1st Semester AP Euro timeline

General/Political history

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1443

Edward III tried to claim the French throne and a war broke out. English had the power of a long bow while French had Joan of Arc. The English lost their territorial holdings in France. Both France and England lost authority in the monarchy.

The Black Death


Bubonic Plague that swept through Europe in the mid 14th century. Fleas from infected rats transmitted the plague to humans. The plague spread rapidly through Europe. Death figures were high and people were blaming everyone.

The Golden Bull


Agreement to establish a new 7 member electoral college of German princes to chose the Holy Roman Emperor.



Peasants revolt with a series of bloody rebellions.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

A group of people who got together to elect the new pope after great debate due to the Great Schism.


1466 - 1536

Devoted his life to classical studies. Most outstanding Christian humanist. Won title of Prince of the Humanists.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1504

Gained control of Spain and used the church as an instrument of royal power.

Itlay's decline by invasions

1494 - 1527

Wanted to revive dynastic claim to Naples. Charles VII did a lot of damage to the Itlains.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1750

A period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.

Agricultural Revoultion

1500 - 1600

A revolution that helped produce food faster. The enclosure method and seed drill were created during this revolution.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

King of England. Ruled Anglican Church.

Henry VII

1509 - 1547

King of England during the reformation.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Peasant leaders followed in Luther’s teachings of Christian freedom, and revolted against their landlords.

William of Orange

1533 - 1568

Born as the "silent" because he had a small group of contradants.



Igantius was wounded during a battle with the French. Him and 6 followers took the vows of poverty and chaisty.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Met in three stages. An assembly of archbishops, bishops, and other church leaders. Program to eliminate abuses of the church.

Mary I

1553 - 1603

Persectued Englands Protestants. Nickname of Bloody Mary.

Cuius regio, eius religio


whose region, his religion

Elizabeth 1

1558 - 1603

Passed a new Act of Supermacy which repealed the pro-Catholic laws of Mary's regin and once again established the monarch as head of the Anglican Church.

French Religous Wars

1562 - 1598

French protestants known as Huguenots captured French king and a war broke out. Another war broke out when protestants plastered posters around Paris with anti catholic signs.

Thirty Nine Articles


Made protestantism the officla religon of Englnad

Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

Philip of Spain attempted to impose his reign in the Netherlands.

Saint Bartholomew's day massacre


3,000 Huguenots were butchered in Paris. In the end an estimate of 20,000 Huguenots were killed.

Pacification of Ghent


After the Spanish fury ten large catholic southern provinces came together with 7 large protestant Northern provinces in a opposition against Spain.

Rise of the Netherlande

1581 - 1715

Finnacal and shipping power, extensive trade, commerical empire

Spanish Armada


Armada joins forcewith a spanish army near Dunkirk in the Netherlands and carry out an invasion in England.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Protestant but converted to Roman Catholicism. "Paris is warth the mass"

Consumer Revoultion

1590 - 1800

Merctalism was created.

James I

1603 - 1625

Strongly believed in the divine right. The only positive accomplishment was the King James Bible.

Louis XII

1610 - 1643

Assassinated Henry IV.

Colimbane exchange

1616 - 1619

The exchange of goods between Europe, New World, and Africa.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Worst religous war in history. Between Roman Catholics and Lutherns

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Charles was broke so he agreeded to sign the petition of right for the parilment to get money.

Long/short parilment

1640 - 1660

Long parilment met for 20 years. Short parilment met for 3 weeks.

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

House of lords against house of commons for power in England. The Stewarts were a scottish family that wanted English power. The Cromwells lead reorganization of parliamentary army

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Ruled France under an absolute monarch.
"I am the state."
Built Versailles

Death of Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Was executed for committing several crimes.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

Series of rebellions against royal power by elements of nobility and townspeople.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Made no attempt to reestablish royal absolutism and generally avoid conflicts with parliament.

Academies of Science

1666 - 1701

The French academy and Berlin academy of science were scientists went to do further research.

End of the Witch Hunts


Use of reason became prominent.

