Edward III tried to claim the French throne and a war broke out. English had the power of a long bow while French had Joan of Arc. The English lost their territorial holdings in France. Both France and England lost authority in the monarchy.
Bubonic Plague that swept through Europe in the mid 14th century. Fleas from infected rats transmitted the plague to humans. The plague spread rapidly through Europe. Death figures were high and people were blaming everyone.
Agreement to establish a new 7 member electoral college of German princes to chose the Holy Roman Emperor.
Peasants revolt with a series of bloody rebellions.
A group of people who got together to elect the new pope after great debate due to the Great Schism.
Devoted his life to classical studies. Most outstanding Christian humanist. Won title of Prince of the Humanists.
Gained control of Spain and used the church as an instrument of royal power.
Wanted to revive dynastic claim to Naples. Charles VII did a lot of damage to the Itlains.
A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.
A revolution that helped produce food faster. The enclosure method and seed drill were created during this revolution.
King of England. Ruled Anglican Church.
King of England during the reformation.
Peasant leaders followed in Luther’s teachings of Christian freedom, and revolted against their landlords.
Born as the "silent" because he had a small group of contradants.
Igantius was wounded during a battle with the French. Him and 6 followers took the vows of poverty and chaisty.
Met in three stages. An assembly of archbishops, bishops, and other church leaders. Program to eliminate abuses of the church.
Persectued Englands Protestants. Nickname of Bloody Mary.
whose region, his religion
Passed a new Act of Supermacy which repealed the pro-Catholic laws of Mary's regin and once again established the monarch as head of the Anglican Church.
French protestants known as Huguenots captured French king and a war broke out. Another war broke out when protestants plastered posters around Paris with anti catholic signs.
Made protestantism the officla religon of Englnad
Philip of Spain attempted to impose his reign in the Netherlands.
3,000 Huguenots were butchered in Paris. In the end an estimate of 20,000 Huguenots were killed.
After the Spanish fury ten large catholic southern provinces came together with 7 large protestant Northern provinces in a opposition against Spain.
Finnacal and shipping power, extensive trade, commerical empire
Armada joins forcewith a spanish army near Dunkirk in the Netherlands and carry out an invasion in England.
Protestant but converted to Roman Catholicism. "Paris is warth the mass"
Merctalism was created.
Strongly believed in the divine right. The only positive accomplishment was the King James Bible.
Assassinated Henry IV.
The exchange of goods between Europe, New World, and Africa.
Worst religous war in history. Between Roman Catholics and Lutherns
Charles was broke so he agreeded to sign the petition of right for the parilment to get money.
Long parilment met for 20 years. Short parilment met for 3 weeks.
House of lords against house of commons for power in England. The Stewarts were a scottish family that wanted English power. The Cromwells lead reorganization of parliamentary army
Ruled France under an absolute monarch.
"I am the state."
Was executed for committing several crimes.
Series of rebellions against royal power by elements of nobility and townspeople.
Made no attempt to reestablish royal absolutism and generally avoid conflicts with parliament.
The French academy and Berlin academy of science were scientists went to do further research.
Use of reason became prominent.
Issued Declaration of Liberty of Roman Catholicism. Gave freedom to all religious denominations.
Intended to use land more rationally. and to acheive greater commercial profits.
When Charles died he left the throne to Louis XIV however Leopold challenged him for the throne, starting a war.
Charles the VI failed to produce a male heir. Therefore he created the Pragmatic Sanction saying that any heir, male or female, would be able to take the throne.
Ends Spanish sucession war by making a peace treaty with England.
Theory that you should export more than you import.
All gold payments in France stopped. They were not reciving a paper money profit.
Mimnister of Great Britian. Took control of the government.
War started because of a dispute over British trade with the spanish colonies in America.
Invaded Silesia beginning the War of Austrian Succession. King of Prussia
Defended to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains. Her husband left her in control.
When Maria Theresa claimed Hapsburg domain.
Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Austria's alley. Later turned into the French and Indian war in the New World
Two parts. Contient part between Prussia and France. France and Great Britian.
Admired Enlightment ideas. Did little reform to Russia. Continued the program of develpoment from Peter the Great.
Declares that England gains land from the New Wold.
Way to mass proudce thread.
Holy Roman emperor. Governed in the spirt of enlightened despotism.
Co-ruled with mother and reestablished the Angelcian Church.
Permit the proudction of a purely cotton fabric.
Recieved power from mineral energy. Could be applied to many industrial and and eventually transportation uses.
The British conquest of French Canada had eliminated the American colonialst fear of the French.
When the pope moved to Avignon.
