1st Semester Ap Euro Timeline

General/Political History

Unam Sanctum

1302

Temporal authority was subject to spiritual power of the church.

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Cause of the war: English king Edward III vs the grandson of Philip the Fair of France asserting their claims to the French throne. Series of conflicting battles between the English and French. English used the longbow to win battles. Joan of Arc leads French to victory.

The Black Death

1346 - 1350

The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic plague, struck Europe's population (they were already suffering from overpopulation/malnutrition). The Black Death decimated Europe's population, wiping off 50% of its population. Many blamed poisonous fumes released by Earthquakes. Others used Jews as scapegoats. Appearance of Flagellants = people who beat themselves in ritual penance. France used direct tax on peasants, the taille, resulting in French uprising known as the Jacquerie. As a result of the Blakc Death, popular trade guilds gained political power due to demand in luxury items.

The Golden Bull

1356

Constitutional structure for the Holy Roman Empire.

Edict of Nantes

1358

Issued by the politique Henry VI of France granting the Huguenots (Calvinist Protestants) freedoms and rights.

Jacquerie

1381

French peasant uprising caused by direct tax on peasantry, the taille.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

John XXIII summoned a new council in Constance to create a famous declaration called Sacrosancta, asserting their dominance and electing a new Pope, Martin V. The three popes of The Great Schism had either resigned or been removed.

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire

1451 - 1606

Columbus found Americas. This started the Spanish Empire by expanding their territories.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Most famous northern humanist, gained fame as an educational and as a religious reformer. Erasmus wanted to unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with the Christian ideals of love and piety. He edited work of the Church Fathers and produced a Greek version of the New Testament. He wanted to reform the Church. Church disagreed with his works and most of them were banned.

Witch Hunts

1466 - 1750

50-60 thousand "witches" were killed because people thought they used occult super mystical witchcraft.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)

1469

Marriage between Ferdinand and Isabella, increased their territorial power between the lands of France.

Early Exploration - Portugal and Spain

1492 - 1600

Explorers and pioneers who explored Americas.

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Italy declined because of invasions in Italy, then they asked for France's help. France caused more problems because they were stronger and could invade them at any given moment.

Reformation

1517 - 1563

Reformation away from the Catholic Church because of new beliefs/religions were brought up opposing the Church.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

These revolts were caused because of the increasing popularity of Lutheranism.

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

When the Church of England broke away from the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

William the Silent (Netherlands)

1533 - 1584

United the Dutch and was a politique.

Jesuits

1534 - 1600

They are found by Ignatius of Loyola, under the Catholic Church. They are known for their schools.

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

Known as "bloody Mary" for murdering many Protestants. Had an unpopular marriage with Philip of Spain.

Elizabeth I (England)

1558 - 1603

In 1559, an Act of Supremacy passed Parliament repealing all anti-Protestant legislation of Mary Tudor and asserting Elizabeth's right as "supreme governor." In 1563, issuance of the Thirty-Nine Articles made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

War fought between the French Catholics and Protestants over religion. Bourbons vs the Guises for the French power. Edict of Nantes gave the Huguenots rights/freedoms.

Specific Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

Wars of religion between Huguenots and French Catholics.

Thirty Nine Articles

1563

Articles that made moderate Protestant the official religion in England.

James I (England)

1566 - 1625

He was the King of England and was one of the Stuarts. He levied taxes to gain income behind Parliament's back.

Rise of the Netherlands - Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1610

The Dutch were gaining economically stronger.

Dutch Revolt

1576 - 1609

Revolt against Spain.

Pacification of Ghent

1576

Alliance between the Habsburg Netherlands against the Spanish.

Union of Utrecht

1579

William the Silent unifies The Netherlands.

Spanish Armada

1587 - 1588

Spanish ships that tried to invade England and overthrow Elizabeth I. However, England was prepared and armed their ports and inflicted heavy damage on their ships, postponing their invasion until 1588. They invaded with 130 ships of 25,000 sailors/soldiers and in the end, still were defeated by England.

Mary Stuart Executed

1587

Was executed by Elizabeth, because rumors were that she was planning to overthrow Elizabeth and take the throne.

Henry IV (France)

1589 - 1610

A politique and passed the Edict of Nantes.

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

More demand of goods.

Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

Belief that the world's resources were limited, so resources should be preserved and used less.

