Second Half of IDS

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Declaration of Independence

1776

-July 2, 1776, Congress formally declares the U.S. an independent -2 days later Declaration of Independence (written by Thomas Jefferson/revised by Congress) is approved
-Mostly grievances against King George III
-Profound impact thought to be derived from powerfully-worded preamble→ PREAMBLE!!
-talks about "natural unalienable rights" and right to rebel → in the end, must deal with these consequences, at end talks about divine prov.

William Lloyd Garrison

1805 - 1860

wrote The Liberator, the need breed of abolition found a permanent voice call for immediate abolition echoed throughout antislavery circles
- Theodore Weld→ Garrison’s most notable propagandist helped to create mass constituency for Garrison’s movement

Hartford Convention

1814

DECEMBER dying words of the Federalist Party, voiced their long-term grievances for example the right of the states to "interpose" if the gov violated the Constitution

The American System

1815 - 1817

(coined by Henry Clay): three pillars: a new national bank, a tariff on imported manufactured goods to protect American industry, and federal financing of improved roads and canals → Madison created this blueprint in his annual message to congress in Dec. 1815--> vetoed by Mdison in March 1817 b/c powers that exceed the national government

Battle of New Orleans

1815

JANUARY Jackson produced greatest American victory fighting off British invasion ***after war of 1812

Frederick Douglass

1818 - 1860

•In age of “self-made man” no American rose more dramatically from humble origins no national and international distinction
•Born into slavery, became major figure in crusade for abolition
•In violation of Maryland law, learned to read and write from owner’s wife/white kids
• “Knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom” escaped to free North
• Fought in other reform movements (i.e. campaign for women’s rights
• Argued that in their desire for freedom, slaves were truer to nation’s underlying principles than the white Americans who annually celebrated 4th of July while allowing existence of slavery

Adams-Onis Treaty

1819

Andrew Jackson led troops in 1818 which caused conflict because executed 2 British traders and many Indian chiefs, Jackson withdrew but eventually Spain sold land to America in this treaty

Panic of 1819

1819

o land boom→ acute to the south with CK was expanding; economic bubble burst→ early in 1819 European demand for American farm products declined to normal levels; distrust of banks → many states suspended the collection of debts which eased the burden of indebted farmers but injured those who loaned the bank money
o McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)→ Marshall declared the Bank a legitimate exercise of congressional authority (necessary and proper clause)

Mormons

1820 - 1860

wanted to create a Kingdom of God on earth, founded in 1820s by John Smith, Mormons were distinguished from rest of society b/c didn’t want to separate church and state and polygamy

Harriet Tubman

1820 - 1860

→ one of the few who made forays to the South to liberate slaves, born in MD in 1820, escaped to Philadelphia in 1849 made roughly 20 dangerous trips to the south ***created the Underground railroad: a loose organization of sympathetic abolitionists who hid fugitives in their homes and sent them out to the next “station”

Missouri Compromise

1820
  1. Missouri comes in as a slave state
  2. Maine splits from MA to be a free state
  3. Draw a line for future admitted states, Northern side= free states, Southern side= slave states

The Monroe Doctrine

1823

1)US would oppose any further efforts of European colonization in America
2)US would abstain from involvement in the wars of Europe
3)Warned European powers not to interfere with newly independent states of LA

"corrupt bargain"

1824

Adams appointed Clay as secretary of state because he gave his support, Jacksonians think this is corrupt

Erie Canal

1825

***state financed, allowed goods to flow b/w the Great Lakes and NYC, many famers migrated from NE to form cities like Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse, many other states built canals to keep up with NY's success

John Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829

6th president of the US, had a clear vision of national greatness, at home he supported the American system and abroad he promoted America

John C. Calhoun

1828

elected VP to Jacson in 1828, justified nullification, tied it back to the Constitution and states individual rights when Congress exceeded theirs, wrote Exposition and Protest

Nullification Crisis

1828 - 1833

opposition on tariff of 1828 ("tariff of abominations") raised taxes on southerners on imported manufactured goods in order to benefit north, SC leads threat to nullify tariff, Calhoun for Nullification, Jackson against (believes it = disunion) Clay/Calhoun present a new tariff which further reduced duties to distract from the Force Act but SC still nullified

Abolition Movements

1829 - 1860
  • An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World by David Walker (free black man, born in NC and now operated a used clothing store in Boston)→ 1829, called for black Americans to mobilize for abolition and warned whites
  • "moral suasion"→ strategy of pacifists and “non-resistants”, slave holders must be convinced of their sinful ways and the North of its complicity in the peculiar institution
  • Abolitionism and the revolutionary heritage→ used the Declaration of Independence and interpreted the preamble as a condemnation of slavery
  • "What, to the Slave, is the Fourth of July?" → FD discussed how 4th of July festivities reveal the hypocrisy in the nation (libery alongside slavery)

