French King Charles IV dies without a male heir, and English King Edward III asserted a claim to the French throne.
The fleas that rats bore brought the virulent plague to Western Europe, starting Constantinople.
Emperor Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire, mad German territorial rulers reached an agreement known as the GOlden Bull, that established a seven-member electoral college, and functioned as an administrative body.
A peasant revolt in response to the taille (direct tax on peasants).
The period of fear and suspicion of people, mainly women, practicing harmful magic and diabolical witchcraft.
In famous declaration Sacrosancta, the council asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope, Martin V.
Desiderius Erasmus, the most famous northern-humanist,and aspired to unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with Christian ideals of love. He produced a Latin Greek edition of the New Testament.
Ferdinand II, King of Aragon and Isabella I was the Queen of Castile brought together both kingdoms and strengthen Spain. Together, they subdued their realms, secured their borders, venture abroad militarily, and Christianize the entire state.
Flow of ships that carried Europeans and Africans to the New World, that also transported animals plants, and germs. THere was also a similar transport back to Europe and Africa.
Christopher Columbus landed in San Salvador, thinking he was in Japan.That voyage then began the European expansion, and Spanish Empire, running from South America to Mexico
Period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.
King of England during Reformation.
Religious revolt of towns and villages used to remain politically free and independent.
Peasant leaders followed in Luther's teachings of Christian freedom, and revolted against their landlords.
William of Nassau, the Prince of Orange, placed the political autonomy and well-being of Netherlands above religious creeds. Maintained Catholic practices until 1567, the year he turned Lutheran, and turned Calvinist in 1572.
Emperor Charles V forced Pope Paul II to call a general council of the church to reassert church doctrine.
Queen of England, and entered a highly unpopular political marriage with Phillip II of Spain. England reverted back to Catholic ways and Protestants were condemned for heresy and discriminated.
Successor of her half-sister Mary I, she returned England back to the Protestant ways, and made the Anglican Church inflexible.
Huguenots began being prosecuted after the capture of the French king Francis I (1525), and then Protestants plastered Paris and others with anti-Catholic placards (October 1534) followed by mass-arrests. THe monarch began to discriminate on the Protestants.
Revision of Thomas Cranmers's original forty-two and modern Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.
Son of May Stuart, Queen of Scots, and expected to ruled with a minimum of consultation. Many religious dissenters began to leave England and James' court became center for scandal and corruption, and increased religious suspicion against Catholics
Philip of Spain attempted to impose his reign in the Netherlands.
Henry of Navarre was the last of Henry II's sons to wear the crown. He led the Huguenots during the Religious wars. He succeeded Henry III after he was assassinated, and and created the Edict of Nantes, that proclaimed a formal religious settlement.
(Dutch Revolt) After the Spanish Fury (Spanish mercenaries leaving 7,00 dead after Requesen died), ten largely Catholic southern provinces came together with seven largely Protestant northern provinces, in an unified opposition of Spain
(Dutch Revolt) After the Spanish broke the Union of Brussels and the Union of Arras (southern provinces) made peace with Spain, the northern provinces responded by forming the Union of Utrecht.
Spanish ships, first put together by Philip II to invade England, after Mary Queen of Scots was to be executed by Elizabeth.
Also known of Henry of Navarre, he was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic, and is remember for Edict of Nantes and political and economic policies
As he ascended to the throne at the age of five, Cardinal Mazarin directed the French government, who heavily believed in divine right, and tried to give Louis much power.
Royalists (House of Lords) against Parliamentarians (House of Common), struggle for power.
Stuarts: Scottish family that wanted English power.
Cromwell: Lead reorganization of Parliamentary army.
Under Louis XIV, France achieved the firm authority, from Louis' absolutism., and devoted much energy to his political tasks. Created Versailles, to emphasized his prominence and moved the capital to the small French city.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and took office after his father Charles I was executed. Took after Oliver Cromwell, but after his death, Charles was asked to ruled again.
(English Civil War) 1649-1660, England was a Puritan Republic, dominated by Cromwell.
A series of widespread rebellions among French nobles from the centralizing policies of Mazarin and Richelieu.
