Edward III tried to claim the French throne and a war broke out. English had the power of a long bow while French had Joan of Arc. The English lost their territorial holdings in France. Both France and England lost authority in the monarchy.
The Black Death
Bubonic Plague that swept through Europe in the mid 14th century. Fleas from infected rats transmitted the plague to humans. The plague spread rapidly through Europe. Death figures were high and people were blaming everyone.
The Golden Bull
Agreement to establish a new 7 member electoral college of German princes to chose the Holy Roman Emperor.
Peasants revolt with a series of bloody rebellions.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1417
A group of people who got together to elect the new pope after great debate due to the Great Schism.
1466 - 1536
Devoted his life to classical studies. Most outstanding Christian humanist. Won title of Prince of the Humanists.
Ferdinand and Isabella
1474 - 1504
Gained control of Spain and used the church as an instrument of royal power.
Itlay's decline by invasions
1494 - 1527
Wanted to revive dynastic claim to Naples. Charles VII did a lot of damage to the Itlains.
1500 - 1600
A revolution that helped produce food faster. The enclosure method and seed drill were created during this revolution.
1500 - 1750
A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.
1509 - 1547
King of England during the reformation.
1509 - 1547
King of England. Ruled Anglican Church.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
Peasant leaders followed in Luther’s teachings of Christian freedom, and revolted against their landlords.
William of Orange
1533 - 1568
Born as the "silent" because he had a small group of contradants.
Igantius was wounded during a battle with the French. Him and 6 followers took the vows of poverty and chaisty.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Met in three stages. An assembly of archbishops, bishops, and other church leaders. Program to eliminate abuses of the church.
1553 - 1603
Persectued Englands Protestants. Nickname of Bloody Mary.
Cuius regio, eius religio
whose region, his religion
1558 - 1603
Passed a new Act of Supermacy which repealed the pro-Catholic laws of Mary's regin and once again established the monarch as head of the Anglican Church.
French Religous Wars
1562 - 1598
French protestants known as Huguenots captured French king and a war broke out. Another war broke out when protestants plastered posters around Paris with anti catholic signs.
Thirty Nine Articles
Made protestantism the officla religon of Englnad
1568 - 1648
Philip of Spain attempted to impose his reign in the Netherlands.
Saint Bartholomew's day massacre
3,000 Huguenots were butchered in Paris. In the end an estimate of 20,000 Huguenots were killed.
Pacification of Ghent
After the Spanish fury ten large catholic southern provinces came together with 7 large protestant Northern provinces in a opposition against Spain.
Rise of the Netherlande
1581 - 1715
Finnacal and shipping power, extensive trade, commerical empire
Armada joins forcewith a spanish army near Dunkirk in the Netherlands and carry out an invasion in England.
1589 - 1610
Protestant but converted to Roman Catholicism. "Paris is warth the mass"
1590 - 1800
Merctalism was created.
1603 - 1625
Strongly believed in the divine right. The only positive accomplishment was the King James Bible.
1610 - 1643
Assassinated Henry IV.
1616 - 1619
The exchange of goods between Europe, New World, and Africa.
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Worst religous war in history. Between Roman Catholics and Lutherns
1625 - 1649
Charles was broke so he agreeded to sign the petition of right for the parilment to get money.
1640 - 1660
Long parilment met for 20 years. Short parilment met for 3 weeks.
English Civil War
1642 - 1649
House of lords against house of commons for power in England. The Stewarts were a scottish family that wanted English power. The Cromwells lead reorganization of parliamentary army
Death of Louis XIV
1643 - 1715
Was executed for committing several crimes.
1643 - 1715
Ruled France under an absolute monarch.
"I am the state."
1648 - 1653
Series of rebellions against royal power by elements of nobility and townspeople.
1660 - 1685
Made no attempt to reestablish royal absolutism and generally avoid conflicts with parliament.
Academies of Science
1666 - 1701
The French academy and Berlin academy of science were scientists went to do further research.
End of the Witch Hunts
Use of reason became prominent.
