Semester 1 Timeline Project



1265 - 1321

-Divine Comedy
-Italian Poet of Middle Ages
-"Father of Italian Language"


1304 - 1374

-Father of Humanism
-Italian scholar and Poet, one of the first Humanists
-first to develop the "dark ages"

Avignon Papacy "Babylonian Captivity"

1309 - 1377

-increase in papal taxes
-reputation of materialism and political scheming and gave reformers new ammunition
-sold indulgences to get family and themselves out of Purgatory


1313 - 1375

-author and a Poet
-probably Italian since he was italian

John Wycliffe: Lollards

1320 - December 1384

church shouldnt hoard $, they should be poor, PERSONAL MERIT OVER RANK

Hundred Year's War

May 1337 - October 1453

Noblemen trying to gain more power from the king. Actually strengthened king and weakened nobles

Black Death

1348 - 1350

not just the bubonic plague
emergence of "middle class" artisans got $ b/c people wanted
luxious items
population decreased drastically

Golden Bull


-Seven member electoral college -> Holy Roman Emperor



peasants rose up in many regions in a series of bloody rebellions

John Huss

1369 - 1415

Followers: Hussites
most famous intellectual and preacher
won audience of the Council of Constance
Hussites significant religious reforms and control over
Bohemian Church from the Council of Basel

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

2 popes: 1 in Rome, 1 in Avignon---> Charles V elected new pope
that lives in Avignon

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

-about 100,000 people killed as "witches"
-magic, (women cast spells...It was REAL!), peasants not conforming to Christianity (pagan traditions), economic issues, misogynistic attitude, and the Reformation were all reasons for these hunts

Start of Spanish Empire

1402 - 1975

-Chritopher Columbus discovered the New World
-reached peak of political and economic power
-global power

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

asserted supremacy and elected a new pope (Martin V)
Regular meetings (5-->7-->10 years)

Early Exploration o Sp. and Portugal

1419 - 1507

-for Atlantic Ocean exploration
-portugal and spain are explored during this time

Printing Press


-invented by Johann Guttenburg before they died in 1468 in the HRE
-spread Humanism, Eramus and Luther's books

Commercial Revolution


-Went through the 17th century
-shift focus away from the Eng. Industrial Rev


1466 - 1536

-many novels banned
-northern Humanist

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)


-Ferdinand r. 1479-1516
-Isabella r. 1574-1504
-once married (1469) their countries allied and they were stronger


1473 - 1543

-built on Aristotle's ideas
-On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres Published 1543

Northern Renaissance

1490 - 1520

printing press, Erasmus, Humanism and Reform (Germany, France, England, Spain)

Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1556

-Society of Jesus:
-male religious order from the Roman Catholic Church
- extremity

Columbian exchange


-began when Columbus discovered the "new world"
-animals, technology, disease, etc
-all different
-native americans and europeans traded everything!

Italian Renaissance

1494 - 1527

Venice=major part, city-states fighting against each other-->not united and WEAK

Italy's decline by invasions...

1494 - 1527

-France invaded italy to decline their power

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

-wrote about Erasmus
-destruction and rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica
-Michelangelo's pianting on the cieling of the Sistine Chapel

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Established Calvinism: extreme protestants
Reformation of Geneva
Geneva: Elected officials favorable to Calvin
Calvin: Justification by faith alone
Predestination, Stern moralist,

Henry VIII rule

1509 - 1547

English reformation, needed a son-->marrying 6 times->Edward


1517 - 1648

Protestant reformation. Started in Holy Roman Empire (free cities) and Switzerland (has money) because of the printing press and humanism

95 Thesis


-posted his greivances to start discussion and ended in making a religion

Luther- 95 theses

October 31, 1517

greivances, starts discussion (common practice), didn't intend on starting a first. He was angered by the selling of indulgences

Mannerism: until the Baroque

1520 - 1580

in years of High Renaissance, influenced and reacted to naturalism

Diet of Worms

April 1521 - March 1522

presented his views before them, but he thought it would go against the Scripture. only go to Bible. denied the infallibility of the pope (pope makes mistakes). This made him an "outlaw" to secular and religious authority. Translated old Testament into German

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

revolted against landlords...Luther condemned them as "un-Christian", princes to crush revolt

William of Orange

1533 - 1584

-A.K.A. William the Silent
-main leader of the Dutch revolt
-set off eight years' war

Machiavelli's The Prince


-Published in 1537 (5 years after his death).
-Written to enlighten people on what he thought an appropriate leader would be for their country/principality

Mary Stuart's execution

1542 - 1567

-she had her head cut off using the guillitine
-A.K.A. Mary Queen of Scots

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

-no doctrinal changes
-eliminates corruption
-stop selling of indulgences

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

-had own island for observation
-collects data to support geocentric ideas
-Johannes Kepler was his assistant
-had different noses known for his gold nose