Peter th Great

1682 - 1725

Westernize Russia.

James II

1685 - 1688

Issued Declaration of Liberty of Roman Catholicism. Gave freedom to all religious denominations.

Enclosure Method


Intended to use land more rationally. and to acheive greater commercial profits.

War pf Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

When Charles died he left the throne to Louis XIV however Leopold challenged him for the throne, starting a war.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Charles the VI failed to produce a male heir. Therefore he created the Pragmatic Sanction saying that any heir, male or female, would be able to take the throne.

Treaty of Utrecht


Ends Spanish sucession war by making a peace treaty with England.

Age of Mercantilism

1713 - 1776

Theory that you should export more than you import.

Mississippi Bubble


All gold payments in France stopped. They were not reciving a paper money profit.


1721 - 1742

Mimnister of Great Britian. Took control of the government.

War of Jenkins Ear


War started because of a dispute over British trade with the spanish colonies in America.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Invaded Silesia beginning the War of Austrian Succession. King of Prussia

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Defended to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains. Her husband left her in control.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

When Maria Theresa claimed Hapsburg domain.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Austria's alley. Later turned into the French and Indian war in the New World

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Two parts. Contient part between Prussia and France. France and Great Britian.

Cathriene the Great

1762 - 1796

Admired Enlightment ideas. Did little reform to Russia. Continued the program of develpoment from Peter the Great.

The Treaty of Pairs


Declares that England gains land from the New Wold.

Spinning Jenny


Way to mass proudce thread.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Holy Roman emperor. Governed in the spirt of enlightened despotism.

Joseph II

1765 - 1780

Co-ruled with mother and reestablished the Angelcian Church.

Water Frame


Permit the proudction of a purely cotton fabric.

Steam Engine


Recieved power from mineral energy. Could be applied to many industrial and and eventually transportation uses.

American Revoultion

1775 - 1783

The British conquest of French Canada had eliminated the American colonialst fear of the French.


Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

When the pope moved to Avignon.

John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

Bible was the only source of Christian doctrine. Translated bible to english. Rejected authority of hierarchy and papacy.
Lollards were Wycliffe's followers. They questioned supremacy and privileges of the pope and church hierarchy.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

The Hussites were followers of John Huss from Bohemia who questioned Catholic teachings about the Eucharist.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The appearance of two rival popes. The popes were Italy and France. Their names were Urban VI and Clement VII. Eventually the council of constance will pick one of them to be the future pope.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1642

People killed for committing witch craft.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

The 95 theses was posted on a door of a church by Martin Luther in 1517. The theses were intended for scholars to debate the issue of indulgences. The Diet of worms occurred in 1521when Luther was put on trial to recant the 95 theses.

Columbus Spanish Empire


Columbus discovers the New World.

John Calvin: Geneva

1509 - 1564

John Calvin discovers Calvinism which replaced Lutheranism as the dominant protestant force. He helped organize the Genevan Church into four offices.

Act of Supremacy


Henry VII made himself the head of the church.

Peace of Augsburg


Ruler of the land determined the religion.

Union of Utrecht


After the Spanish broke the Union of Brussels and Union of Arra Southern provinces made peace with Spain and the Northern provinces made the Union of Utrecht.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

King of France. Created the Edict of Nantes.

Edict of Nantes


Religous tolerance

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


King revoked the Edict of Nantes and initiated a campaign of active persecution.

Pope Julius II

1765 - 1790

Known as warrior pope because of his support to the military.

Thinkers, authors/books, ideas, individuals


1265 - 1321

His two books, Vita Nuova, and Divine Comedy form the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature.


1304 - 1374

Developed sonnet. Had the nickname "Father of Humanism".


1313 - 1375

Wrote Decameron. Assembled encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.

Printing Press: Gutenberg

1456 - 1500

Gutenberg created the first printing press and by 1456 he printed an edition of the bible. This was a huge accomplishment during the Northern Renaissance.


1473 - 1543

Discovered ALL planets revolved around the sun. Copernicus revolution.