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1800

The Agricultural Revolution came up with new efficient methods on farming such as the enclosure method. The enclosure method made the farming more efficient by rotating the arable land every couple years for fresh crops to nourish. Also the new crop was found, the potato. The potato was an easy crop to grow and had a lot of nutritional value to it. With new innovations such as these, the people of Europe were able to survive longer, thus increasing the population growth.

Prussian Militarism

1600 - 1800

Army of Prussia.

Commercial Revolution

1600 - 1800

Industries gaining imports from the new world resources.

Louis XIII

1601 - 1643

Bourbon Monarch who was the King of France. Mainly his Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu ruled France.

Louis XIV: Cardinal Mazarin

1602 - 1661

Mazarin was a cardinal under the rule of Lousix XIV, he and Richelieu attempted to impose direct royal administration in France.

Charles I (England)

1625 - 1649

He was part of the Stuart family and he used extra parliamentary measures. He levied new tariffs and duties and subjecting English property owners to a so-called forced loan and then imprisoned those who refused to pay.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Civil War between the Roundheads and Cavaliers (parliament vs king's supporters). Oliver Cromwell eventually came in and helped Parliament lead to victory and executed Charles I.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV strengthened the rise of absolute monarchy in France. He exerted far-reaching, direct control of the nation at all levels. He assumed personal control of the government at the age of twenty three. During his personal reign, he gained control of the nobility by inviting them to the palace of Versailles.

Treaty of Westphalia

1648

Treaty that ended the Thirty Years War, ending all the hatred in the Holy Roman Empire. After this Treaty, the HRE was devastated except that Austria and Prussia would rise in power.

Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

England became officially a Puritan republic.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Revolts caused by the nobility that Louis XIV eventually surplussed

Decline of The Netherlands

1650 - 1750

Their economics were declining in power when other European countries would increase their economics, making the Netherlands decrease in economic power.

Charles II (England)

1660 - 1685

Returned to England as a hereditary monarch. The king favored religious toleration. He wanted to allow loyal Catholics and Puritans to worship freely.

Academics of Science

1660 - 1700

Meetings that would take place to explain and discuss new discoveries and experiments.

Royal Society of England

1660

Assembly that formed with natural philosophers meeting and followed the ideas of Francis Bacon.

Restoration

1660 - 1685

When James II returned to power as a Stuart king.

Frederick Wilhelm

1688 - 1740

King of Prussia, he formed a strong army.

English Bill of Rights

1689

Limited power of the monarchy and gave power to the parliament. They also granted rights to the people.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

War between Russia and Sweden for gains of land. Russia won extra land from Sweden.

Act of Settlement

1701

Gave Sophia the throne to England.

The War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Philip V was granted the throne of Spain, other alliances were built against Spain in order to control the balance of power if Spain and France were to unify together.

Death of William III of England

1702

Last of the Dutch House of Orange.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession, kept Philip V as the king of Spain but prevented him from reuniting with France as double powers.

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Pragmatic Sanction was to prevent failure and to give the heir of the throne to his daughter.

Death of Louis XIV

1715

France's power was weakened due to no strong leader such as Louis XIV and the nobility wanted to gain back their power.

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

Financial crisis in France, where John Law would have to increase the amount of paper money in order to recover from their economic crisis.

Emergence/Dominance of Robert Walpole

1722 - 1742

First prime minister of England, he had a lot of power in Parliament.

The War of Jenkins' Ear

1739 - 1748

Spanish attacked English ships and cut off Jenkins' ear. This caused England to be upset/angry, they started a war between England and France.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Daughter of Charles VI, and took control of Austria after her father died.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War between France and Prussia Vs Austria, Great Britain and the Dutch. They wanted to challenge the Austrian power.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Rising of factories because of new inventions causing their to be more migrations, jobs, higher production of goods.

The Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

England financially aids Prussia with a lot of money to help them fight France, Austria and Russia in Prussia. This distracts France in the New World because England is beating them, and Prussia is also beating them.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

Shift in allies between the two countries: Austria goes with France, and Prussia goes with England.

The Enclosure Method

1761 - 1792

Method developed during the Agricultural revolution that sped up the process of food production. Used fencing and arable land to setup the production of crops to grow steadily every couple years.

Catherine the Great (Russia

1762 - 1796

Enlightened Despot of Russia and ruler over Russia. She made little reforms due to the influence of the nobility to protect their powers.