Charles II restored to old ways, lead with Anglican Church.
Was king of England, and helped spare fear among Catholics after the Edict of Nantes was abolished.
James II reign was looked down upon, and WIlliam of Orange invaded England, and ended with him, WIlliam III and his wife Mary becoming the new monarchs.
Put in place by Mary and WIlliam , that limited the power of the monarchs and guaranteed the civil liberties, but prohibited Roman Catholics from taking the throne.
People began to use reasoning, scientific method, and began to stray away from the church, causing the end of the Witch trials.
Fought betweenSweden's Charles XII and a coalition lead by Peter the Great, and by the end, Sweden had lost their supremacy as the leading power, replaced by Russia.
The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II, died without heir, and all inheritance fell to Philip V. The Grand Alliance was formed to preserve the balance power, after France became in control of Spain and their trade.
Act of Parliament that, since 1701, has regulated the succession to the throne of Great Britain.
After he took the throne of Austria, he realized he had no heir, and didn't want power to fall to the Spanish Habsburg. So, he created the Pragmatic Sanction, which provided legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Habsburg dynasty through his daughter, Maria Theresa.
Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
John Law believed an increase in the paper-money supply would stimulate France's economic economy, and created the MIssissippi Company, that also took over the management of the French national debt. THe bank, though, lacked enough gold to redeem all the paper and all gold payments were halted.
After Captain Robert Jenkins appeared before a committee of the House of Commons, and showed his amputated ear, from Spanish coast guards. From the outrage, Walpole was forced into war with Spain.
Embodied enlightened absolutism more than any ruler of the age, he forged a state than commanded the loyalty of the military, nobility, clergy and middle class, had so Frederick had the confidence to permit for open discussion of Enlightened ideals.
After Maria Theresa ascended to the Throne, Frederick the Great of Prussia attack Silesia in 1740, and was joined by France, Spain, Saxony and Bavaria against Austria and Britain. THe war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which restored all conquered lands.
Period of innovations in farm production by landlords in Western Europe.
Following the War of Austrian Succession, Great Britain allied with Prussia, and Austria allied with France so win back Silesia, and lead eventually to the Seven Year's War.
Frederick the Great invaded Saxony, and gained the allied of Great Britain, Russia, , lead by the victories of Great Britain, orchestrated by William Pitt, by sending more troops into America against France, leaving them weak. The War ended with the Treaty of Paris.
The period of sustained economic growth from industrialization of the European economy.
Longest-ruling female leader of Russia, she extended the borders of Russia, won several wars, and brought educational reform
Invented by James Hargreaves, it allowed 16 spindles of thread to be spun, but by the end of the century, it could operate 120.
French military and political leader, who rose to prominence during the late stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815.
Invented by RIchard Arkwright, it was design to permit the production of purely cotton fabric rather than a cotton fabric containing linen fabric for durability.
As the 13 British colonies rebelled for high taxes and the Intolerable Acts, established their own government, making the United States of America.
Made by James Watt using Thomas Newcomen's model, the steam engine used burning coal, provided a portable source of industrial power that did not fail as the seasons changed.
After falling into a financial crisis, the Estates General was called. However, most responsibilities of taxes and work fell to the Third Estate, who fought back, sparking the Revolution.
The French government could not command sufficient taxes to finance itself, and led it to ongoing conflicts with aristocratic institutions, Louis XVI and ministers were required to summon the Estates General.
Finding themselves locking out, the National Assembly moved to an indoor tennis court, and the members took an oath to continue until that had given France a constitution.
Rumors that royal troops would be sent into the royal districts intensified the peasant disturbances along the French countryside.
After Louis XVI stationed soldiers around Paris and bread prices went up. So, large crowds of Parisians, marched to the Bastille to get weapons for the militia.
Aristocrats in the National Constituent Assembly attempted to halt the spreading disorder in the countryside, and so the nobles and clerics gave up their higher rights, and all citizens became equal.
The Assembly issued this, proclaiming that all men were born and remain free and equal in rights. The natural rights proclaimed were liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression, and Governments existed to protect these rights.
