AP Euro1st semester timeline



1265 - 1321

famous for his divine comedy, wrote in Italian vernacular

renaissance in Italy

1304 - 1562

the rebirth of art and ideas in Italy, included increased interest in classical cultures and brought new emphasis to the individual, individualism


1304 - 1374

wrote Italian sonnets and became important to literary humanism movement, considered "father of humanism"

avignon papacy

1309 - 1376

when seven popes resided in Avignon, resulted in conflict between the french crown and the papacy, lead to the great schism


1313 - 1375

wrote Decameron which was during the black death, searched for ancient manuscripts

lollards:John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

rejected the roman catholic doctrine, his followers were called lollards

hundred years' war

1337 - 1453

was a conflict between France and England, it weakened the authority of the monarchy in both places

the black death

1347 - 1350

a bubonic plague spread causing a decrease in the labor and an increase in high wages, produced an economic decline and superstition

the Golden Bull


split the Holy Roman Empire into three ecclesiastical and four secular electors, made a new idea of government and changed the Empire



a french peasant revolt during the hundred years war, was suppressed by french nobles

hussites:John Hus

1369 - 1415

he followed the ideas of Wycliffe, held a revolt with his followers(Hussites)

great schism

1378 - 1417

a time when there was two popes in Rome, this caused a divide between people because of which pope they supported

witch hunts

1400 - 1700

was a cause for more deductive reasoning, it started because of aroused superstitions

decline of gothic art...

1400 - 1500

derived from the romans, included moody sculptures and towering statues

council of constance

1414 - 1418

ended three popes controversy, related to conciliarism and papal supremacy

northern renaissance

1427 - 1623

a time when the Italian renaissance spread to other European countries, was influenced with a secular christian spirit


1435 - 1498

most famous work is the Leviathon, he believed that we are evil in nature and are selfish beings

pope Julius II

1443 - 1513

was apart of the holy league, his papacy was marked by an active foreign policy


1451 - 1506

found the new world, got funded by the Spanish empire which just started with Ferdinand and Isabella

printing press-gutenburg


Gutenberg invented the printing press which made it possible to print many copies of books and spread texts to other locations, changed the rate at which information was spread


1466 - 1536

considered the prince of the humanists, devoted his life to classical studies, ridiculed the attitudes of his time and greed and superstition, was a major impact on humanism


1469 - 1527

famous for the Prince, in which he adopted a secular and amoral view of politics, changed the way ruling and leading a state was viewed


1473 - 1543

wrote On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres, came up with the heliocentric theory which changed the way the universe was perceived and further study of astronomy

ferdinand and isabella

1474 - 1516

started the spanish inquisition when they gained control over their catholic church, during their reign Columbus found the new world, they were open to change

columbian exchange


an exchange of slaves, crops, etc. influenced native americans and their countries and England

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

he was protestant, he lead the reformation in Geneva, was influenced by Luther, spread Calvinism and reform

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

ruler of England, instigated act of supremacy which made Henry head of the church, he didn't support the English reformation

luther-95 thesis


Luthers debate against indulgences, this began to post questions on the legitimacy of indulgences


1517 - 1563

Catholics fought against protestants, promoted secularism and involved religious issues


1520 - 1580

Michelangelo used it, it took on the characteristics of limited naturalism, baroque style replaced it

luther-diet of worms


diet called Luther to recant but Luther refused, promoted individualism

german peasant revolts

1524 - 1525

peasants revolted against landowners, they sought to abolish serfdom and the manorial system

act of supremacy


made king Henry head of church as well as head of state


1534 - 1540

Ignatius Loyola was the leader, they were the society of Jesus and were organized and had a system of prayer and discipline, they influenced the religion of others

council of trent

1545 - 1563

included bishops, archbishops, and church leaders, rejected compromise with protestants and attempted to eliminate abuses in the church, lead to Catholic/counter reformation

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

he collected a mass of data that was accurate about the stars and the planets, this data undermined the Ptolemaic view of the universe


1547 - 1616

famous for Don Quixote which told about Spanish life and human nature

age of mercantilism

1550 - 1750

the economic theory was founded which was that there is limited stuff in the world, government can't run trade, maximize exports and minimize imports