Peter th Great
1682 - 1725
1685 - 1688
Issued Declaration of Liberty of Roman Catholicism. Gave freedom to all religious denominations.
Intended to use land more rationally. and to acheive greater commercial profits.
War pf Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
When Charles died he left the throne to Louis XIV however Leopold challenged him for the throne, starting a war.
1711 - 1740
Charles the VI failed to produce a male heir. Therefore he created the Pragmatic Sanction saying that any heir, male or female, would be able to take the throne.
Age of Mercantilism
1713 - 1776
Theory that you should export more than you import.
Treaty of Utrecht
Ends Spanish sucession war by making a peace treaty with England.
All gold payments in France stopped. They were not reciving a paper money profit.
1721 - 1742
Mimnister of Great Britian. Took control of the government.
War of Jenkins Ear
War started because of a dispute over British trade with the spanish colonies in America.
1740 - 1786
Invaded Silesia beginning the War of Austrian Succession. King of Prussia
1740 - 1780
Defended to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains. Her husband left her in control.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
When Maria Theresa claimed Hapsburg domain.
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
Two parts. Contient part between Prussia and France. France and Great Britian.
Seven Years' War
1756 - 1763
Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Austria's alley. Later turned into the French and Indian war in the New World
Cathriene the Great
1762 - 1796
Admired Enlightment ideas. Did little reform to Russia. Continued the program of develpoment from Peter the Great.
The Treaty of Pairs
Declares that England gains land from the New Wold.
1765 - 1790
Holy Roman emperor. Governed in the spirt of enlightened despotism.
1765 - 1780
Co-ruled with mother and reestablished the Angelcian Church.
Way to mass proudce thread.
Recieved power from mineral energy. Could be applied to many industrial and and eventually transportation uses.
Permit the proudction of a purely cotton fabric.
1775 - 1783
The British conquest of French Canada had eliminated the American colonialst fear of the French.
1309 - 1377
When the pope moved to Avignon.
1328 - 1384
Bible was the only source of Christian doctrine. Translated bible to english. Rejected authority of hierarchy and papacy.
Lollards were Wycliffe's followers. They questioned supremacy and privileges of the pope and church hierarchy.
Hussites: John Huss
1369 - 1415
The Hussites were followers of John Huss from Bohemia who questioned Catholic teachings about the Eucharist.
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
The appearance of two rival popes. The popes were Italy and France. Their names were Urban VI and Clement VII. Eventually the council of constance will pick one of them to be the future pope.
1400 - 1642
People killed for committing witch craft.
1483 - 1546
The 95 theses was posted on a door of a church by Martin Luther in 1517. The theses were intended for scholars to debate the issue of indulgences. The Diet of worms occurred in 1521when Luther was put on trial to recant the 95 theses.
Columbus Spanish Empire
Columbus discovers the New World.
John Calvin: Geneva
1509 - 1564
John Calvin discovers Calvinism which replaced Lutheranism as the dominant protestant force. He helped organize the Genevan Church into four offices.
Act of Supremacy
Henry VII made himself the head of the church.
Peace of Augsburg
Ruler of the land determined the religion.
Union of Utrecht
After the Spanish broke the Union of Brussels and Union of Arra Southern provinces made peace with Spain and the Northern provinces made the Union of Utrecht.
1589 - 1610
King of France. Created the Edict of Nantes.
Edict of Nantes
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
King revoked the Edict of Nantes and initiated a campaign of active persecution.
Pope Julius II
1765 - 1790
Known as warrior pope because of his support to the military.
Thinkers, authors/books, ideas, individuals
1265 - 1321
His two books, Vita Nuova, and Divine Comedy form the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature.
1304 - 1374
Developed sonnet. Had the nickname "Father of Humanism".
1313 - 1375
Wrote Decameron. Assembled encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.
Printing Press: Gutenberg
1456 - 1500
Gutenberg created the first printing press and by 1456 he printed an edition of the bible. This was a huge accomplishment during the Northern Renaissance.
1473 - 1543
Discovered ALL planets revolved around the sun. Copernicus revolution.