After Louis XVI stalled ratifying the Declaration on the RIghts of Man and aristocratic renunciation of feudalism, and bread still remained scarce. Some 7,000 armed women marched to Versailles demanding more bread.
THe major political authority of the national would be a unicameral Legislative Assembly, in which all laws would originate. the power to make war and peace.
A mod of nearly 30,000 French citizens advanced toward the Tuileries Palace to capture Louis XVI, but he had be given information earlier, and moved himself and family to the Legislative Assembly building.
Convention was called together to write a democratic constitution. The first act was declaring France a republic.
Convicted Luis of conspiring against the liberty of the people and the security of the state, and condemned to death by a smaller majority.
Military requisition on the entire population, conscripting males into and direction economic production to military purposes.
Result of actions by leaders to protect the revolution and silence dissent.
Jaques Danton, who had provided heroic national leadership was accused of being suffiently miliant, and rejecting the link between politics and moral virtue
He was turned against for becoming too powerful and declared that others were conspiring against him in the Convention, and so he was arrested, and executed.
Through the Constitution of the Year III, a legislature was created with two house-- the Council of Elders and Council of Five Hundred. The executive body was to be a five-person Directory chosen out of Five-Hundred by the Elders.
The Thermidorian Reaction led to still another new constitution led to the Convention issuing the Constitution of Year III, which reflected the rejection both constitutional monarch and democracy .
The French defeated the Prussian Army under Wilhelm, and the great Prussian army collapsed.
(Babylonian Captivity) Time when seven popes resided in Avignon.
When Pope Gregory XI died, the cardinals. in Rome, elected an Italian archbishop as Pope Urban VI, who announced his intent to reform the Curia. The cardinals, most of whom were French, responded by calling fro the return of the papacy to Avignon. The French King, Charles V wanting to keep to papacy within French influence, lent his support.
Lollards, advocates of John Wycliffe, preached in the vernacular, disseminated translations of Holy Scripture and championed clerical poverty.
From Bohemia, Hussites were moderate and extreme followers of John Huss, who was a leader of the pro-Wycliffe faction at the University of Prague.
From Germany, Martin Luther despised indulgences and believed in "justification by faith alone". Luther presented his view to the Diet of Worms, and ordered to recant.
Cardinal Guiliano della Rovere succeeded Alexander Vi as Pope Julius II. He supressed the Borgias, and raised the papacy to its peak of military greatness. Known as "warrior pope".
Created Calvinism, the religious ideology that inspired massive political resistance. Believed strongly in both divine predestination and individual's responsibility to reorder society according to God's plan. Caused political reformation in Geneva that lead the way for religious change. (1527) Calvin helped the Reformation in Geneva, and used him as an ally.
Protestants were looked down upon by Henry and anyone who practiced Protestant views angered him.
Luther posted 95 complaints of the Christian ways, such as indulgences and how they were being lied to be the churches.
Luther presented his views before the Diet of Worms, and ordered him to recant.
(Henry VII) Made himself the head of the Church of England
The success of the Reformation and insistence of Emperor Charles V forced Pope Paul III to call a general council of the church to reassert Church doctrine, concerning internal church discipline and strengthening the authority of the local bishops .
Reaction to Protestant succes, that involved reforming the Church, with most success coming from the Jesuits.
Ended the struggles between Lutherans and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire and established the principle that each ruler should determine the form of worship in his lands.
Coligny (leader of French Protestant resistance) and 3,000 Protestants were butchered in Paris. Within 3 days, 20,000 Protestants were killed.
Created by Henry IV, it proclaimed a formal religious settlement, recognized minority religions, and granted Huguenots freedom of public worship, assembly, admission of public offices, and permission to maintain fortified towns.
Was the last and most destructive of the wars of religion.After Ferdinand II of Austria moved against Protestantism, he was backed by Philip II of Spain, and German princes supported the Protestants.
Council of Trent announced the only the CHurch had power to interpret the Bible, and so in, 163, he was was formally informed of his condemnation of Copernicanism. Pope Urban Vii placed Galileo under his protection, but ordered an investigation, where he was found guilty of violating the mandate.
Ended all Hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire. Written in French, it became the international diplomatic language, and reasserted the major feature of the religious settlement of the eace of Augsburg: the ruler of a lander determining the religion.