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

7th president who won a resounding victory over Van Buren and Adams in election of 1828, a symbol of the self-made man and the developments of his era (market revolution, westward movement expansion of slavery, growth of democracy), fought in war of 1812 from a humble background

The Proslavery Argument

1830 - 1860

fewer and fewer white southerners still thought of slavery as a “necessary evil”
- Effects of emancipation elsewhere→ southern slave owners watched the effect of emancipation in places like the Caribbean and Britain
- proslavery: said that since former slaves in Britain preferred to grow food for their own family they said emancipation was a failure
- Abolitionists: the living conditions of freed slaves improved, education spread, and other improvements

Indian Removal Act

1830

provided funds for uprooting the so-called Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chikasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Semionle) contradicted Jefferson's ideas that Indians could assimilate into society because these tribes had made an effort to do so

Nat Turners Rebellion

1831

best know of all slave rebels NT was a slave preacher in VA who believed that God had chosen him to lead a black uprising, on August 22nd, 1831 him and many followers marched from farm to farm assaulting white inhabitants, when it was finally stopped 80 slaves had joined and 60 whites were dead, rebellion sent shock waves through the entire south and instead of moving toward emancipation, the VA legislature of 1832 decided to fasten more tightly on the chains of bondage

Bank War

1832
  • Bank symbolized hopes and fears inspired by market revolution
  • to some: expansion of banking helped finance nation's economic development
  • others: bankers were distrustful
  • issue of inflation Biddle's bank in 1820s effectively curbed over issue, stabilizing $
  • Biddle says bank can destroy any state bank
  • charter wouldn't expire till 1836 but Biddle attempts to extend it for 20 years in 1832
  • democrats challenge power of bank
  • Jackson VETOES shows he is a defender of "humble members of society" uses veto as weapon

Whig Party

1832 - 1854

favored the American System (3 sections- National bank, tariffs and internal improvements)
- believed that if each state gave up a little to help the Union than the country would be in better shape
- Whigs believed that the gov should be involved in people's lives where as the Democrats rejected that theory
- Whigs attracted--> established businessmen and bankers
- party ended in 1854--> Kansas- Nebraska Act

Force Bill

1832

Jefferson authorized to use the army and nave to collect customs duties

Lowell "Mill Girls"

1836

young, unmarried, from Yankee farm families dominated the work force, first time in history a large group of women left their home to do work in the public world

Annexation of Texas

1837 - 1845

Texas previously part of Mexico but not that many Mexicans living there so give land grants to Americans Texans still want local control, turns into a rebellion, since large amount of settlers from American ask for help from America, eventually separate from America, America would have to annex Texas, Southerners for it (expansion = more slavery) Northerners against it, right before Polk's election Congress declared Texas part of the US (one of Polk's main assets for campaign was support for annexation)

Martin Van Buren

1837 - 1841

-Adams’ program hands his political rivals a powerful weapon, with individual rights, states’ rights, and limited government as rallying cry, Jackson’s supporters begin to organize for election of 1828
-Almost as soon as Adam’s takes office Martin Van Buren, senator from NY supervises task
-Clash of Van Buren/Adams→ politics changing! Adams = old politics (son of president, sterling intellectual accomplishments) Van Buren/Jackson = new political era!
-Son of tavern keeper, no special intellect, WITH A COMPELLING IDEA
-Political parties not dangerous/divisive, were necessary and UNITED leaders from different regions in support of common candidate

The Amistad Case

1839

53 slaves took control of the Amistad ship and tried to force the navigator to steer it to Africa eventually a US vessel stopped it, Adams fought a succeeded to send these slaves back to Africa because they had recently been brought here which violated slave trade treaties

Utopian Communities

1840 - 1860

100 reform communities formed in decades before Civil War
- Shaker beliefs→ God had a “dual” personality (male and female) the sexes were considered spiritually equal, “Virgin purity” men and women kept separately children only though adoption instead of natural increase
- Oneida→ found in 1848 in upstate NY by John Humphrey Noyes, community formed in Putney, Vermont, community notorious for “complex marriage” where a man can propose sexual relations with any woman who had the right to accept or reject but it would be registered in a public record book

- Robert Owen’s New Harmony→ Owen was a British factory owner, created New Harmony because of the bad conditions of laborers, this new harmony created a better living style for immigrants caused controversy with Harmony

Nativism

1840 - 1860

hostility to newcomers, “nativists” didn’t want immigration to impact American political life (blamed immigrants for crime and gave stereotypes)

Oregon Treaty

1844

during James K. Polk election of 1844

  • Reduce Tariff✓
  • Re-establish independent treasury system✓
  • Settle dispute over ownership of Oregon✓(treaty w/Britain dividing Oregon)
  • Bring California into Union *proved to be more difficult
  • Polk sends emissary to purchase region…Mexican gov. refuses to negotiate
  • Plans for military action…in April Zachary Taylor moves in on border TX/MX! Conflict inevitable

