Specific Religious wars

1300 - 1800

100 years War. German Peasants war. eight years war. 30 years war. English Scottish reformation.

Renaissance in Italy

1300 - 1500

Start of new art, humanism and individualism. The idea that you could do your own thing and no t have people tell you what to do. New and better art and different views on life.


1304 - 1374

Italian scholar and poet and a Renaissance Humanist.


1309 - 1434

The Avignon Papacy. The great Schism. John Wycliffe and Jan Hus. Pope moves to France, then there are 2 popes and even 3 then goes back to 1.

Avignon Papacy (Babylonian captivity)

1309 - 1376

Seven Popes resided in Avignon.


1313 - 1375

An Italian author and poet, a friend, student, and correspondent of Petrarch. Author of a number of notable works including the Decameron, On Famous Women.

The Black Death

1315 - 1350

The plague that came into Europe and killed many people but someone good sense there was some over population.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1320 - 1384

He was followed by Lollards who were rebellious movement. He translated bible into the common language. He was part of the Protestant reformation.

Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

All battles fought in France. Between England and France. Joan of Arc big factor. Long Bow invented and battle of Roses ends the war.

Golden Bull


Charles IV that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. It was named the Golden Bull for the golden seal it carried.



A popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

Considered the first Church reformer. He is famed for having been burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church. Going against the Catholic Church.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Charles V wanted to bring pope back to France.

Northern Renaissance

1400 - 1500

The northern Renaissance was more religious than the other renaissances but still had same idea of humanism. Printing press invented by Johann Gutenberg. Erasmus the famous humanist comes form the north.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

This ended the conflict when there were 3 Popes and electing one pope.

Columbus/ Start of Spainish Empire

1451 - 1506

Columbus claimed land for Spain even though, if it was in the Indies, it belonged to the Great Khan of China. Comprised territories and colonies administered by the Spanish Crown in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania.

Printing Press


Invented by Johanna Gutenberg. A device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium (substrate) such as paper or cloth.


1466 - 1536

Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian.Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. He was an early proponent of religious toleration.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain) (Re-married)


They were second cousins and when they married they brought both halves of Spain to rule all lands of Spain.

Witch Hunts

1480 - 1570

A witch-hunt is a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic,[1] or mass hysteria.

Colombian Exchange


Also known as the Grand Exchange, was a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves)

Agricultural Revolution

1500 - 1600

This was new forms used in Agricultural to create more food and make it faster and smoother. Enclosure were they would enclose certain lands to make more food. They now had a surplus for the country due to make of more food.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism. Some causes from the Industrial Revolution. Wanted more wealth for their nations.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

His papacy was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage for the arts.

Henry the VIII

1509 - 1574

He was married 6 times to 6 different women. Separation from the Roman Catholic Church. Established himself as supreme head of Church of England. Needed a male boy to take over throne but could never get one that's why he married a lot of woman and killed some of them.

Henry VIII (Eng)

1509 - 1574

The act of Supremacy declares himself the supreme head of the Church of England. The English Reformation England breaks away from the pope and Catholic Church.

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He broke from the Catholic Church around 1530. Pastors to preach and to administer the sacraments; doctors to instruct believers in the faith; elders to provide discipline; and deacons to care for the poor and needy.

Luther 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms


Wrote them to destroy indulgences were people pay their way in to heaven. Protestant reformation. Released all 95 publicly.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1526

Economic and Religion cause of revolts. Church attacked my Martin Luther.

The Prince: Machiavelli


The Prince is a book written by Machiavelli. This book talks about how to be a supreme ruler of your country.

William of Orange (The silent)

1533 - 1584

The main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

One of churches most important councils. City of Trent in Italy. Under the popes control. Reaffirmed education of clergy, good works salvation, and indulgences.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. Tycho was well known in his lifetime as an astronomer and alchemist.

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

Only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. As the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism.

Peace of Augusburg


treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes.It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanently within the Holy Roman Empire.

Elizabeth I of England r.

1558 - 1603

Was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Daughter of Henry VIII. Establishment of an English Protestant church. Very strong Ruler. 39 Articles: articles served to define the doctrine of the Church of England as it related to Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practice.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). Saint Bartholomew's day Massacre. Killed many Huguenots on this day.

François Ravaillac

1568 - 1648

Dutch leader William of Orange fighting against Phillip II of Spain. 30 years war.

Revolt in the Spainish Netherlands

1568 - 1648

Protestant Seventeen Provinces of the defunct Duchy of Burgundy in the Low Countries against the ardent militant religious policies of Roman Catholicism pressed by Philip II of Spain.

Spanish Armada


The Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia. Trying to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England.

Henry IV (France) r.

1589 - 1610

Henry was involved in the Wars of Religion; he barely escaped the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre and later led Protestant forces against the French Royal Army. Baptised Catholic, he converted to Protestantism.

Edict of Nates


Issued by Henry IV of France. Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic.

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)


artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1605 - 1615

A novel written by Miguel de Cervantes.

Henry IV Assassinated

May 14 1610

He was stabbed to death even though many people loved him François Ravaillac stabbed him.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

A series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers). Execution of Charles the first and second. Replacement of English Monarchy. Win the battle with Officer Cromwell, he becomes ruler but isn't good. Glorious Revolution overthrew king James the II.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


3 Book wrote by newton.The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics, also Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

English Bill of Rights


Act parliament passed. Sets rights and rules and limits for the crown and Parliament.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times

Storming of the Bastille


The prison was getting attacked to try and get as many people that were locked up there ended up only being 7 people in the whole prison who were prisoners.

March of the Fish Wifes


were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. Their demonstrations quickly became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France.