Treaty of Paris

1763

Ends Seven Years War, England gains territory from France in Canada.

Joseph II (Austria)

1764 - 1790

Enlightened Despot of Austria. He made reforms to taxes, punishment, etc. He was also the son of Maria Theresa.

Spinning Jenny

1765

This invention sped up the process of spinning wool, yarn, etc.

Steam Engine

1769

Invention that used steam during the Industrial Revolution.

Water Frame

1769

When water power was created.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Americans revolt due to the taxes imposed by the King.

The Nobles Renounce Feudal Privileges

1789

The nobility in France give up their privileges and men are equal.

Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

Declaration that established the rights and freedoms of men.

War with Austria

1789

War with Austria in order to protect to goals of the revolution.

Storming of the Bastille

1789

The Parisians storm the Castille of Bastille in order to gain weapons and free the prisoners. On their way some were killed, in return they killed some guards.

Tennis Court Oath

1789

The 3rd Estate created the National Convention and they didn't have anywhere to go so they went to the nearby tennis court. They agreed to a new constitution.

The March of the Fishwives

1789

Wanted the price of bread to decrease, so they went to Versailles to tell the king to stay in Paris

Estates General called

1789

The Estates General gathers.

The Great Fear

July 17 1789 - August 5 1789

Peasants armed themselves to attack their owners. Because of this, feudalism was abolished.

Legislative Assembly Meets

1791

New government meets.

Convention Meets- Monarch Abolished

1792

Monarch Abolished and they form a republic.

Louis XVI Executed

1792

Guillotine.

Tuileries Stormed - King Captive

1792

They keep the king captive.

The Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Period in time where the government called out the counter revolutionist who were against the revolution to be executed.

Levee en Masse

1793

Draft of men into the army.

Danton Executed

1793

He was executed because he didn't follow to Robespierre's ideas.

Fall of Robespierre

1794

Robespierre was executing a lot of people, so they thought they were next in line, so they decided to group up, capture him and execute him.

Cult of Reason

1794

Belief religion during the French Revolution

Constitution of the Year III - The Directory Established

1795 - 1799

The Directory is created with new plans for the revolution.

Napoleon - Coup Brumaire

1799

Napoleon overthrows the Directory and creates the consulate.

Religion

The Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Seven Popes agreed to pursue the Papacy at Avignon. Gregory XI abandons Avignon in September 13, 1376 and moves his court to Rome, ending the Avignon Papacy.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1320 - 1384

Another religious movement against the medieval church, based on the writings of John Wycliffe.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

Popular religious movement against the medieval church based on the teachings of John Huss.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Event where two men claimed to be the Pope. Later on, there were three men claiming to be the Pope. Pope Urban VI, Pope Clement VII were the two claiming to be the Popes, then later elected Pope Alexander V to replace both of them, but no one stepped out of power. The Council of Constance ended the Great Schism and elected a new pope, Martin V.

Pope Julius II

1443 - 1513

"Warrior" Pope. He suppressed the Borgias and placed their lands in Romagna under papal jurisdiction. He secured the papal states.

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Founder of Calvinism, Protestant religion believing in divine predestination. All events have already been determined by God. He was a humanist that helped with the reformation in Geneva.

Martin Luther 95 Theses

1517 - 1518

Created Lutheranism. 95 Theses posted on the wall of the Catholic Church against indulgences. The 95 Theses had spread to the rest of Europe, and snowballed into creating Lutheranism.

Diet of Worms

1521

Assembly with Emperor Charles V and nobility to address Martin Luther to reverse his views back to those of the Church, and if he didn't he would be condemned.

Act of Supremcy

1534

Declared that Henry VIII was the supreme head of the Church.

Calvin/Geneva

1540

Geneva elected officials to favor Calvin and his religion. They organized into four offices: Pastors, Instructors, Elders, and Deacons.

The Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Made by the Catholic Church in order to persuade Protestants to convert to Catholicism. Ideals of the Counter Reformation. Stated the Catholic teachings and doctrine.

The Peace of Augsburg

1555

Charles V issues The Peace of Augsburg establishing the practice "Cuius regio, eius religio" meaning the ruler of a land would determine its religion.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

A day in France where 20,000 Huguenots were killed.