Henry VIII of England


-Eng. Reform: explained in reformation
-Act of Supremacy: declaration that Henry was the head of the Church in England in 1534

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

-A.K.A. "Bloody Mary"
-remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after Edward's (her half-brother) short reign
-killed many who did not want to convert to Catholicism

Peace of Augsburg


-happened in HRE to end religious diversity
-made it less fragmented

-Cuius Regio, Eius Religio
-ruler of the land picks the religion

Elizabeth I of England

1558 - 1603

-Established English Pratestant church

-39 Articles: (est. 1563)
-Roman Catholic Church and Protestants


1561 - 1626

-Certain of truth
- collects and tests data
-Novum Organum
-book he worte and published
-Idols: false notions that cloud understanding of surrounding

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Huguenots and Catholics
balance of Power between Bourbons and Hapsburgs


1564 - 1616

-Codeified English language

James I of England

1567 - 1625

-first monarch of england from the house od Tudor
-fought with Parliament --> a factor of the English Civil War(ECW)
- his son tried to rule the way he did and it caused the ECW and then his son was executed at the end of the war

Dutch Revolt and revolt in Span. Netherlands

1568 - 1648

-Pacification of Ghent:
-Netherlands and Holland agreed religious toleration and
to ally against Spain and fight with each other
-Union of Utrecht:
-William of Orange united 17 provinces in Union of Utrecht
-Duke of Alba: one of the leaders in the revolt
-Duke of Parma: another Leader in the revolt


1571 - 1630

-When Brahe dies, he took his data to support Kepler's idea of a helio-centric universe
-Discovered with Brahe-s data that planetary orbitals are elliptical not circular
-wrote The New Astronomy

Saint Batholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

Coligny and 3,000 fellow Huguenota were buthered in Paris, a total of approximately 20,000 Huguenots were killed in France

Baroque Art


-"Fancy" art found in palaces and castles of the rulers
-scenes from the Bible
-religious and secular ends


1588 - 1679

-Leviathon 1651
-about English Civil War
-in the state of nature, man is evil and selfish
-thought Absolue government was best
-rights taken away -> gov't pretects you from yourself

Spanish Armada


Defeated by Eng., 1/3 of the Spanish didnt return

Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

royal absolutism, limited power of parlements, assinated, monpoly on gunpowder, mines, and salt

Decline of Gothic Art...


Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1750

-about 200 years
-products and goods consumed by individuals of different economic and social backgrounds
-allowed everyone to buy similar products as those of upper
and middle class people


1596 - 1650

-Discourse on Method published 1637
-Cartesiam Dualism
-2 Worlds of existence

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1685

-Louis the XIV renounced the Edict and declared Protestantism illegal with the Edict of Fontainebleau

Edict of Nantes


-gave Calvinists rights in France, which was still a Catholic country

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Spanish writer...Don Quixote mocking society

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

-Prime minister was Cardinal Richelieu
-who ruled for Louis until he was abe to rule for himself

30 year's war

1618 - 1648

in HRE, last and most destructive of the Religious wars
Catholics against Protestants and Calvinists: Political and
Religious differences
Ended by the Treaty of Westphalia

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

-Leap of Faith

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

-English Civil War
-Many other wars


1632 - 1704

-In state of nature man is generally good
-Tablua Rasa
-blank slate, everyone starts w/ one
-Representative Gov't
-govt protects natural rights -> overthrow if needed
-Treatises on Gov't (1st and 2nd)

Galileo Condemned....


-put under house arrest for vehement suspicion of heresy

Long/Short Parliament


-Short: expressed refusal of House of Common Life
-Long: pass financial bills

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Cromwell: alliance with scotland and reorganization of Parl.
(Puritan republic) Parliament Victory
Parl. abolished monarchy, house of lords, & anglican church
Glorious Rev: repeal of test act by James II,
Bill of Rights (William of Orange and Mary II)
Tolersation Act
Restoration/Charles II: Test Act,

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

-A.K.A. Sun King or Louis the Great
-cheif minister Mazarin
-took rule after his death
-France was leading European power and they fought three major wars: Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg and the War of the Spanish Succession
-France was in debt already and they became even more in debt b/c of the funding of the wars

Dutch Golden Age


-trade, science, military, and art were all improved in this time period

Agricultural Revolution

1650 - 1850

-helped drive the industrial revolution
-innovative farm productions that led to scientific and mechanized agriculture
-enclosure method: rotate crops every couple years or so, it allows the land to refertilize which allows the crops to grow better
-low countries are netherlands and Germany

Robert Walpole

1650 - 1700

Royal Society of London


-Investigate Natural Philosophy...happening in societies, not the universities
-Margaret Cavendish: Only woman allowed to go to the meetings in the societies

