National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People; Founded by W.E.B Du Bois and Ida B. Wells; tried to use courts to overturn Jim Crow.
1917 - 1930
Langston Hughes; changed how American & rest of the world view African Americans - "New Negro" challenged racism through literature, art, and music; centred in Harlem, spread to France.
Nation of Islam
1930 - 1975
Founder: Wallace D. Fard; Elijah Mohammed; Malcolm X; self-determination; black nationalism
Congress on Racial Equality
1942 - 1968
Leader: James Farmer; Freedom Rides; Desegregating Chicago schools; March on Washington; Freedom Summer.
Civil Rights Movement
Brown vs. Board of Education
Overturned "separate but equal"; had to be disputed further because "with all deliberate speed"; NAACP lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston was labelled "The Man Who Killed Jim Crow" when the case was over; Thurgood Marshall; Pauli Murray's arguments were used.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955 - 1956
Executed by SCLC (Rosa Parks and Joanne Robinson); kick-started Civil Rights Movement.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
January 10 1957 - 2012
Founder: MLK; non-violent direct action with religious emphasis.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
1960 - 1969
Ella Baker, Fannie Lou Hamer; lunch counter sit-in; power through voting.
Council Of Federated Organisations
1962 - 1965
Leaders: Robert Moses and Pauli Murray; coalition of major Civil Rights Organisations; voter registration.
March on Washington
August 28 1963
MLK "I Have a Dream"; NAACP, CORE, SNCC, SCLC; condemned by Malcolm X.
Ella Baker; taught non-violent direct action
Mississippi Freedom Summer
COFO; Robert Moses; Fannie Lou Hamer; white college students.
Leader: Herbert Hoover; targeted all leftist groups and leaders (MLK, SCLC, NAACP, CORE, Shakur, Black Panther Party).
Radio Free Dixie
1961 - 1965
Robert F. Williams broadcasted shows including music, news, and commentary from exile in Cuba; used the station to call for assertive action among blacks during Watts Riots.
Revolutionary Action Movement
1963 - 1968
Founder: Max Sanford; dedicated to destruction of capitalism and white racism; black militant Maoist; first casualties of COINTELPRO.
Black Arts Movement
1965 - 1976
Amiri Baraka; artistic branch of Black Power movement; sought to create politically engaging work that explored black cultural and historical experience; led to creation of African-American Studies programs at universities.
August 11 1965 - August 17 1965
Marquette Frye; Rebellion against police discrimination and residential segregation.
Black Panther Party
1966 - 1982
Founded by Newton and Seale; Assata Shakur; Ten-Point Program; black nationalism; counterculture icon; COINTELPRO.
March Against Fear
June 6 1966
James Meredith shot; MLK (SCLC) and Carmichael (SNCC) finished march for him.
Student National Coordinating Committee
Stokely Carmhicael; Black nationalism.
Black Liberation Movement
1970 - 1981
Continuation of Black Panther Party; Shakur; anti-capitalist, anti-racist, anti-sexist, anti-imperialist.
Attica Prison Riot
September 9 1971 - september 13 1971
Prisoners seized control of prison and demanded better living conditions.
April 29 1992 - May 4 1992
LAPD officers who beat up Rodney King acquitted; economic deterioration and frustration of blacks.
Focused on broad progressive social injustice, racial equality, and economic justice; tied to Communist Party; Pan-Africanism Freedom Agenda.
April 17 1999
Basis for BRC mission statement; 15 objectives dealing with a racial and economic justice.
1900 - 2012
Marcus Garvey (UNIA); Du Bois; Malcolm X; Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture); Negritude; encourages solidarity of Africans worldwide.
"Les Trois Pere": Leopold Sedar Senghor (president of Senegal), Aime Cesaire, Leon Damas; rejection of European colonisation; Marixst; developed in France.
Algerian War for Independence
1 November 1954 - 19 March 1962
Frantz Fanon supported Algerian struggle for independence - became member of Algerian National Liberation Front; he inspired other anti-colonial liberation movements, and his book "Les Damne de la Terre" inspired Malcolm X, Che, and Palestinians. James Baldwin.
1955 - 1972
Opposed by MLK
April 18 1955 - april 24 1955
Aims were to promote Third Worldism, promoto Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation; important step towards Non-Aligned Movement.
1959 - 1994
Opposed SA's system of apartheid and supported non-whites; led boycotts.
September 1961 - 1991
Founders: Tito, Sukarno, Abdel Nasser, Nkrumah, Nehru; attempted to ensure national independence against imperialism during Cold War.
African Liberation Support
Supported Africa Liberation Day to raise awareness of anti-colonial movements in Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and Angola. Supports African struggles against colonialism and apartheid.
1st World Conference Against Racism
UNESCO; works against racist ideologies and behaviours.