Revoted by Louis XIV, also known as The Edict of Fontainebleau, and life for Protestants became intolerable in France.
The National Constituent Assembly, which transformed the Roman Catholic Church in France into a branch of the secular state.
An atheistic belief system established in France, intended to replace Christianity.
Robespierre replaced tje worship of "Reason" with the "Cult of the Supreme Being", a cult that reflected Rousseau's vision of a civic religion that would induce morality among citizens.
Dante Aligheri, wrote Vita Nuova and Divine Comedy-- the cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature.
Francesco Petrarch was the "father of humanism". Wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead.
Giovanni Boccaccio was a pioneer of humanist studies. Wrote Decameron (stinging social commentary), and assembles an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.
Johann Guttenberg invented printing with the movable type, after which books were rapidly and handsomely produced.
Was a mathematician and philosopher, and proposed that the sun was stationary, and everything revolved around it. Wrote On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres.
Written by Niccolo Machiavelli (1459-1527), as a cynical satire on the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule.
Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish writer and playwright, wrote Don Quixote, a satire on chivalric romances that influences the development of a novel.
Danish Astronomer, and took a major step toward the conception of a sun-centered view, but advocated the geocentric model. He constructed scientific instruments and made many scientific observations.
Francis Bacon, known as the father of Empiricism, attack the scholastic belief of truth already being discovered.
Gained broad knowledge of Renaissance literature working as a school teacher, and created historical plays like Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and Romeo and Juliet.
German mathematician and astronomer, and assistant of Brahe, he is most famous for his laws of planetary motion, shown in his book THe New Astronomy.
An English philosopher, he is most well-known for his work on political philosophy. Almost the opposite of Locke, he believed that all men were born a certain way: evil. His book, Leviathan, to provide a justification for a strong central political authority.
Rene Descartes was a gifted mathematician who invented analytic geometry.Published Discourse on Method, which he rejected scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on mathematical model.
French mathematician and scientist, wrote Pensee (Thoughts) of his formulated views on Christian and Jesuit teaching. Believed that in religious matters only the reasons of the heart and a "leap of faith" could prevail.
John Locke, one of the most influential philosophical and political thinkers of the seventeenth century, believed that man was a blank slate (Tabula Rasa). We were born good, and the nature around us shaped who we are. The government was only established to protect our natural rights.
1st Treatise of Gov't: cleared philosophical decks of long-standing tradition.
2nd Treatise of Gov't: Argument for a government that was responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed.
Isaac Newton published Principia Mathematica, in which Newton reasoned that the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity.
Francois-Marie Arouet, known as Voltaire, was the most-influential philosophes. He promoted religious tolerance, and complained the church hindered thought. Wrote Candide, a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism.
French philosophe, he was a severe advocated for the social contract, and he was extremely against women's rights. He wrote Emilie, a novel.
Created the most important work of the Enlightenment, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, where he believed economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system, and urged that mercantilism be abolished.
Mary Wollstonecraft, in 1792, she wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women, that brought Rousseau before the judgment if the rational Enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge.
Published his Essay on the Principle of Population, announcing that someday out population would outstrip the food supply, and the was little hope of avoiding this disaster.
Suggested that nothing could improve the condition of the working class with Mathus. In his Principles of Political Economy, said "iron law of wages", meaning, if wages were raised, parents would have more children, and those children would enter the labor force.
The Medieval art movement began to make way for incoming art movements, such as the Renaissance.
Period of transition from medieval to modern times, using civic humanism (coalescence of humanism and civic reform.), and took form wit the death of Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio.
The work of northern-humanists, more favorable to religious and educational reforms.
(until the Baroque) A type of complex art that marks the passing of High Renaissance painting. (Seen by Michelangelo)
Seen during the Counter-Reformation, baroque presented life in a grandiose, three-dimensional display of raw energy, and had very sharp contrasts between dark and light, and very naturalistic
Embodied a return to to figurative drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world
Known as the "Art of the Aristocracy", it embraced lavish, lighthearted decoration, with an emphasis on pastel colors amd the play of light.