1st Semester Timeline

General/ Political History

The Hundred Years War

May, 1337 - October, 1453

French King Charles IV dies without a male heir, and English King Edward III asserted a claim to the French throne.

The Black Death

1346 - 1353

The fleas that rats bore brought the virulent plague to Western Europe, starting Constantinople.

The Golden Bull


Emperor Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire, mad German territorial rulers reached an agreement known as the GOlden Bull, that established a seven-member electoral college, and functioned as an administrative body.

The Jacquerie


A peasant revolt in response to the taille (direct tax on peasants).

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

The period of fear and suspicion of people, mainly women, practicing harmful magic and diabolical witchcraft.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

In famous declaration Sacrosancta, the council asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope, Martin V.


1466 - 1536

Desiderius Erasmus, the most famous northern-humanist,and aspired to unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with Christian ideals of love. He produced a Latin Greek edition of the New Testament.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1469 - 1516

Ferdinand II, King of Aragon and Isabella I was the Queen of Castile brought together both kingdoms and strengthen Spain. Together, they subdued their realms, secured their borders, venture abroad militarily, and Christianize the entire state.

Columbian Exchange


Flow of ships that carried Europeans and Africans to the New World, that also transported animals plants, and germs. THere was also a similar transport back to Europe and Africa.

Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire

October 12, 1492

Christopher Columbus landed in San Salvador, thinking he was in Japan.That voyage then began the European expansion, and Spanish Empire, running from South America to Mexico

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1750

Period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

King of England during Reformation.


1517 - 1550

Religious revolt of towns and villages used to remain politically free and independent.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasant leaders followed in Luther's teachings of Christian freedom, and revolted against their landlords.

William of Orange

1533 - 1584

William of Nassau, the Prince of Orange, placed the political autonomy and well-being of Netherlands above religious creeds. Maintained Catholic practices until 1567, the year he turned Lutheran, and turned Calvinist in 1572.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Emperor Charles V forced Pope Paul II to call a general council of the church to reassert church doctrine.

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Queen of England, and entered a highly unpopular political marriage with Phillip II of Spain. England reverted back to Catholic ways and Protestants were condemned for heresy and discriminated.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Successor of her half-sister Mary I, she returned England back to the Protestant ways, and made the Anglican Church inflexible.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Huguenots began being prosecuted after the capture of the French king Francis I (1525), and then Protestants plastered Paris and others with anti-Catholic placards (October 1534) followed by mass-arrests. THe monarch began to discriminate on the Protestants.

Thirty Nine Articles


Revision of Thomas Cranmers's original forty-two and modern Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.

James I

1567 - 1603

Son of May Stuart, Queen of Scots, and expected to ruled with a minimum of consultation. Many religious dissenters began to leave England and James' court became center for scandal and corruption, and increased religious suspicion against Catholics

Dutch Revolt (against Spain)

1568 - 1648

Philip of Spain attempted to impose his reign in the Netherlands.

Henry IV

1574 - 1589

Henry of Navarre was the last of Henry II's sons to wear the crown. He led the Huguenots during the Religious wars. He succeeded Henry III after he was assassinated, and and created the Edict of Nantes, that proclaimed a formal religious settlement.

Pacification of Ghent

November 8, 1576

(Dutch Revolt) After the Spanish Fury (Spanish mercenaries leaving 7,00 dead after Requesen died), ten largely Catholic southern provinces came together with seven largely Protestant northern provinces, in an unified opposition of Spain

Union of Utrecht

January 23, 1579

(Dutch Revolt) After the Spanish broke the Union of Brussels and the Union of Arras (southern provinces) made peace with Spain, the northern provinces responded by forming the Union of Utrecht.

Spanish Armada

May, 1588 - August, 1588

Spanish ships, first put together by Philip II to invade England, after Mary Queen of Scots was to be executed by Elizabeth.

