The Hundred Years War devastated France but helped awaken French nationalism and pushed the transition from its feudal structure to a centralized state.
It fell most heavily on peasantry and encouraged England to build their own clothing industry and foreign markets.
The disease that spread from fleas on rats starting in Constantinpole.
The assembly that elected the Holy Roman Empire
A peasant revolt in response to taxes on the peasants.
Lollards- Followers of John Wycliff who preached in vernacular,distributed translations of the Bible, were popular within the nobility, and gained from a weakened Church.
John Wycliff- He was against secularism of the papacy and advocated apostolic piety.
Stuarts-A Scottish family that wanted to gain power
Cromwell- He led the reorganization of Parliamentary army.
Puritan Rep.-A republic dominated by Cromwell
The advancement in farm production in Western Europe by landlords.
Prince Henry gives Columbus a path to sail and he ends up in North America and finds San Salvador.
The council that asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope.
A Northern humanist who united classical ideas of civic virtue and humanity with Christianity.
Both of the rulers united their kingdoms and strengthened Spain. Together, they tried to bring the nation under one faithful religion and they reduced debt by a lot as well as reorganized the government's system.
The period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.
The flow of ships that carried Europeans and Africans to the New World, that also transported animals plants, and germs.
Christopher Columbus sailed to San Salvador and after discovering more land, he started the Spanish Empire.
The Black Death eliminates much of Italy's population and causes many problems.
Increase in resources makes more goods available for consumption.
Henry VIII was the king of England during the Reformation. He accomplishments consisted of religion, military and politics.
Mary I (England) married Philip II (Spain) and helped England revert back to Catholic ways.
The Reformation held criticism of Church and helped to spread Protestantism.
Inspired by Martin Luther's teachings, the peasants revolted against their landlords only to result in defeat of the peasants.
Elizabeth I returned England back to the Protestant ways and made the Anglican Church inflexible.
William of Orange placed the political autonomy and well-being of Netherlands above religious creeds.
Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation and founded the Society of Jesus.
The period of fear and suspicion of people, mainly women, practicing harmful magic and diabolical witchcraft.
Henry IV led the Huguenots during the Religious wars and created the Edict of Nantes, that proclaimed a formal religious settlement.
A war mainly consisted of the conflict between Huguenots and Protestants.
The revision of Thomas Cranmers’s original forty-two and modern Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.
James I caused many religious dissenters to leave England and James’ court became center for scandal and corruption, and increased religious suspicion against Catholics
Philip of Spain attempted to impose his reign in the Netherlands.
The Netherlands are rose to the top economicaly with their growth of tulip, Dutch india trading company, and their banking system.
When Belgium became 7 large Protestant provinces against Spain.
The Union of Utrecht united the Netherlands as a independent nation.
Mary Stuart was executed by Elizabeth for suspicion of plotting against her.
The Spanish Armada made Phillip II the highest person in the second half of the 16th century.
Charles I had problems with the parliament because he was levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and was later executed.
Louis XIII was the king of France and Richelieu was the prime minister. Appointing Richelieu as the chief prime ministers was known to be one of Louis's greatest accomplishments.
A series of academies that discussed new science and carried out experiments.
The death of Henry VI that was caused by a Catholic fanatic.
The successful revolt of the Protestant Seventeen Provinces against the policies of the Roman Catholic Church.
James II of England converted to Catholicism and was later replaced by William of Orange and Mary.
Parisian mobs smashed the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin.
Frederick Wilhelm was the king of Prussia and had a strong standing military.
In short parliamentary, Charles disbanded it immediately and
the long parliamentary was after long call to figure out taxation and funds
Louis was the absolute ruler of France and said L'état, c'est moi. (I am the state)
Allowed men and sometimes women to discuss the thoughts of the Scientific Revolution.
Charles II restored the monarchy after Cromwell.
Cardinal Mazarin succeeded Cardinal Richelieu and he was Italian and French.
Peter the Great modernized Russia and led many successful wars.
Robert Walpole was the first minister of Britain and influenced Cabinet
The Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of James II by William of Orange.
The English Bill of Rights gave rights to the English under the king.
The steam engine was a form of advancement in the industrial revolution
The Northern war was between Russian and Sweden and Sweden blocked Russia from the Baltic Sea.
The War of Spanish Succession left inheritance to the French king and Spain suffered a decline during this war.
The English crown is allowed to go to to the Protestant House of Hanover if Queen Anne died without a heir.
An enlightened ruler that spread religious tolerance throughout his country.
The treaty that ends the War of Spanish Succession.
Pragmatic Sanction was when the daughter of Hapsburgs could take over throne to ensure heredity.
Louis XIV died in the Palace of Versailles.
A financial scheme in France that triggered a frenzy and ended in financial collapse.
The Hapsburg ruler by the Pragmatic Sanction and was considered to be an Enlightened Despot.
The Enlightenment contributed to the end of the Witch Hunts and suspicions settled.
Opened opportunity for the French and the English to fight wars with each other until 1815
The War of Austrian Succession rose because of question to Maria Teresa's succession to the throne as a female Hapsburg.
Joseph II was an Enlightened Despot who was religiously tolerant and abolished serfdom.
The introduction of factories and new technology helped the advancement of common uses throughout the nation as well as helped produce more food/clothes for the people.
A religious conflict where Frederick the great invades Saxony.
A war between Austria/ Britain and France/Prussia.
Catherine the Great was an Enlightened Despot who colonized regions of the Black Sea.
Mercantilism was the favorable balance of trade to ensure military security.
