Temporal authority was subject to spiritual power of the church.
Cause of the war: English king Edward III vs the grandson of Philip the Fair of France asserting their claims to the French throne. Series of conflicting battles between the English and French. English used the longbow to win battles. Joan of Arc leads French to victory.
The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic plague, struck Europe's population (they were already suffering from overpopulation/malnutrition). The Black Death decimated Europe's population, wiping off 50% of its population. Many blamed poisonous fumes released by Earthquakes. Others used Jews as scapegoats. Appearance of Flagellants = people who beat themselves in ritual penance. France used direct tax on peasants, the taille, resulting in French uprising known as the Jacquerie. As a result of the Blakc Death, popular trade guilds gained political power due to demand in luxury items.
Constitutional structure for the Holy Roman Empire.
Issued by the politique Henry VI of France granting the Huguenots (Calvinist Protestants) freedoms and rights.
French peasant uprising caused by direct tax on peasantry, the taille.
John XXIII summoned a new council in Constance to create a famous declaration called Sacrosancta, asserting their dominance and electing a new Pope, Martin V. The three popes of The Great Schism had either resigned or been removed.
Columbus found Americas. This started the Spanish Empire by expanding their territories.
Most famous northern humanist, gained fame as an educational and as a religious reformer. Erasmus wanted to unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with the Christian ideals of love and piety. He edited work of the Church Fathers and produced a Greek version of the New Testament. He wanted to reform the Church. Church disagreed with his works and most of them were banned.
50-60 thousand "witches" were killed because people thought they used occult super mystical witchcraft.
Marriage between Ferdinand and Isabella, increased their territorial power between the lands of France.
Explorers and pioneers who explored Americas.
Italy declined because of invasions in Italy, then they asked for France's help. France caused more problems because they were stronger and could invade them at any given moment.
Reformation away from the Catholic Church because of new beliefs/religions were brought up opposing the Church.
These revolts were caused because of the increasing popularity of Lutheranism.
When the Church of England broke away from the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
United the Dutch and was a politique.
They are found by Ignatius of Loyola, under the Catholic Church. They are known for their schools.
Known as "bloody Mary" for murdering many Protestants. Had an unpopular marriage with Philip of Spain.
In 1559, an Act of Supremacy passed Parliament repealing all anti-Protestant legislation of Mary Tudor and asserting Elizabeth's right as "supreme governor." In 1563, issuance of the Thirty-Nine Articles made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.
War fought between the French Catholics and Protestants over religion. Bourbons vs the Guises for the French power. Edict of Nantes gave the Huguenots rights/freedoms.
Wars of religion between Huguenots and French Catholics.
Articles that made moderate Protestant the official religion in England.
He was the King of England and was one of the Stuarts. He levied taxes to gain income behind Parliament's back.
The Dutch were gaining economically stronger.
Revolt against Spain.
Alliance between the Habsburg Netherlands against the Spanish.
William the Silent unifies The Netherlands.
Spanish ships that tried to invade England and overthrow Elizabeth I. However, England was prepared and armed their ports and inflicted heavy damage on their ships, postponing their invasion until 1588. They invaded with 130 ships of 25,000 sailors/soldiers and in the end, still were defeated by England.
Was executed by Elizabeth, because rumors were that she was planning to overthrow Elizabeth and take the throne.
A politique and passed the Edict of Nantes.
More demand of goods.
Belief that the world's resources were limited, so resources should be preserved and used less.
The Agricultural Revolution came up with new efficient methods on farming such as the enclosure method. The enclosure method made the farming more efficient by rotating the arable land every couple years for fresh crops to nourish. Also the new crop was found, the potato. The potato was an easy crop to grow and had a lot of nutritional value to it. With new innovations such as these, the people of Europe were able to survive longer, thus increasing the population growth.
Army of Prussia.
Industries gaining imports from the new world resources.
Bourbon Monarch who was the King of France. Mainly his Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu ruled France.
Mazarin was a cardinal under the rule of Lousix XIV, he and Richelieu attempted to impose direct royal administration in France.
He was part of the Stuart family and he used extra parliamentary measures. He levied new tariffs and duties and subjecting English property owners to a so-called forced loan and then imprisoned those who refused to pay.
Civil War between the Roundheads and Cavaliers (parliament vs king's supporters). Oliver Cromwell eventually came in and helped Parliament lead to victory and executed Charles I.