Henry IV assassinated


Also known of Henry of Navarre, he was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic, and is remember for Edict of Nantes and political and economic policies

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

As he ascended to the throne at the age of five, Cardinal Mazarin directed the French government, who heavily believed in divine right, and tried to give Louis much power.

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Royalists (House of Lords) against Parliamentarians (House of Common), struggle for power.
Stuarts: Scottish family that wanted English power.
Cromwell: Lead reorganization of Parliamentary army.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Under Louis XIV, France achieved the firm authority, from Louis' absolutism., and devoted much energy to his political tasks. Created Versailles, to emphasized his prominence and moved the capital to the small French city.

Charles II

1649 - 1685

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and took office after his father Charles I was executed. Took after Oliver Cromwell, but after his death, Charles was asked to ruled again.

England Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

(English Civil War) 1649-1660, England was a Puritan Republic, dominated by Cromwell.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

A series of widespread rebellions among French nobles from the centralizing policies of Mazarin and Richelieu.

English Restoration

1660 - 1700

Charles II restored to old ways, lead with Anglican Church.

James II

1685 - 1701

Was king of England, and helped spare fear among Catholics after the Edict of Nantes was abolished.

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

James II reign was looked down upon, and WIlliam of Orange invaded England, and ended with him, WIlliam III and his wife Mary becoming the new monarchs.

English Bill of Rights


Put in place by Mary and WIlliam , that limited the power of the monarchs and guaranteed the civil liberties, but prohibited Roman Catholics from taking the throne.

End of Witch Hunts

1690 - 1730

People began to use reasoning, scientific method, and began to stray away from the church, causing the end of the Witch trials.

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Fought betweenSweden's Charles XII and a coalition lead by Peter the Great, and by the end, Sweden had lost their supremacy as the leading power, replaced by Russia.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, died without heir, and all inheritance fell to Philip V. The Grand Alliance was formed to preserve the balance power, after France became in control of Spain and their trade.

Act of Settlement


Act of Parliament that, since 1701, has regulated the succession to the throne of Great Britain.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

After he took the throne of Austria, he realized he had no heir, and didn't want power to fall to the Spanish Habsburg. So, he created the Pragmatic Sanction, which provided legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Habsburg dynasty through his daughter, Maria Theresa.

Treaty of Utrecht


Ended the War of Spanish Succession.

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

John Law believed an increase in the paper-money supply would stimulate France's economic economy, and created the MIssissippi Company, that also took over the management of the French national debt. THe bank, though, lacked enough gold to redeem all the paper and all gold payments were halted.

War of Jenkin's Ear

1739 - 1748

After Captain Robert Jenkins appeared before a committee of the House of Commons, and showed his amputated ear, from Spanish coast guards. From the outrage, Walpole was forced into war with Spain.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Embodied enlightened absolutism more than any ruler of the age, he forged a state than commanded the loyalty of the military, nobility, clergy and middle class, had so Frederick had the confidence to permit for open discussion of Enlightened ideals.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

After Maria Theresa ascended to the Throne, Frederick the Great of Prussia attack Silesia in 1740, and was joined by France, Spain, Saxony and Bavaria against Austria and Britain. THe war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which restored all conquered lands.

Agricultural Revolution

1750 - 1900

Period of innovations in farm production by landlords in Western Europe.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756 - 1757

Following the War of Austrian Succession, Great Britain allied with Prussia, and Austria allied with France so win back Silesia, and lead eventually to the Seven Year's War.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Frederick the Great invaded Saxony, and gained the allied of Great Britain, Russia, , lead by the victories of Great Britain, orchestrated by William Pitt, by sending more troops into America against France, leaving them weak. The War ended with the Treaty of Paris.

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1850

The period of sustained economic growth from industrialization of the European economy.

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Longest-ruling female leader of Russia, she extended the borders of Russia, won several wars, and brought educational reform

Spinning Jenny


Invented by James Hargreaves, it allowed 16 spindles of thread to be spun, but by the end of the century, it could operate 120.