Mary I

1553 - 1558

attempted to restore roman Catholicism, she persecuted England's protestants, nickname bloody mary, influenced people against her beliefs, in reign for 5 years

peace of augsburg


an agreement from the religious civil wars in Germany, gave each German prince the right to decide the religion for his state, gave the idea of cuius regio, eius religio or whose region, his religion

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

act of uniformity was established along with a modified book of common prayer, thirty nine articles approved protestants in their church


1561 - 1626

wrote Novum Organum, he insisted on valid conclusions and deductive reasoning, was influential during his time and promoted the Inductive Method


1564 - 1616

English poet, changed english entertainment and the way plays were written


1571 - 1630

wrote The New Astronomy, came up with the laws of planetary motion which changed the study of astronomy and their previous beliefs of how the planets moved

saint bartholomew's day massacre


group of assassinations against Huguenots during the french wars of religion, marked a turning point in the french wars of religion

pacification of Ghent


an alliance of the provinces in the Netherlands and they rebelled against the Spanish

Union of Utrecht


the provinces in Netherlands revolt against the Spanish, William of Orange united Netherlands

rise of the Netherlands-dutch golden age

1580 - 1670

a time when the dutch were in high regard and had very good trade and science and art

dutch revolt

1584 - 1609

the dutch revolted against the Spanish, resulted in dutch independence

spanish armada


plan for joining forces with the Spanish to invade France, the result was the armadas defeat, was the first step in the decline of spanish power

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

he began the process of reestablishing the power of the French Monarchy, was a protestant then converted to roman Catholicism for his subjects, was assassinated


1596 - 1650

wrote Discourse on Method which set forth the Cartesian method, supported the Deductive method, famous quote "I think therefore I am.", he had influential ideas but they were later replaced

Edict of Nantes


issued after the wars of religion and granted limited toleration to French protestants and the Huguenots, created temporary religious freedom

consumer revolution

1600 - 1750

a time when the consumption of items was increased, also allowed those who weren't greatly wealthy to consume

baroque art

1600 - 1700

inspired by classical times, encouraged the renaissance, inspired by humanism

James I

1603 - 1625

believed that he ruled by divine right therefore rejecting traditional parliamentary government, separated parliament into two houses: house of lords and house of commons

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

his chief minister was cardinal Richelieu, they made rise to royal power and french power in europe

thirty years' war

1618 - 1648

resulted in the treaty of Westphalia which gave religious toleration for calvinism and germany remained fragmented and prussia rises in power, Calvinists demanded recognition for their rights and revolted

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

wrote Pensees, he was an influential mathematician that changed the studies of math for the future

charles I

1625 - 1649

he passed the petition of rights which said the king could not levy taxes, etc. without the consent of the parliament


1632 - 1704

wrote Treatises on Government 1st and 2nd, believed that we are good in nature and that we are all equal and have natural rights

Galileo condemed...


the Roman Inquisition condemned Galileo because of his Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World, his arrest shows the restrictions on freedom back during that time

long/short parliament

1640 - 1660

long lasted 20 years and short lasted a few months, during the british civil war


1642 - 1727

wrote Principia Mathematica which set forth the law of universal gravitation, people now knew an explanation of gravity

English civil wars

1642 - 1651

Charles II lost control of his parliament, cromwell lead the parliamentary victory, the Stuarts ruled before the civil wars, lead to glorious revolution and the writing of the english bill of rights

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

elected Mazarin, ruled with personal rule which was I am the state, fronde rebelled during his reign

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

the fronde

1649 - 1652

refers to the rebellion of nobles against centralized power in which the rebellious usually lost

commercial revolution

1650 - 1750

shift from agrarian society to a more modern society

charles II

1660 - 1685

parliament passed clarendon code which restricted some religious groups, there was question of hjs succession

royal society of london


for improving knowledge, also known for science

robert walpole

1676 - 1745

first prime minister of great britain, he pursued a policy of peace and reducing the national debt

peter the great

1682 - 1725

wanted to westernize and modernize his country, was extremely conservative

revocation of edict of nantes


granted religious toleration with damaging results for france

james II

1685 - 1688

attempted to instal royal absolutism and a restoration of roman catholicism

charles VI

1685 - 1740

he instituted the pragmatic sanction which ensured the succession of his daughter for Habsburg

William of Orange

1689 - 1702

became William III, he was a protestant, he passed the bill of rights and the toleration act