Henry IV (France) Assassinated

1610

Henry IV was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Last and most significant war on religion. Lasted for thirty years and was hatred on both sides attempting to defend their religion.

Galileo Condemned

1633

His views were of the Heliocentric model and was tried by the Pope because it opposed the Church's. He was condemned.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

He revoked the Edict of Nantes for extensive religious repression in order to unify France religiously. His goal was to bully the Huguenots and to convert them to Catholicism.

Civil Constitution of Clergy

1790

The government takes away church's lands and resells them for profit. They make the clergy swear loyalty to the state and makes them differentiate between two types of clergy.

Cult of Supreme Being

1794

Form of deism established by Robespierre.

Individuals/Ideas/Books

Dante

1265 - 1321

Italian poet that wrote the famous Divine Comedy.

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Francesco Petrarch was known as the "father of humanism." He wrote many letters, poems, and biographies.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Friend of Petrarch, humanist, wrote Decameron, and assembled an encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology.

Printing Press - Gutenburg

1468

Gutenburg invented printing with a movable type Mainz, Germany (the center of printing for whole for Western Europe). Helped the process of books to speed up. The printing press expanded to many other German states, and eventually many cities in Europe by 1500.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1479 - 1504

Cervantes was the Shakesphere of Spain. Famous work was Don Quixote, when he wrote it in prison. Don Quixote was to satirize the chivalric romances popular in Spain.

The Prince: Machiavelli

1532

Book written by Machiavelli to give advice to princes on how to succeed as a leader.

Copernicus: On the Rev. of the Heavenly Spheres

1543

Explained his theory on the heliocentric model.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Astronomer that rejected the heliocentric model. He had his own island and collected good data from his telescope everyday until his death.

Shakesphere

1564 - 1616

He was an English writer that composed many players that are very famous to this day such as Romeo and Juliet. He impacted the European culture through his plays.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1609

Kepler used Brahe's data to explain the sun centered model and to solve the planetary motion.

Bacon: Novum Organum

1620

Describes the use of inductive reasoning, required to use explaining to describe truths. Father of empiricism.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1663

Leap of Faith.

Decartes: Discourse on Method

1637

Argues for deductive reasoning and Cartesian dualism. He said that he would doubt everything except those propositions about which he could have clear and distinct ideas.

Hobbes: Leviathan

1651

Book published that wrote about how men were inherently selfish, greedy beasts. He also argues for absolutism and for social contract: state over the individual.

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1687

Newton reasoned that the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction of gravity.

John Locke: Two Treatises of Gov't

1689

In the two treatises of gov't, John Locke agrees that social contract should be the base of the government and that men had natural rights which were life, liberty, and property. Role of government is to protect those natural rights of men and if they don't, the people should rebel and create a new government that protects those rights. He also believe men started with a blank slate; tabula rosa.

Voltaire - Candide

1694 - 1778

In 1759, Voltaire wrote Candide, a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and optimism. As a philosophe, he attacked religious persecution and advocated toleration. He was the first among the philosophes and his works of satire offended many people of France leading him into his exile of France.

Rosseau Social Contract

1762

Outlines the kind of political structure that Rousseau believe would overcome the evils of contemporary politics and society.

Smith: Wealth of Nations

1776

Explains capitalism and free trade.

Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

Defends equality of women with men on the grounds of men and women sharing the capacity of human reason. Accused Rousseau and others after him who upheld traditional roles for women of attempting to narrow women's vision and limit their experience.

Malthus: Principle of Population

1798

He explained that eventually the population will outstrip its food supply.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages

1817

In his book he explains that if wages were raised, people were able to sustain.

Art

Death of Gothic Art

1150 - 1450

Medieval art that was common in the middle ages. After the death of Gothic Art, many new types of art showed up after it.

Renaissance in Italy

1304 - 1550

Change from Medieval ways, better way to create art. Humanism: classicism, secular ideas and scholasticism.

Mannerism

1450 - 1527

Medieval art that related to religion and had distorted figures.

Northern Renaissance

1480 - 1550

The scholarly works of northern humanists created a climate favorable to religious and educational reforms.

Baroque Art

1550 - 1750

Baroque Art was developed in the 17th Century that covered variety of styles depicting their subjects in thoroughly naturalistic, rather than an idealized, manner.

Neoclassicism

1700

Classic art.

Emergence of Rococo

1720

Art similar to Baroque but emphasized more heavily.