The Prince: Machiavelli


Machiavelli was a humanist who created The Prince. The prince was a cynical satire about the way rulers actually do behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule.


1546 - 1601

Suggested Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Astronomical discoveries. Ptolmaic view of the universe.


1547 - 1616

Don Quixote: Story of a Spanish nibleman who travled about the countryside in search of romantic adventures.


1561 - 1626

Scientific Method. Thought that everything happend for a reason. Wrote Novum Organum.


1564 - 1616

Famous playwright, poet, and actor. Wrote Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet.


1571 - 1630

Createor of the three laws of planteary motion. Wrote The New Astronmey.


1588 - 1679

Believed that if there was no government people would do whatever they wanted to. He created the Leviathan.


1596 - 1650

Wrote Discourse on Method. Said quote "I think therefore I am" which relates to his book reasoning v. general law. Philosophe during the enlightenment.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Surrendered his wealth to pursue an austere, self disciplined life. Made an effort to reconcile faith and new science.


1632 - 1704

Tabula Rasa-Everyone is born with a blank slate or clear start
Natural Rights-Everyone is born with life, liberty, and property Wrote Treatise of Govt. which is based on the social contract theory

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Newton discovered the Laws of Graviton. In 1687 he published a book titled Principia Mathematica reasoning that every object in the universe affects every other object by Gravity.


1694 - 1778

A deist who wrote Candide.
Prolific and witty critic of Old Regime.


1712 - 1778

Wrote Emile. Believed in separate spheres for men and women. "All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains." describes his social contract.


1723 - 1790

Wrote Wealth of Nations
Creator of laissez-faire
Government attempts to regulate economy as the mercantilist had been doing.


1772 - 1823

Labor should be regarded like any other commodity whose price fluctuated in accordance with supply and demand.

Malthus-Principle of Population


Malthus’ Principle of Population explained that the human population will eventually outstrip the food supply. This book is important because it’s point leads into the “iron law of wages” by Ricardo.


Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

Period when people began to adopt rational and statistical approach to reality and rediscover the worth and creativity of the individual.

Northern Renniance

1427 - 1623

Created a climate favorable to religious and educational ideas. The humanists took Italian ideas.


1520 - 1580

A type of complex art.

Baroque Art

1550 - 1750

Inspired by classical styles and represented an outgrowth of the renaissance style. Baroque style was more extreme an exaggerated.


1700 - 1800

Assoicated with the aristocracy wih the old regime. Lavish light-heated, and pastel colors.


1700 - 1800

Return of Renissance ideas.

French Revolution

Estates general called


Louis XVI called them due to lack of cooperation from the aristocrats.

Legislative Assembly Meets


Tennis Court Oat


National assembly that agreed to not to leave until a constitution has been written.

Storming of Bastille


People wanted to defend themselves against the king and to free prisoners.

The Great Fear


People feared that royal troops were sent off into rural areas. Lower classes tried to destroy the Old Regime.

Nobles Renounce feudal priv.


The declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. Natural Rights.

March of the Fishwives


Women march to Versailles because the shortage of food. Brought Louis back to live in Pairs.

Rights of Man and Citizen


A document giving natural rights to all CITIZENS. Women were not considered citizens.

Wollstonecraft-Vind. of Rights of Women


Women are just as smart as men and thought women could bring more and different ideas to the table.

Tuileries Stormed-King Captive


Angry mob stormed into the King's home and captured him.

War with Austria


Goridists declared war on Austria because they wanted to preserve the revoultion.

Levee en Masse


Convention Meets-Monarch abolished


People felt the monarch was oppressive and more freedom was needed.

Danton Executed


Fascist. People wanted him executed.

Fall of Robespierre


Paranoid about counter-revoultionaries. He was beheaded.

Cult of Supreme Being


Radical phase. 25000 people killed.

Cult of Reason


Get rid of Christianity.

Reign of terror


When people were suspicious of everyone.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Govt. in place then Napoleon took over. Became dictator of France.

Constitution of the year III


First functioning govt. consisted of an executive body.