1694 - 1778

most recognized work was Candide, which adress religious controversy and bashed some religions, also adressed social issues, a controversal book at the time

the great northern war

1700 - 1721

between russia and sweden, over liberty and supremacy


1700 - 1800

was influenced greatly by the old greek style, western movements with decorative style

emergence of Rococo

1700 - 1800

a lighter and more ornate style, many rococo churches built in germany and austria, more secular buildings

end of witch hunts


it ended because people got tired of the terror and there was more of a scientific view and people were more concerned with reality

act of settlement in great britain


to settle the succession of the British throne and secure the succession of a protestant, changed politics of succession

war of spanish succession

1701 - 1714

england, holland, and the holy roman empire were against the french, the french lost lots of colonies the english had taken during the war, shifted the powers that the countries had over one another

agricultural revolution

1712 - 1884

inventions of farming machinery, new crops, spread to the low lands, creation of the enclosure method


1712 - 1778

wrote Emile and Social contract, believed that we were good and happy but the civilization has corrupted us, supported idea of General Will, this shaped how government was seen because it promoted the individual in society

treaty of utrecht


it registered the defeat of the French ambitions and preserved the idea of balance of power, ends war of spanish succession

french revolution

1715 - 1799

gave nationalism to france and established confidence at times to their country, gave france a republic

death of louis XIV


he left a legacy of financial problems for his successors to deal with, was executed by his people

mississippi bubble

1718 - 1720

economic crisis, france can't pay off debt and their economy crashes

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

wrote Wealth of Nations which addressed mercantilism and their doctrines and practices, this changed the way mercantilism was viewed

industrial revolution

1733 - 1903

industrialized textiles and transportation and introduced machines and communication and limited liability, introduced the spinning jenny and the water frame and the steam engine

war of Jenkins's ear


it was a dispute over british trade and was between great britain and spain

war of austrian succession

1740 - 1748

anti-austrian alliance collapsed, great britain provided finances for austria but had little effect on the war, ensured austria's power

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

known as frederick the great, he began the war of Austrian succession, he particiated in the first partition of poland, he increased the power of prussian monarchy, promoted economic development

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

from Austria, stripped nobility of their administrative functions, took more control over her domains, women gained more confidence

seven years' war

1756 - 1763

treaty of paris ended it which made little left of france, british won, made great britain, prussia and russia most powerful at that time

diplomatic revolution


a time of longstanding alliances, upheld till war of austrian succession

catherine the great

1762 - 1796

she admired the reform ideas of the enlightenment, established a legislative commission and issued the charter of nobility

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

granted limited religious toleration for Christians, he was austria's ruler, he promoted trade, promoted many reforms, governed in the spirit of despotism


1766 - 1834

wrote principle of population which said that the population was increasing while food was increasing but in a different way


1772 - 1823

wrote about an iron law of wages in his Principles of politics and economy and taxation, wages would hover and labor should be regarded as anything else

american revolution

1775 - 1783

needed less british protection, no more fear of french agression

estates general called...


louis XVI calls them o win a popular vote for new taxes

tennis court oath


established the national assembly, stated that the third estate would not return until france had created a constitution

rights of man and citizen


national assembly made this new declaration that all men and citizens(excluding women) would have equal rights

civil constitution of the clergy


was an attempt to deal with the financial crisis

great fear


rumors were being spread of famine and bandits, all citizens now had equal rights

storming of bastille


a paris mob storms the bastille to get their king and queen to come back to paris so they can help them with the problems in their society

march of the fishwives


women marched to versailles because they were angry about the price of bread at the time

legislative assembly meets...

1791 - 1792

a meeting of radicals who wanted to push the revolution even further: girondists and the mountain



she wrote a vindication on the rights of women, which stood up for womens rights, women started to think they can speak up for themselves

cult of reason


was an atheistic belief system as a replacement for Christianity

national convention meet...

1792 - 1795

sans-culottes, support of radicals, they ruled the country for three years

cult of supreme being


was a form of deism, formed by robspierre

levee en masse


the conscription of able bodied men into armies of the revolution

execution of Louis XVI...


national convention found him guilty of conspiracy against the liberty of the people

fall of robspierre


conspirators arrested robspierre and he was beheaded the next day

reign of terror


robspeirre hoped to create a republic of virtue, extreme violence was justified to end this

the directory

1795 - 1799

directory had to rely mainly on the army for support on corruption and inflation

constitution of year III


new constitution established the directory