Wilmot Proviso

1846

idea that all territory gained from Mexico had no slavery, passed in the house not in senate

Mexican War

1846 - 1848
  • first American conflict fought on foreign soil
  • majority of Americans support war (minority in North opposes), bulk of fighting occurs in central Mexico
  • Lincoln = critic ***Although Mexico had abolished slavery and considered all persons before law the new TX constitution protected civil right and denied civil right to Indians and Africans--> Spanish Africans = white

Free Soil Party

1848
  • considered part of the republican party
  • believed decision of slavery should be left to settlers, Van Buren and Charles Francis Adams, popular sovereignty

Gold Rush California

1848

gold was discovered in 1848 and population rose to 200,000 in 1852 compared to a previous 15,000

Seneca Falls Convention

1848

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott key organizers, gathering on behalf of women’s rights created a Declaration of Sentiments which included a list of rights on the part of man toward women

Popular Sovereignty

1848 - 1850

every year Douglass proposed territorial governments for Kansas and Nebraska and the status of slavery would be determined by local inhabitants of Mexican territories

Fugitive Slave Act

1850

special federal commissioners determined the fate of alleged fugitives without benefit of trial by jury or testimony, everyone had to help with the capture of fugitives, many abolitionists refused to do so, by law if fugitive slaves found in North had to send them back!!

Compromise of 1850

1850

proposed by Henry Clay
1) California comes in as a free state
2) slave trade abolished in the capital ***now nowhere in country can legally get slaves from Africa east of MS
3) fugitive slave law
4) slavery determined in Mexico territories by white inhabitants→ popular sovereignty
5) pay of Texas debt

Uncle Tom's Cabin

1852

by Harriet Beecher Stowe, modeled on the autobiography of the fugitive slave Josiah Henson, portrayed slaves as sympathetic men and women and slaveholders as splitting up families which gave abolitionist message a powerful appeal

Kansas- Nebraska Act

1854

slavery was no longer prohibited in these territories, technically should be free because above the 36/30 but off balanced the free vs. slave states so instituted popular sovereignty

The Republican Party

1854 - 1860
  • supported the idea of a strong national government
  • strongly believed in a "free labor" system where there was opportunity for status improvements
  • against the expansion of slavery (not abolitionists however!)
  • consisted of: Anti-slavery democrats, Northern Whigs, Free Soilers, Know-Nothings

The Know Nothings

1854 - 1860

Nativisim (hostility to immigrants) became a national political movement and caused the Know-Nothings Party which did not share any information to the public and tried to reserve native-born Americans, nearly all European immigrants benefitted from being white

Dred Scott

1857

Taney Court
• during the 1830s Dred Scott was taken with his owner, Dr. John Emerson of Missouri, to Illinois where slaver was prohibited by the Northwest Ordinance and later to Wisconsin where there was also no slavery due to the Missouri Compromise
• Scott claimed this his temporary residence on free soil made him free
• Chief Justice Taney addressed 3 issues in Dred Scott Decision (1857 2 days after inauguration of Buchanan)
1. Can Scott sue in Federal court? NO (Taney could have stopped the case there b/c Scott was not a free slave but continued)
2. Do blacks have legal Constitutional rights? NO
3. Does Congress have the right to discuss slavery issues in territories? NO (brings into question all of Congress acts dating back to the Northwest Ordinance which restricted the expansion slavery while also undermining Douglas’s idea of popular sovereignty)
• Overall Taney declared that only white persons could be citizens of the US
• Worst decision the Supreme Court has ever made

Lincoln- Douglass Debates

1858

“A house divided cannot stand” –Lincoln, freedom meant opposition to slavery, Douglass- essence of freedom lay in local self-government and individual self-determination

John Brown

1859

October 16, 1859 with 21 men Brown (abolitionist) seized Harpers Ferry which didn’t make much military sense and was placed on trial for treason against VA, heightened sectional tensions

Secession Movement

1860

sparked by Lincolns victory because it put the south’s future in danger, people in the south knew status of slavery could drastically change within a few years, in months following the election several states began seceding
- South Carolina→ first to secede from the Union had highest percentage of slaves and a long history of political radicalism

The Election of 1860

1860

Douglas (D) vs. Lincoln (R)→ Lincoln won, 2 separate elections in North and South

Ft Sumter

1861

Lincoln had warned governor that he was replenishing the garrison’s food supply in South Carolina at Ft Sumter and Jefferson Davis ordered batteries to fire on the fort and its commander surrendered causing Lincoln to cell for 75,000 troops Civil war
- ***Lincoln wanted the South (not the Union) to fire the first shot and ensured this at Ft Sumter