Bible was the only source of Christian doctrine. Translated bible to english. Rejected authority of hierarchy and papacy.
Lollards were Wycliffe's followers. They questioned supremacy and privileges of the pope and church hierarchy.
The Hussites were followers of John Huss from Bohemia who questioned Catholic teachings about the Eucharist.
The appearance of two rival popes. The popes were Italy and France. Their names were Urban VI and Clement VII. Eventually the council of constance will pick one of them to be the future pope.
People killed for committing witch craft.
The 95 theses was posted on a door of a church by Martin Luther in 1517. The theses were intended for scholars to debate the issue of indulgences. The Diet of worms occurred in 1521when Luther was put on trial to recant the 95 theses.
Columbus discovers the New World.
John Calvin discovers Calvinism which replaced Lutheranism as the dominant protestant force. He helped organize the Genevan Church into four offices.
Henry VII made himself the head of the church.
Ruler of the land determined the religion.
After the Spanish broke the Union of Brussels and Union of Arra Southern provinces made peace with Spain and the Northern provinces made the Union of Utrecht.
King of France. Created the Edict of Nantes.
King revoked the Edict of Nantes and initiated a campaign of active persecution.
Known as warrior pope because of his support to the military.
His two books, Vita Nuova, and Divine Comedy form the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature.
Developed sonnet. Had the nickname "Father of Humanism".
Wrote Decameron. Assembled encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.
Gutenberg created the first printing press and by 1456 he printed an edition of the bible. This was a huge accomplishment during the Northern Renaissance.
Discovered ALL planets revolved around the sun. Copernicus revolution.
Machiavelli was a humanist who created The Prince. The prince was a cynical satire about the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule.
Suggested Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun.
Astronomical discoveries. Ptolmaic view of the universe.
Don Quixote: Story of a Spanish nibleman who travled about the countryside in search of romantic adventures.
Scientific Method. Thought that everything happend for a reason. Wrote Novum Organum.
Famous playwright, poet, and actor. Wrote Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet.
Createor of the three laws of planteary motion. Wrote The New Astronmey.
Believed that if there was no government people would do whatever they wanted to. He created the Leviathan.
Wrote Discourse on Method. Said quote "I think therefore I am" which relates to his book reasoning v. general law. Philosophe during the enlightenment.
Surrendered his wealth to pursue an austere, self disciplined life. Made an effort to reconcile faith and new science.
Tabula Rasa-Everyone is born with a blank slate or clear start
Natural Rights-Everyone is born with life, liberty, and property Wrote Treatise of Govt. which is based on the social contract theory
Newton discovered the Laws of Graviton. In 1687 he published a book titled Principia Mathematica reasoning that every object in the universe affects every other object by Gravity.
A deist who wrote Candide.
Prolific and witty critic of Old Regime.
Wrote Emile. Believed in separate spheres for men and women. "All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains." describes his social contract.
Wrote Wealth of Nations
Creator of laissez-faire
Government attempts to regulate economy as the mercantilist had been doing.
Labor should be regarded like any other commodity whose price fluctuated in accordance with supply and demand.
Malthus’ Principle of Population explained that the human population will eventually outstrip the food supply. This book is important because it’s point leads into the “iron law of wages” by Ricardo.
Period when people began to adopt rational and statistical approach to reality and rediscover the worth and creativity of the individual.
Created a climate favorable to religious and educational ideas. The humanists took Italian ideas.
A type of complex art.
Inspired by classical styles and represented an outgrowth of the renaissance style. Baroque style was more extreme an exaggerated.
Assoicated with the aristocracy wih the old regime. Lavish light-heated, and pastel colors.
Return of Renissance ideas.
Louis XVI called them due to lack of cooperation from the aristocrats.
National assembly that agreed to not to leave until a constitution has been written.
People wanted to defend themselves against the king and to free prisoners.
People feared that royal troops were sent off into rural areas. Lower classes tried to destroy the Old Regime.
The declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. Natural Rights.
Women march to Versailles because the shortage of food. Brought Louis back to live in Pairs.
A document giving natural rights to all CITIZENS. Women were not considered citizens.
Women are just as smart as men and thought women could bring more and different ideas to the table.
Angry mob stormed into the King's home and captured him.
Goridists declared war on Austria because they wanted to preserve the revoultion.
People felt the monarch was oppressive and more freedom was needed.
Fascist. People wanted him executed.
Paranoid about counter-revoultionaries. He was beheaded.
Radical phase. 25000 people killed.
Get rid of Christianity.
When people were suspicious of everyone.
Govt. in place then Napoleon took over. Became dictator of France.
First functioning govt. consisted of an executive body.