A new method of producing more clothes in the 18th century during the Industrial Revolution.
An invention made by Richard Arkwright that enhanced the uses of water as a valuable resource.
A war where Americans did not want to pay the unfair taxing of the British and it led to other nations demanding independence from their mother countries
The Tennis Court becomes the new place of meeting for the National Assembly after being locked out of their original meeting place and there, they pledged to not separate until new constitution is established.
A time during French revolution where nobles reclaimed their power in government.
Because of France's conflict with excessive debt, the Estates General is called in 1789 to solve the financial problems. During the meeting, conflicts rise between the different estates and their representation.
The Bastille was built to instill fear into the people of France but instead People of Paris storm the Bastille and free some prisoners but others are killed
The Great Fear was when rumors created fear and panic throughout France within the people and they refused to pay feudal dues as well as objected documents.
A constitution that state the equal right of all men.
The March of the Fishwives consisted of French women who marched to Versaille to demand for lower bread/food prices.
The Legislative Assembly meets under the constitution of 1791 and are the National Constituent Assembly.
Austria and other European countries promised to intervene in France’s politics if the stability was needed
Many French citizens stormed Tuileries Palace to capure the king
Many people were executed after Robespierre stated that everyone is suspect of the King's execution.
Levee en Masse was the rise of military tactics in France.
Robespierre was beheaded so that the others of the National Assembly could be in power just as he was
The Constitution of Year III
The directory rids of the monarchy and the Directory is offically announced/established.
It replaced the monarchy according to the Constitution of Year III
Overthrows the Directory for power
The Netherlands slowly began to become second in place as a major world power
The Avignon Papacy was the papacy under strong French influence and had many national oppositions towards it.
Hussites- The followers of John Huss who gained significant religious reforms, and control over the Bohemian Church.
John Huss- He supported vernacular translations of the Bible.
Council of Constance- Declared Huss a heretic and was executed
The Great Schism held allegiances to two popes, (Urban VI and Clement VII).
The English reformation was the reformation in which the Church of England separated from the authority of the Papacy.
Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel building and helped the increase of Indulgence Sales.
Martin Luther posted 95 Theses to rid of the selling of Indulgences in the Church.
Diet of Worms- Meeting where Luther was ordered to recant
The Diet of Worms excommunicated Luther.
The Act of Supremacy granted Henry VIII supreme head of the Church of England.
Calvin organized cooperation between clergy and state in Geneva and issued the Four Offices in Geneva.
The Council of Trent was the council of the Roman Catholic Church that was called by Pope Paul III and it strengthened the authority of local bishops.
The Counter Reformation included spiritual movements and religious orders opposing the Reformation and supporting the Church.
Jesuits= Society of Jesus
The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty by Charles V that ended religious struggle between Catholics and Protestants and determined Christianity to be the permanent religion of HRE.
Cuius regio, eius religio- Allowed HRE states to choose between Lutheranism or Catholicism for their controlled states.
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre was an event of assassinations against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion
The Edict of Nantes granted Calvinists their rights in France.
The Thirty Years War involved most of the countries in Europe that was fought between Protestants/Catholics and Bourbon/Hapsburg.
The Catholic Church condemned Galileo Galilei for suspicion of heresy.
The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War.
The Edict of Nantes had revoked the Edict of Nantes and organized destruction of Huguenot Churches and after establishing this, many Protestants left France.
It forced all of the clergy to pledge to the Revolution and church lands are confiscated.
Based on reasoning and replaces the worshipping of God
When Robespierre thought that the worship of reason instead of God was too abstract.
Dante wrote "Divine comedy" and was an example/influence of the Italian renaissance.
Petrarch was the father of Humanism.
Giovanni Boccaccio was a Renaissance humanist who wrote Decameron and wrote in the Italian vernacular.
The printing press helped spread the use of literature and books by producing cheap ways to make paper/pamphlets.
Machiavelli's The Prince highlights the important points of how to be a ruler versus how rulers actually rule their nations.
Copernicus's book introduced the idea of a helio-centric system instead of a geo-centric system
Tycho Brahe studied and compiled notes while observing stars in his tower that explained our position in the solar system
Shakespear's writings were developed to form distinctive forms of tragedy, comedy, or morality
Don Quixote was written as a Satire of the Spanish Government
Kepler proved the heliocentric universe using Brahe's oberservations/notes.
Novum Organum critisized the idea that all knowledge was known and only needed to be explained
Blaise Pascal tried to find a relationship/link between reason and Christianity.
Descartes advocated rational theory, (I think therefore I am)
Hobbes believed that in the state of nature, man would create chaos and therefore all rights should be given to the Government to handle.
Locke believed that man was a blank slate and established the social contract.
Newton defined the three laws of motion in Principia Mathematica and used mathematics to obtain his discoveries.
Voltaire writes about religious prosecution as a satire against French nobility.
Emile inspired a new system of government
Wealth of Nations discusses what is necessary for a nation to succeed in wealth.
Vind. of Rights of Women argues that women are discredited by men and disagrees with the different spheres of gender.
Louis was tried for treason and after his execution, the Reign of Terror occurred
Principle of Population talks about how growing population rates would lead to a rising supply of labor that would in turn lower wages
The Renaissance replaced and overtook Gothic Art as well as Medieval Art.
The transition between Medieval Europe and Modern Europe
Consisted of religious emphasis in the art.
Art that was elongated and had intense color.
Baroque was more detailed and included intense drama that was supported by the Church to communicate more religion into the art.
Art that came from culture of Ancient Greece and Rome.
First emerged in France