Louis XIV strengthened the rise of absolute monarchy in France. He exerted far-reaching, direct control of the nation at all levels. He assumed personal control of the government at the age of twenty three. During his personal reign, he gained control of the nobility by inviting them to the palace of Versailles.
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years War, ending all the hatred in the Holy Roman Empire. After this Treaty, the HRE was devastated except that Austria and Prussia would rise in power.
England became officially a Puritan republic.
Revolts caused by the nobility that Louis XIV eventually surplussed
Their economics were declining in power when other European countries would increase their economics, making the Netherlands decrease in economic power.
Returned to England as a hereditary monarch. The king favored religious toleration. He wanted to allow loyal Catholics and Puritans to worship freely.
Meetings that would take place to explain and discuss new discoveries and experiments.
Assembly that formed with natural philosophers meeting and followed the ideas of Francis Bacon.
When James II returned to power as a Stuart king.
King of Prussia, he formed a strong army.
Limited power of the monarchy and gave power to the parliament. They also granted rights to the people.
War between Russia and Sweden for gains of land. Russia won extra land from Sweden.
Gave Sophia the throne to England.
Philip V was granted the throne of Spain, other alliances were built against Spain in order to control the balance of power if Spain and France were to unify together.
Last of the Dutch House of Orange.
Treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession, kept Philip V as the king of Spain but prevented him from reuniting with France as double powers.
Pragmatic Sanction was to prevent failure and to give the heir of the throne to his daughter.
France's power was weakened due to no strong leader such as Louis XIV and the nobility wanted to gain back their power.
Financial crisis in France, where John Law would have to increase the amount of paper money in order to recover from their economic crisis.
First prime minister of England, he had a lot of power in Parliament.
Spanish attacked English ships and cut off Jenkins' ear. This caused England to be upset/angry, they started a war between England and France.
Daughter of Charles VI, and took control of Austria after her father died.
War between France and Prussia Vs Austria, Great Britain and the Dutch. They wanted to challenge the Austrian power.
Rising of factories because of new inventions causing their to be more migrations, jobs, higher production of goods.
England financially aids Prussia with a lot of money to help them fight France, Austria and Russia in Prussia. This distracts France in the New World because England is beating them, and Prussia is also beating them.
Shift in allies between the two countries: Austria goes with France, and Prussia goes with England.
Method developed during the Agricultural revolution that sped up the process of food production. Used fencing and arable land to setup the production of crops to grow steadily every couple years.
Enlightened Despot of Russia and ruler over Russia. She made little reforms due to the influence of the nobility to protect their powers.
Ends Seven Years War, England gains territory from France in Canada.
Enlightened Despot of Austria. He made reforms to taxes, punishment, etc. He was also the son of Maria Theresa.
This invention sped up the process of spinning wool, yarn, etc.
Invention that used steam during the Industrial Revolution.
When water power was created.
Americans revolt due to the taxes imposed by the King.
The nobility in France give up their privileges and men are equal.
Declaration that established the rights and freedoms of men.
War with Austria in order to protect to goals of the revolution.
The Parisians storm the Castille of Bastille in order to gain weapons and free the prisoners. On their way some were killed, in return they killed some guards.
The 3rd Estate created the National Convention and they didn't have anywhere to go so they went to the nearby tennis court. They agreed to a new constitution.
Wanted the price of bread to decrease, so they went to Versailles to tell the king to stay in Paris
The Estates General gathers.
Peasants armed themselves to attack their owners. Because of this, feudalism was abolished.
New government meets.
Monarch Abolished and they form a republic.
They keep the king captive.
Period in time where the government called out the counter revolutionist who were against the revolution to be executed.
Draft of men into the army.
He was executed because he didn't follow to Robespierre's ideas.
Robespierre was executing a lot of people, so they thought they were next in line, so they decided to group up, capture him and execute him.
Belief religion during the French Revolution
The Directory is created with new plans for the revolution.
Napoleon overthrows the Directory and creates the consulate.
Seven Popes agreed to pursue the Papacy at Avignon. Gregory XI abandons Avignon in September 13, 1376 and moves his court to Rome, ending the Avignon Papacy.
Another religious movement against the medieval church, based on the writings of John Wycliffe.
Popular religious movement against the medieval church based on the teachings of John Huss.
Event where two men claimed to be the Pope. Later on, there were three men claiming to be the Pope. Pope Urban VI, Pope Clement VII were the two claiming to be the Popes, then later elected Pope Alexander V to replace both of them, but no one stepped out of power. The Council of Constance ended the Great Schism and elected a new pope, Martin V.