Napoleon- Coup Brumaire

1769 - May 2, 1821

French military and political leader, who rose to prominence during the late stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815.

Water Frame


Invented by RIchard Arkwright, it was design to permit the production of purely cotton fabric rather than a cotton fabric containing linen fabric for durability.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

As the 13 British colonies rebelled for high taxes and the Intolerable Acts, established their own government, making the United States of America.

Steam Engine


Made by James Watt using Thomas Newcomen's model, the steam engine used burning coal, provided a portable source of industrial power that did not fail as the seasons changed.

French Revolution

1789 - 1802

After falling into a financial crisis, the Estates General was called. However, most responsibilities of taxes and work fell to the Third Estate, who fought back, sparking the Revolution.

Estates General called


The French government could not command sufficient taxes to finance itself, and led it to ongoing conflicts with aristocratic institutions, Louis XVI and ministers were required to summon the Estates General.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Finding themselves locking out, the National Assembly moved to an indoor tennis court, and the members took an oath to continue until that had given France a constitution.

Great Fear

July, 1789 - August, 1789

Rumors that royal troops would be sent into the royal districts intensified the peasant disturbances along the French countryside.

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

After Louis XVI stationed soldiers around Paris and bread prices went up. So, large crowds of Parisians, marched to the Bastille to get weapons for the militia.

Nobles Renounce Feudal privileges

August 4, 1789

Aristocrats in the National Constituent Assembly attempted to halt the spreading disorder in the countryside, and so the nobles and clerics gave up their higher rights, and all citizens became equal.

Rights of Man and Citizen

August 27, 1789

The Assembly issued this, proclaiming that all men were born and remain free and equal in rights. The natural rights proclaimed were liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression, and Governments existed to protect these rights.

March of the Fishwives

October 5, 1789

After Louis XVI stalled ratifying the Declaration on the RIghts of Man and aristocratic renunciation of feudalism, and bread still remained scarce. Some 7,000 armed women marched to Versailles demanding more bread.

Legislative Assembly Meets


THe major political authority of the national would be a unicameral Legislative Assembly, in which all laws would originate. the power to make war and peace.

Tuileries Stormed- King Captive

August 10, 1792

A mod of nearly 30,000 French citizens advanced toward the Tuileries Palace to capture Louis XVI, but he had be given information earlier, and moved himself and family to the Legislative Assembly building.

Convention meets- Monarch abolished

September 21, 1792

Convention was called together to write a democratic constitution. The first act was declaring France a republic.

Louis XVI Executed

January 21, 1793

Convicted Luis of conspiring against the liberty of the people and the security of the state, and condemned to death by a smaller majority.

Levee en Masse

August 23, 1793

Military requisition on the entire population, conscripting males into and direction economic production to military purposes.

Reign of Terror

September 5, 1793 - July 26, 1794

Result of actions by leaders to protect the revolution and silence dissent.

Danton Executed

April, 1794

Jaques Danton, who had provided heroic national leadership was accused of being suffiently miliant, and rejecting the link between politics and moral virtue

Fall of Robespierre

May, 1794 - July 27, 1794

He was turned against for becoming too powerful and declared that others were conspiring against him in the Convention, and so he was arrested, and executed.

The Directiory


Through the Constitution of the Year III, a legislature was created with two house-- the Council of Elders and Council of Five Hundred. The executive body was to be a five-person Directory chosen out of Five-Hundred by the Elders.

Constitution of the Year III


The Thermidorian Reaction led to still another new constitution led to the Convention issuing the Constitution of Year III, which reflected the rejection both constitutional monarch and democracy .

Frederick Wilhelm


The French defeated the Prussian Army under Wilhelm, and the great Prussian army collapsed.


Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

(Babylonian Captivity) Time when seven popes resided in Avignon.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

When Pope Gregory XI died, the cardinals. in Rome, elected an Italian archbishop as Pope Urban VI, who announced his intent to reform the Curia. The cardinals, most of whom were French, responded by calling fro the return of the papacy to Avignon. The French King, Charles V wanting to keep to papacy within French influence, lent his support.

