Art


Baroque was more detailed and included intense drama that was supported by the Church to communicate more religion into the art.



Art that came from culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.

Emergence of Rococo


First emerged in France