"Warrior" Pope. He suppressed the Borgias and placed their lands in Romagna under papal jurisdiction. He secured the papal states.
Founder of Calvinism, Protestant religion believing in divine predestination. All events have already been determined by God. He was a humanist that helped with the reformation in Geneva.
Created Lutheranism. 95 Theses posted on the wall of the Catholic Church against indulgences. The 95 Theses had spread to the rest of Europe, and snowballed into creating Lutheranism.
Assembly with Emperor Charles V and nobility to address Martin Luther to reverse his views back to those of the Church, and if he didn't he would be condemned.
Declared that Henry VIII was the supreme head of the Church.
Geneva elected officials to favor Calvin and his religion. They organized into four offices: Pastors, Instructors, Elders, and Deacons.
Made by the Catholic Church in order to persuade Protestants to convert to Catholicism. Ideals of the Counter Reformation. Stated the Catholic teachings and doctrine.
Charles V issues The Peace of Augsburg establishing the practice "Cuius regio, eius religio" meaning the ruler of a land would determine its religion.
A day in France where 20,000 Huguenots were killed.
Henry IV was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.
Last and most significant war on religion. Lasted for thirty years and was hatred on both sides attempting to defend their religion.
His views were of the Heliocentric model and was tried by the Pope because it opposed the Church's. He was condemned.
He revoked the Edict of Nantes for extensive religious repression in order to unify France religiously. His goal was to bully the Huguenots and to convert them to Catholicism.
The government takes away church's lands and resells them for profit. They make the clergy swear loyalty to the state and makes them differentiate between two types of clergy.
Form of deism established by Robespierre.
Italian poet that wrote the famous Divine Comedy.
Francesco Petrarch was known as the "father of humanism." He wrote many letters, poems, and biographies.
Friend of Petrarch, humanist, wrote Decameron, and assembled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.
Gutenburg invented printing with a movable type Mainz, Germany (the center of printing for whole for Western Europe). Helped the process of books to speed up. The printing press expanded to many other German states, and eventually many cities in Europe by 1500.
Cervantes was the Shakesphere of Spain. Famous work was Don Quixote, when he wrote it in prison. Don Quixote was to satirize the chivalric romances popular in Spain.
Book written by Machiavelli to give advice to princes on how to succeed as a leader.
Explained his theory on the heliocentric model.
Astronomer that rejected the heliocentric model. He had his own island and collected good data from his telescope everyday until his death.
He was an English writer that composed many players that are very famous to this day such as Romeo and Juliet. He impacted the European culture through his plays.
Kepler used Brahe's data to explain the sun centered model and to solve the planetary motion.
Describes the use of inductive reasoning, required to use explaining to describe truths. Father of empiricism.
Leap of Faith.
Argues for deductive reasoning and Cartesian dualism. He said that he would doubt everything except those propositions about which he could have clear and distinct ideas.
Book published that wrote about how men were inherently selfish, greedy beasts. He also argues for absolutism and for social contract: state over the individual.
Newton reasoned that the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction of gravity.
In the two treatises of gov't, John Locke agrees that social contract should be the base of the government and that men had natural rights which were life, liberty, and property. Role of government is to protect those natural rights of men and if they don't, the people should rebel and create a new government that protects those rights. He also believe men started with a blank slate; tabula rosa.
In 1759, Voltaire wrote Candide, a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and optimism. As a philosophe, he attacked religious persecution and advocated toleration. He was the first among the philosophes and his works of satire offended many people of France leading him into his exile of France.
Outlines the kind of political structure that Rousseau believe would overcome the evils of contemporary politics and society.
Explains capitalism and free trade.
Defends equality of women with men on the grounds of men and women sharing the capacity of human reason. Accused Rousseau and others after him who upheld traditional roles for women of attempting to narrow women's vision and limit their experience.
He explained that eventually the population will outstrip its food supply.
In his book he explains that if wages were raised, people were able to sustain.
Medieval art that was common in the middle ages. After the death of Gothic Art, many new types of art showed up after it.
Change from Medieval ways, better way to create art. Humanism: classicism, secular ideas and scholasticism.
Medieval art that related to religion and had distorted figures.
The scholarly works of northern humanists created a climate favorable to religious and educational reforms.
Baroque Art was developed in the 17th Century that covered variety of styles depicting their subjects in thoroughly naturalistic, rather than an idealized, manner.
Art similar to Baroque but emphasized more heavily.