Lollards- John Wycliffe

1382 - 1430

Lollards, advocates of John Wycliffe, preached in the vernacular, disseminated translations of Holy Scripture and championed clerical poverty.

Hussities- John Huss

1410 - 1436

From Bohemia, Hussites were moderate and extreme followers of John Huss, who was a leader of the pro-Wycliffe faction at the University of Prague.


1493 - 1546

From Germany, Martin Luther despised indulgences and believed in "justification by faith alone". Luther presented his view to the Diet of Worms, and ordered to recant.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Cardinal Guiliano della Rovere succeeded Alexander Vi as Pope Julius II. He supressed the Borgias, and raised the papacy to its peak of military greatness. Known as "warrior pope".

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

Created Calvinism, the religious ideology that inspired massive political resistance. Believed strongly in both divine predestination and individual's responsibility to reorder society according to God's plan. Caused political reformation in Geneva that lead the way for religious change. (1527) Calvin helped the Reformation in Geneva, and used him as an ally.

English Reformation

1517 - 1564

Protestants were looked down upon by Henry and anyone who practiced Protestant views angered him.

Martin Luther's 95 Thesis

October 31, 1517

Luther posted 95 complaints of the Christian ways, such as indulgences and how they were being lied to be the churches.

Diet of Worms

April, 1521

Luther presented his views before the Diet of Worms, and ordered him to recant.

Act of Supremacy


(Henry VII) Made himself the head of the Church of England

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The success of the Reformation and insistence of Emperor Charles V forced Pope Paul III to call a general council of the church to reassert Church doctrine, concerning internal church discipline and strengthening the authority of the local bishops .

Catholic/ Counter Reformation

1545 - 1648

Reaction to Protestant succes, that involved reforming the Church, with most success coming from the Jesuits.

Peace of Augsburg


Ended the struggles between Lutherans and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire and established the principle that each ruler should determine the form of worship in his lands.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

Coligny (leader of French Protestant resistance) and 3,000 Protestants were butchered in Paris. Within 3 days, 20,000 Protestants were killed.

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Created by Henry IV, it proclaimed a formal religious settlement, recognized minority religions, and granted Huguenots freedom of public worship, assembly, admission of public offices, and permission to maintain fortified towns.

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Was the last and most destructive of the wars of religion.After Ferdinand II of Austria moved against Protestantism, he was backed by Philip II of Spain, and German princes supported the Protestants.

Galileo Condemned


Council of Trent announced the only the CHurch had power to interpret the Bible, and so in, 163, he was was formally informed of his condemnation of Copernicanism. Pope Urban Vii placed Galileo under his protection, but ordered an investigation, where he was found guilty of violating the mandate.

Treaty of Westphalia


Ended all Hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire. Written in French, it became the international diplomatic language, and reasserted the major feature of the religious settlement of the eace of Augsburg: the ruler of a lander determining the religion.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

October 22, 1685

Revoted by Louis XIV, also known as The Edict of Fontainebleau, and life for Protestants became intolerable in France.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July, 1790

The National Constituent Assembly, which transformed the Roman Catholic Church in France into a branch of the secular state.

Cult of Reason

November 10, 1793

An atheistic belief system established in France, intended to replace Christianity.

Cult of the Supreme Being

May, 1794

Robespierre replaced tje worship of "Reason" with the "Cult of the Supreme Being", a cult that reflected Rousseau's vision of a civic religion that would induce morality among citizens.

Thinkers, Ideas, and Individuals


1265 - 1321

Dante Aligheri, wrote Vita Nuova and Divine Comedy-- the cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature.


1304 - 1374

Francesco Petrarch was the "father of humanism". Wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead.


1313 - 1375

Giovanni Boccaccio was a pioneer of humanist studies. Wrote Decameron (stinging social commentary), and assembles an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.