The Prince: Machiavelli
Machiavelli was a humanist who created The Prince. The prince was a cynical satire about the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule.
1546 - 1601
Suggested Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun.
1546 - 1601
Astronomical discoveries. Ptolmaic view of the universe.
1547 - 1616
Don Quixote: Story of a Spanish nibleman who travled about the countryside in search of romantic adventures.
1561 - 1626
Scientific Method. Thought that everything happend for a reason. Wrote Novum Organum.
1564 - 1616
Famous playwright, poet, and actor. Wrote Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet.
1571 - 1630
Createor of the three laws of planteary motion. Wrote The New Astronmey.
1588 - 1679
Believed that if there was no government people would do whatever they wanted to. He created the Leviathan.
1596 - 1650
Wrote Discourse on Method. Said quote "I think therefore I am" which relates to his book reasoning v. general law. Philosophe during the enlightenment.
1623 - 1662
Surrendered his wealth to pursue an austere, self disciplined life. Made an effort to reconcile faith and new science.
1632 - 1704
Tabula Rasa-Everyone is born with a blank slate or clear start
Natural Rights-Everyone is born with life, liberty, and property Wrote Treatise of Govt. which is based on the social contract theory
Newton: Principia Mathematica
Newton discovered the Laws of Graviton. In 1687 he published a book titled Principia Mathematica reasoning that every object in the universe affects every other object by Gravity.
1694 - 1778
A deist who wrote Candide.
Prolific and witty critic of Old Regime.
1712 - 1778
Wrote Emile. Believed in separate spheres for men and women. "All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains." describes his social contract.
1723 - 1790
Wrote Wealth of Nations
Creator of laissez-faire
Government attempts to regulate economy as the mercantilist had been doing.
1772 - 1823
Labor should be regarded like any other commodity whose price fluctuated in accordance with supply and demand.
Malthus-Principle of Population
Malthus’ Principle of Population explained that the human population will eventually outstrip the food supply. This book is important because it’s point leads into the “iron law of wages” by Ricardo.
1375 - 1527
Period when people began to adopt rational and statistical approach to reality and rediscover the worth and creativity of the individual.
1427 - 1623
Created a climate favorable to religious and educational ideas. The humanists took Italian ideas.
1520 - 1580
A type of complex art.
1550 - 1750
Inspired by classical styles and represented an outgrowth of the renaissance style. Baroque style was more extreme an exaggerated.
1700 - 1800
Return of Renissance ideas.
1700 - 1800
Assoicated with the aristocracy wih the old regime. Lavish light-heated, and pastel colors.
Estates general called
Louis XVI called them due to lack of cooperation from the aristocrats.
Legislative Assembly Meets
March of the Fishwives
Women march to Versailles because the shortage of food. Brought Louis back to live in Pairs.
Nobles Renounce feudal priv.
The declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. Natural Rights.
Rights of Man and Citizen
A document giving natural rights to all CITIZENS. Women were not considered citizens.
Storming of Bastille
People wanted to defend themselves against the king and to free prisoners.
Tennis Court Oat
National assembly that agreed to not to leave until a constitution has been written.
The Great Fear
People feared that royal troops were sent off into rural areas. Lower classes tried to destroy the Old Regime.
Tuileries Stormed-King Captive
Angry mob stormed into the King's home and captured him.
War with Austria
Goridists declared war on Austria because they wanted to preserve the revoultion.
Wollstonecraft-Vind. of Rights of Women
Women are just as smart as men and thought women could bring more and different ideas to the table.
Convention Meets-Monarch abolished
People felt the monarch was oppressive and more freedom was needed.
Levee en Masse
Cult of Reason
Get rid of Christianity.
Cult of Supreme Being
Radical phase. 25000 people killed.
Fascist. People wanted him executed.
Fall of Robespierre
Paranoid about counter-revoultionaries. He was beheaded.
Reign of terror
When people were suspicious of everyone.
Constitution of the year III
First functioning govt. consisted of an executive body.
1795 - 1799
Govt. in place then Napoleon took over. Became dictator of France.