Newton's Principia Matematica

july 5 1687

-first published on this date
-has Gravitational laws, Kepler's planetary motin laws, etc -> one of the most important scientific books in history


1694 - 1778

-French Enlightentment writer, philosopher and historian

end of Witch hunts


-spread of science
-state got involved
-society became orderly

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

-Charles II died w/o direct heirs power went to Philip of Anjou --> Philip V of Spain
-Eng., Holland & HRE= Grand Alliance to balance all power
-Fr. went to war w/ inadequate finances
-Fr. made peace w/ Eng. at Utrecht in 1713, and holland march 1714 at rastatt

Act of Settlement in Great Britian


-settle succession english and irish crowns for the granddaughter of James I and he protestant heirs

Neoclassicism and Rococo

1710 - 1750

-"Fancier" then Baroque (Rococo)

-many neoclassical painters used scenes of heroism and self-sacrifice

Neoclassicism and Rococo

1710 - 1770

-Rococo "fancier" than baroque
-many neoclassical painters used scenes of heroism and self-sacrifice

Charles the VI of Austria

1711 - 1740

-Pragmatic Sanction:
-didn't have a male heir
-made sure his daughter would be able to take over the
throne after he died


1712 - 1778

-idea of General Will
-Emile 1762
-"best and most important of all my writings"
-Social Contract 1762
- man is born free

Treaty of Utrecht


Prussia got Silesia, Spain renewed GB's to import slaves into Spanish colonies (from treaty)

death of Louis XIV


-died of gangrene

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

-marketing scheme
-bubble burst in 1720


1723 - 1790

-Wealth of Nations published 1776
-about economics

War of Jenkin's Ear

1739 - 1748

-conflict between GB and Spain
-one of the leader's ears were cut off and he gave it to his Fiance

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

-Charles V no male heir --> Pragmatic Sanction (allows Maria Theresa to be ruler)
-Charles dies in 1740 --> break PS and Prussia invades, they get Silicia
-Keeps Hapsburgs from expanding...Fr. and Prussia (allied with GB) are always fighting

Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia

1740 - 1786

-Considered an enlightened despot
-attacked Austria and claimed Sliesia for Prussia
-Prussia has an outstanding army
-nephew had to take over after he died b/c he didn't have a son

Maria Theresa of Austria

1740 - 1780

-daughter of Charles VI
-pragmatic sanction made for her to have rule

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

-Spinning Jenny: 1765 invented by James Hargreaves, 16 spindles of thread to be spun at a time -> end of cuentury it was able to operate 120 spindles
-Water Frame: invented by Richard Arkwright, water powered device designed of purely cotton fabric
-Steam Engine: perfected by James Watt 1769 but invented by Thomas Newcomen, portable source of industrial power, used in mines to pump water out of the coal and tin mines

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

-France and Prussia against Great Britian and Austria -> Great Britian and Prussia against France and Austria....Hapsburgs and Bourbons working with each other...france was weak they had troops in new world
-Ended by Treaty of Paris (balanced power of France and Spain, GB got more power)

Diplomatic Revolution


-reversal of the long standing alliances in the war of Austrian Succession


1759 - 1797

-Vind. of Rts. of Women published 1792
-argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, we are
less educated

Catherine The Great

1762 - 1796

-Enlightened despot
-had to give power to the nobles so she could stop the peasant revolts

Joseph II of Austria

1764 - 1790

-Enlightened despot
-had no sons so hs younger brother took over after he died


1766 - 1834

-Principle of Population published anonimously in 1798
-Iron Law of Population


1772 - 1823

-Iron Law of Wages
-often crdited for systemizing economics

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

estates general called 1789
nobles renounced feudal priv. 8.4.1789
storming of bastille 7.14.1789
march of fishwives 10. 5-6.1789
legislative assembly meets 10.1.1791
tuileries stormed king captive 8.10.1792
convention meets monarch abolished 9.21.1792
Louis XVI exxcuted 1.21.1793
Conts. of year III 8.22.1795
Directory 11.9.1799 overthrown
tennis Court oath 6.20.1789
Great fear july 1789
rts of man and citizen 8.27.1789
war w/ austria
levee en masse 8.23.1793
reign of terror 9.5.1793
danton excuted 4.6.1794
fall of robespierre 7.27.1794
Napoleon-coup Brumaire 11.9.1799

Civil Constitution of Clergy


-Roman Catholic Church under French Government
-supposed to settle the Church from confiscating land and collecting tithes

Cult of Reason


-Intended to replace Christianity
-astethic belief system

Cult of the Supreme Being

May 7, 1794

-form of Deism in France est. by Robespierre during the French Rev.
-intended to become the state religion
-announced before th Nat'l Convention