Printing Press- Guttenberg


Johann Guttenberg invented printing with the movable type, after which books were rapidly and handsomely produced.


1473 - 1543

Was a mathematician and philosopher, and proposed that the sun was stationary, and everything revolved around it. Wrote On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres.

The Prince


Written by Niccolo Machiavelli (1459-1527), as a cynical satire on the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule.


1547 - 1616

Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish writer and playwright, wrote Don Quixote, a satire on chivalric romances that influences the development of a novel.

Tycho Brahe

1549 - 1601

Danish Astronomer, and took a major step toward the conception of a sun-centered view, but advocated the geocentric model. He constructed scientific instruments and made many scientific observations.

Bacon: Novum Organsum

1561 - 1626

Francis Bacon, known as the father of Empiricism, attack the scholastic belief of truth already being discovered.


1564 - 1616

Gained broad knowledge of Renaissance literature working as a school teacher, and created historical plays like Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and Romeo and Juliet.


1571 - 1630

German mathematician and astronomer, and assistant of Brahe, he is most famous for his laws of planetary motion, shown in his book THe New Astronomy.


1588 - 1679

An English philosopher, he is most well-known for his work on political philosophy. Almost the opposite of Locke, he believed that all men were born a certain way: evil. His book, Leviathan, to provide a justification for a strong central political authority.


1596 - 1650

Rene Descartes was a gifted mathematician who invented analytic geometry.Published Discourse on Method, which he rejected scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on mathematical model.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

French mathematician and scientist, wrote Pensee (Thoughts) of his formulated views on Christian and Jesuit teaching. Believed that in religious matters only the reasons of the heart and a "leap of faith" could prevail.


1632 - 1704

John Locke, one of the most influential philosophical and political thinkers of the seventeenth century, believed that man was a blank slate (Tabula Rasa). We were born good, and the nature around us shaped who we are. The government was only established to protect our natural rights.
1st Treatise of Gov't: cleared philosophical decks of long-standing tradition.
2nd Treatise of Gov't: Argument for a government that was responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Isaac Newton published Principia Mathematica, in which Newton reasoned that the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity.

Voltaire- Candide

1694 - 1778

Francois-Marie Arouet, known as Voltaire, was the most-influential philosophes. He promoted religious tolerance, and complained the church hindered thought. Wrote Candide, a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism.


1712 - 1778

French philosophe, he was a severe advocated for the social contract, and he was extremely against women's rights. He wrote Emilie, a novel.


1723 - 1790

Created the most important work of the Enlightenment, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, where he believed economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system, and urged that mercantilism be abolished.


1759 - 1797

Mary Wollstonecraft, in 1792, she wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women, that brought Rousseau before the judgment if the rational Enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge.


1766 - 1834

Published his Essay on the Principle of Population, announcing that someday out population would outstrip the food supply, and the was little hope of avoiding this disaster.


1772 - 1823

Suggested that nothing could improve the condition of the working class with Mathus. In his Principles of Political Economy, said "iron law of wages", meaning, if wages were raised, parents would have more children, and those children would enter the labor force.


Decline of Gothic Art

1200 - 1400

The Medieval art movement began to make way for incoming art movements, such as the Renaissance.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Period of transition from medieval to modern times, using civic humanism (coalescence of humanism and civic reform.), and took form wit the death of Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio.

Northern Renaissance

1500 - 1615

The work of northern-humanists, more favorable to religious and educational reforms.


1520 - 1580

(until the Baroque) A type of complex art that marks the passing of High Renaissance painting. (Seen by Michelangelo)

Baroque Art

1600 - 1750

Seen during the Counter-Reformation, baroque presented life in a grandiose, three-dimensional display of raw energy, and had very sharp contrasts between dark and light, and very naturalistic


1660 - 1800

Embodied a return to to figurative drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world

Emegence of Rococo

1700 - 1800

Known as the "Art of the Aristocracy", it embraced lavish, lighthearted decoration, with an emphasis on pastel colors amd the play of light.